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Common Desktop Environment

The Common Desktop Environment (CDE) is a desktop environment for Unix and OpenVMS, based on the Motif widget toolkit. It was part of the UNIX 98 Workstation Product Standard,[2] and was long the "classic" Unix desktop associated with commercial Unix workstations.

Common Desktop Environment
Common Desktop Environment logo and wordmark.svg
CDE desktop and Application Builder, a GUI development tool
CDE desktop and Application Builder, a GUI development tool
Developer(s) The Open Group (early), CDE Project (modern)
Initial release June 1993; 25 years ago (1993-06)
Stable release
2.3.0 / July 6, 2018; 3 months ago (2018-07-06)[1]
Repository Edit this at Wikidata
Written in C,C++
Operating system Unix, BSD, Linux, OpenVMS, other Unix-like OSes
Available in English, Chinese, French, German, Greek,Japanese, Italian, Korean, Spanish, Swedish
Type Desktop environment
License LGPL v2+
Website https://sourceforge.net/projects/cdesktopenv/
HP 9000 C360 displaying the CDE login manager, dtlogin
HP 9000 model 735 running HP-UX with CDE
HP 9000 model B180L running HP-UX and CDE

After a long history as proprietary software, CDE was released as free software on August 6, 2012, under the GNU Lesser General Public License, version 2 or later.[3] Since its release as free software, CDE has been ported to Linux and BSD derivatives.

Contents

Early developmentEdit

Hewlett-Packard, IBM, SunSoft, and USL announced CDE in June 1993 as a joint development within the Common Open Software Environment (COSE) initiative. Each development group contributed its own technology to CDE:[4]

After its release, HP endorsed CDE as the new standard desktop for Unix, and provided documentation and software for migrating HP VUE customizations to CDE.[5]

In March 1994 CDE became the responsibility of the "new OSF", a merger of the Open Software Foundation and Unix International;[6] in September 1995, the merger of Motif and CDE into a single project, CDE/Motif, was announced.[7] OSF became part of the newly formed Open Group in 1996.[8]

In February 1997, the Open Group released their last major version of CDE, version 2.1.[9]

Red Hat Linux was the only Linux distribution to which proprietary CDE was ported. In 1997, Red Hat began offering a version of CDE licensed from TriTeal Corporation. In 1998, Xi Graphics, a company specializing in the X Windowing System, offered a version of CDE bundled with Red Hat Linux, called Xi Graphics maXimum cde/OS. These were phased out, and Red Hat moved to the GNOME desktop.

Until about 2000, users of Unix desktops regarded CDE as the de facto standard, but at that time, other desktop environments such as GNOME and K Desktop Environment 2 were quickly becoming mature, and became widespread on Linux systems.

In 2001, Sun Microsystems announced that they would phase out CDE as the standard Solaris desktop environment in favor of GNOME. Solaris 10, released in early 2005, includes both CDE and the GNOME-based Java Desktop System. The Solaris 11 release in November 2011 only contains GNOME as a full desktop, though some CDE libraries, such as Motif and Tooltalk, remain for binary compatibility. The OpenSolaris open source project did not include CDE, and had no intent to make Solaris CDE available as open source.[10]

Systems using early CDEEdit

 
CDE File manager
 
Reading Linux kernel man pages in CDE

Proprietary licensingEdit

From its launch until 2012, CDE was proprietary software.

Motif, the toolkit on which CDE is built, was released by The Open Group in 2000 as "Open Motif," under a "revenue sharing" license. That license did not meet either the open source or free software definitions. The Open Group had wished to make Motif open source, but did not succeed doing so at that time.[15]

Release under the GNU LGPLEdit

In 2006, a petition was created asking The Open Group to release the source code for CDE and Motif under a free license.[16] On August 6, 2012, CDE was open-sourced under the LGPL free software license.[3][17] The CDE source code was then released to SourceForge.

The free software project OpenCDE had been started in 2010 to reproduce the look and feel, organization, and feature set of CDE.[18] In August 2012, when CDE was released as free software, OpenCDE was officially deprecated in favor of CDE.[19]

On October 23, 2012, the Motif widget toolkit was also released under the LGPL v2.1.[20] This allowed CDE to become a completely free and open source desktop environment.

Shortly after CDE was released as free software, a Linux live CD was created based on Debian 6 with CDE 2.2.0c pre-installed, called CDEbian.[21] The live CD has since been discontinued.

The Debian based Linux distribution SparkyLinux [22] offers binary packages of CDE that can be installed with APT.

CDE project developmentsEdit

In March 2014, the first stable release of CDE, version 2.2.1, was made since its release as free software.[23]

Beginning with version 2.2.2, released in July 2014, CDE is able to compile under FreeBSD 10 with the default Clang compiler.[24]

Since version 2.3.0, released in July 2018, CDE uses TIRPC on Linux, so that the portmapper rpcbind does not need to be run in insecure mode. It does not use Xprint anymore, and can be compiled on the BSDs without installing first a custom version of Motif. Multihead display support with Xinerama has been improved.

Since its release as free software, CDE has been ported to:[25]

Future project goals of the CDE project include:

  • Increased portability to more Linux, BSD, and Unix platforms.
  • Further internationalization into other languages.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ CDE 2.3.0 released
  2. ^ "Testing requirements by Product Standard". The Open Group. January 31, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  3. ^ a b Thom Holwerda. "CDE released as open source". OSNews. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  4. ^ "UNIX Leaders Complete First Release of Specification for Common Open Software Environment Desktop" (Press release). Hewlett-Packard, IBM Corporation, SunSoft, Inc., UNIX System Laboratories, X/Open Company Ltd. June 30, 1993. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  5. ^ Molly Joy (August 1996). "Migrating HP VUE Desktop Customizations to CDE" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  6. ^ "Leading Vendors Unify to Accelerate Open Systems" (Press release). AT&T Global Information Systems, Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett-Packard Company, IBM Corporation, SunSoft Incorporated, et al. March 23, 1994. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
  7. ^ "OSF Announces Formal Launch of CDE/Motif Project" (Press release). Open Software Foundation. September 7, 1995. Retrieved May 15, 2008.
  8. ^ "X/Open and OSF Join to Create The Open Group" (Press release). X/Open Company Ltd. Open Software Foundation. February 14, 1996. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2008.
  9. ^ TOG Press Release: The Open Group Announces Common Desktop Environment 2.1
  10. ^ "Consolidations". OpenSolaris Web site. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  11. ^ HP-UX : FAQ
  12. ^ IRIX 6.5 Release Notes for CDE
  13. ^ "It's Here! Red Hat's TriTeal CDE, Full-Featured Unix Desktop For Linux". EE Times. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
  14. ^ "DeXtop(TM) CDE Makes Big Splash in Linux Industry; Xi Graphics Inc. Releases Standardized GUI for Linux". PRNewswire. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
  15. ^ "Open Motif Frequently Asked Questions". The Open Group. July 13, 2004. Retrieved November 30, 2007.
  16. ^ Peter Howkins. "Petition to Open Source CDE and Motif". Retrieved November 30, 2007.
  17. ^ Dave Lounsbury. "How the Operating System Got Graphical". The Open Group. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
  18. ^ kpedersen. "OpenCDE". Archived from the original on September 9, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
  19. ^ woomia (August 6, 2012). "CDE Open Sourced!". OpenCDE Forums. Archived from the original on November 24, 2012. With this, OpenCDE is officially deprecated. Feel free to make a fork of it if you wish.
  20. ^ "ICS MotifZone". October 2012. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  21. ^ "VecchiomagoPuntoNet: CDEbian 0.7". January 31, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  22. ^ "SparkyLinux: CDE – Common Desktop Environment". September 5, 2016.
  23. ^ Trulson, Jon (March 1, 2014). "CDE 2.2.1 released" (Mailing list). cdesktopenv-devel. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
  24. ^ Trulson, Jon (July 27, 2014). "CDE 2.2.2 released" (Mailing list). cdesktopenv-devel. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
  25. ^ "Common Desktop Environment: Wiki". Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  26. ^ Red Hat package

External linksEdit