Communalism (South Asia)
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Communalism is a term used in South Asia to denote attempts to construct religious or ethnic identity, incite strife between people identified as different communities, and to stimulate communal violence between those groups. It derives from history, differences in beliefs, and tensions between the communities.
The term communalism was constructed by the British colonial authorities as it wrestled to manage violence between religious, ethnic and disparate groups in its colonies, particularly Africa and South Asia, in early 20th century.
Communalism is a significant social issue in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
The term came into use in early 20th century during the British colonial rule, where the rulers saw India divided into several communities and attempted to placate separate "communal" interests. The Hindu Mahasabh and the All-India Muslim League represented such communal interests, whereas Indian National Congress represented an overarching "nationalist" vision. In the run up to independence in 1947, communalism and nationalism came to be competing ideologies and led to the division of British India into the Republics of India and Pakistan. The bloody Partition violence gave a clear sense to every one what communalism leads to, and it has since been frowned upon in India.
Movements and groupsEdit
- Hindu Nationalism
- Indian Muslim
- Islamic Fundamentalism
- Wahabist Tabligh-e-Islam and other Muslim extremist groups.
- Two-nation theory and Partition of India
- All-India Muslim League
- Tablighi Jamaat (Deobandi)
- Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI)
- Popular Front of India (PFI)
- Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazagham
- Students Islamic Organisation of India
- Indian Union Muslim League
- National Development Front
- Fairazi movement
- Christian fundamentalist/Secessionist
- Various Secessionists
Incidents of communal violenceEdit
Examples of communalist violence, with strong motivations based on religious identity include:
- the 1809–1811 Hindu-Muslim Lat Bhairo riots
- the 1921 Moplah Rebellion
- the 1931 Hindu-Muslim Benares riot
- the 1931 Cawnpore Riots
- Manzilgah and Sukkur (Sind) Riots, 15th Feb. 1940
- the 1946 Calcutta riots death toll estimated at 6,000.
- the 1947 "population exchanges" at the partition of India, resulting in an estimated 500,000 deaths.
- the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, 3 million victims, 8 million Hindus displaced.
- Hindu areas in Bangladeshi cities suffered particularly heavy blows. Time magazine reported on 2 August 1971, "The Hindus, who account for three-fourths of the refugees and a majority of the dead, have borne the brunt of the Pakistani military hatred."
- the 1984 anti-Sikh riots following the assassination of Indira Gandhi.
- the 1992 Bombay riots in Bombay more than 200,000 people (both Hindus and Muslims) fled the city or their homes during the time of the riots, 900–3000 people died.
- the 1992 December 2- Babri masjid demolition by Sangparivar and subsequent communal violence in various parts of India
- the 1998 Wandhama massacre, 25 Hindu victims.
- the 1999 Graham Staines murder.
- the 2000 Chittisinghpura massacre, 35 Sikhs killed.
- the 2002 Godhra Train Burning, 58 Hindus killed.
- the 2002 Gujarat violence, 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus killed.
- the 2002 Kaluchak massacre, 31 Hindus killed.
- the 2002 Marad massacre, 14 Hindu deaths – Indian Union Muslim League conspired and executed the massacre.
- the 2006 Kherlanji massacre, lynching of four Dalits.
- the 2008 Indore Riots, 7 people killed, 6 of whom were Muslims
- the 2007–2009 religious violence in Orissa, Christians mostly targeted, Hindu houses burnt.
- the 2010 Deganga riots, Hindus targeted, Hindu businesses, houses and other property destroyed.
- the 2012 Assam violence, between Bodo Hindus and Bengali Muslim settlers
Incidents of "communal violence" cannot clearly be separated by incidents of terrorism. "Communal violence" tends to refer to mob killings, while terrorism describes concerted attacks by small groups of militants (see definition of terrorism). See also Terrorism in India § Chronology of major incidents.
- Donald Horowitz (1985), Ethnic Groups in Conflict, ISBN 978-0520053854
- Pandey, Gyanendra (2006). The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India. Oxford India.
- Gerry van Klinken, Communal Violence and Democratization in Indonesia - Small Town Wars, ISBN 978-0-415-41713-6, Routledge
- Arafaat A. Valiani, Militant Publics in India: Physical Culture and Violence in the Making of a Modern Polity, ISBN 978-0230112575, Palgrave Macmillan, pp 29-32
- David Killingray, Colonial Warfare in West Africa, in Imperialism and War: Essays on Colonial Wars in Asia and Africa (Edited by Jaap A. de Moor, H. L. Wesseling), ISBN 978-9004088344, Brill Academic
- Kynoch, G. (2013). Reassessing transition violence: Voices from South Africa's township wars, 1990–4. African Affairs, 112(447), 283-303
- John F. McCauley, Economic Development Strategies and Communal Violence in Africa, Comparative Political Studies February 2013 vol. 46 no. 2 182-211
- Willis, G. D. (2014), Antagonistic authorities and the civil police in Sao Paulo Brazil, Latin American Research Review, 49(1), 3-22
- Resource guide for municipalities UNODC
- Mancini, L. (2005) Horizontal Inequality and Communal Violence: Evidence from Indonesian Districts (CRISE Working Paper No. 22, Oxford, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford)
- Werbner, P. (2010), Religious identity, The Sage handbook of identities, ISBN 978-1412934114, Chapter 12
- Todorova, T. (2013), ‘Giving Memory a Future’: Confronting the Legacy of Mass Rape in Post-conflict Bosnia-Herzegovina, Journal of International Women's Studies, 12(2), 3-15
- Bell, P., & Congram, M. (2013), Communication Interception Technology (CIT) and Its Use in the Fight against Transnational Organised Crime (TOC) in Australia: A Review of the Literature, International Journal of Social Science Research, 2(1), 46-66
- Akbar, M. J. (1989). Nehru, The Making of India. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780140100839.
- "The Hindu genocide that Hindus and the world forgot". India Tribune. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Marad report slams Muslim League Indian Express, Sep 27 2006
- Chandra, Bipan (1984). Communalism in Modern India. New Delhi: Vikas. ISBN 0706926552.
- Praful Bidwai; Harbans Mukhia; Achin Vanaik (eds.). Religion, Religiosity and Communalism. New Delhi: Manohar. ISBN 8173041326.
- Jhingran, Saral. "Religion and communalism"
- Pandey, Gyanendra (1992), The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195630106
- Asgharali Engineer. Lifting the veil: communal violence and communal harmony in contemporary India. Sangam Books, 1995. ISBN 81-7370-040-0.
- Ludden, David, editor. Contesting the Nation: Religion, Community, and the Politics of Democracy in India, Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1996.
- Manuel, Peter. "Music, the Media, and Communal Relations in North India, Past and Present," pp. 119–39.
- Martin E. Marty, R. S. Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalisms Observed The Fundamentalism Project vol. 4, eds., University Of Chicago Press (1994), ISBN 978-0-226-50878-8
- Mumtaz Ahmad, an 'Islamic Fundamentalism in South Asia: The Jamaat-i-Islami and the Tablighi Jamaat', pp. 457–530.
- Gold, Daniel, 'Organized Hinduisms: From Vedic Truths to Hindu Nation', pp. 531–593.
- T. N. Madan, 'The Double-Edged Sword: Fundamentalism and the Sikh Religious Tradition', pp. 594–627.
- A History of the Hindu-Muslim Problem in India from the Earliest Contacts Up to its Present Phase With Suggestions for Its Solution. Allahabad, 1933. Congress report on the 1931 Cawnpur Riots.
- Nandini Gooptu, The Urban Poor and Militant Hinduism in Early Twentieth-Century Uttar Pradesh, Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press (1997).
- B. R. Ambedkar, "The riot-torn history of Hindu-Muslim relations, 1920–1940", Pakistan or Partition of India
- Tony Cross Gujarat after the riots + Mumbai, during 2004 general election