Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army
The Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army (reporting name: C-in-C) was normally the highest-ranking officer in the Pakistan Army from the country's independence to 1972.:105 The C-in-C was directly responsible for commanding the army. It was an administrative position and the appointment holder had main operational command authority over the army.
|Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army
Flag of the Pakistan Army
|Ministry of Defence|
Army Secretariat-I at MoD
Rawalpindi Cantonment in Punjab, Pakistan
|Nominator||Governor General of Pakistan, Prime Minister or President of Pakistan|
|Appointer||Governor General of Pakistan, Prime Minister or President of Pakistan|
|Formation||August 15, 1947|
|First holder||Gen. Frank Messervy|
|Final holder||Lt. Gen. Gul Hassan Khan|
|Abolished||3 March 1972|
|Succession||Chief of Army Staff|
|Deputy||Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army|
Chief of General Staff
Direct appointments to the command of the Pakistan Army came from the British Army Council until 1951, when the first native commander-in-chief was nominated and appointed by the Government of Pakistan.:24
The C-in-C was assisted by a deputy C-in-C until the late 1960s. The last deputy C-in-C was Abdul Hamid Khan, who served until 1969. The C-in-C designation was changed to 'Chief of Army Staff' in 1972, Tikka Khan was the first person to hold the new title. Six men have served as C-in-C, the first two of them were native British and the post was largely akin to the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army.
Prior to creation of Pakistan from the partition of India on 14 August 1947, the senior military general officer commanding of the Pakistan Army were the ad-hoc appointments made by the Army Board of the British Army.
The appointment was known as Commander-in-Chief who directly reported to the Governor-General who was also under British monarchs.:105 Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck was the last Commander-in-Chief of the undivided British Indian Army who became the supreme commander of India and Pakistan in 15 August 1947 serving till November 30 of the year.:105 On 15 August General Frank Messervy became the first C-in-C of the Pakistan Army.
In 1969, when General Yahya Khan became President of Pakistan, the then deputy commander-in-chief of the army Lieutenant General Abdul Hamid Khan was promoted to full General and was appointed as the 'Chief of Staff of the Army', a newly created post which was akin to Chief of Staff of the United States Army.:contents On 20 March 1972, the commander-in-chief post was renamed as "Chief of Army Staff (COAS)" with Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan elevated to four star rank to be appointed as army's first chief of army staff.:62
List of Commanders-in-ChiefEdit
|#||Picture||Name||Rank||Start of tenure||End of tenure||Notes|
|1||Frank Messervy||General||August 15, 1947||February 10, 1948||The first Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army who took command in the rank of Acting General.|
|2||Douglas Gracey||General||February 11, 1948||January 16, 1951||The second and last British person to hold the C-in-C title, served as an acting full general.|
|3||Ayub Khan||General||January 17, 1951||October 27, 1958||The first native Pakistani person to be the C-in-C, also the first chief to become President of the country. He was a self promoted Field Marshal after becoming the President.|
|4||Musa Khan||General||October 27, 1958||September 17, 1966||C-in-C during the Indo-Pak war of 1965 and also the longest serving officer to hold the post (8 years).|
|5||Yahya Khan||General||September 18, 1966||December 20, 1971||Last C-in-C of unified West Pakistan and East Pakistan and also served as President of the country from 1969 to 1971.|
|6||Gul Hassan Khan||Lieutenant General||December 20, 1971||March 2, 1972||First C-in-C of the Pakistan Army after the secession of East Pakistan, serving till 1972 in the rank of lieutenant general.|
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