Comiket

Comic Market (コミックマーケット, Komikku Māketto), more commonly known as Comiket (コミケット, Komiketto) and sometimes Comike (コミケ, Komike), is a biannual dōjinshi fair in Tokyo, Japan. A grassroots, DIY event focused on the sale of dōjin (self-published works), Comiket is a not-for-profit, volunteer-run event administered by the Comic Market Preparatory Committee (ComiketPC). Inaugurated on 21 December 1975, with an estimated 700 attendees, it has grown to become the largest fan convention in the world, with an estimated attendance of over half a million.

Comic Market
コミックマーケット
Comiket Logo.png
"Friendship Forever"
StatusActive
GenreDōjinshi convention
FrequencyBiannual
VenueTokyo Big Sight
Location(s)Ariake, Tokyo
CountryJapan
Inaugurated21 December 1975; 44 years ago (1975-12-21)
FounderMeikyu [ja]
Most recent28–31 December 2019
Next eventGolden Week 2021
Attendance750,000[a]
ActivityMarketplace, industry floor, cosplay
Organised byComic Market Preparatory Committee (ComiketPC)
Websitecomiket.co.jp/index_e.html (English)
comiket.co.jp/ (Japanese)

ProgrammeEdit

Dōjin marketplaceEdit

Comiket is focused primarily on the sale of dōjin: non-commercial, self-published works.[2] Approximately 35,000 circles (a term for groups or individuals who create dōjin) participate in each edition of Comiket.[3] Different circles exhibit on each day of Comiket; circles producing works on a common subject, such as a particular media franchise or manga genre, are typically grouped on the same day.[4] The most common item sold at Comiket is dōjinshi (self-published comics that are often derivative fan works based on anime, video games, and other media, legal according to Japanese law shinkokuzai), though circles also sell dōjin soft (video games), computer software, music, novels, clothing, and other goods.[4] Since Comiket's inauguration, sample copies of all works sold at Comiket are collected and archived by ComiketPC, with over 2.1 million works having been archived.[2]

Trends in derivative worksEdit

The number of dōjin circles producing derivative works for given media properties, from Comiket 84 (August 2013) to Comiket 97 (December 2019).[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

CosplayEdit

 
Elaborately dressed cosplayers at Comiket 69 in December 2005

Comiket is a major outlet for cosplay enthusiasts. Since Comiket 80 in 2011, restrictions on cosplaying have been gradually relaxed, with a shift from regulating objects (e.g. a ban on items that could be used as weapons) to regulating behavior (e.g. a ban on swinging around long objects).[2] Some general contemporary guidelines include not wearing clothes that are too revealing, not imitating uniformed officers, and being out in cosplay when arriving/departing from Comiket.[14]

Corporate boothsEdit

Comiket hosts 190 corporate booths each year. This includes both large commercial companies, such as video game studios and manga publishers, as well as celebrity meet and greet sessions.[2]

OperationsEdit

ScheduleEdit

 
Entry queue to Comiket 90 in August 2016

Comiket is held twice yearly, in August and December.[15] These are typically referred to as NatsuComi (夏コミ, Natsukomi) and FuyuComi (冬コミ, Fuyukomi), contractions of Summer Comiket and Winter Comiket respectively. Since 1995, both events have run for three days each, with NatsuComi generally occurring Friday to Sunday in mid-August, and FuyuComi generally occurring the three days prior to New Year's Day. Starting with Comiket 96, the events have been four days long.[16] Both events run daily from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m, with corporate booths open until 5:00 p.m and the entire convention closing an hour early on the final day of the event.[17] Comiket has been held at Tokyo Big Sight in Ariake, Tokyo since 1996.[18]

Event sizeEdit

 
Crowds at Comiket 62 in August 2002

Comiket is the largest fan convention in the world,[19] growing from fewer than 10,000 attendees in 1982[20] to over half a million by 2004. Since 2007, attendee numbers have fluctuated in the region of 500,000 for Fuyukomi and 560,000 for NatsuComi.[21] Because of the extremely high volume of attendance at Comiket, mobile phone companies set up temporary antennas, while the Tokyo Metro makes special arrangements to accommodate the large crowds. Hour-long queues to enter Comiket during peak hours are common, while some attendees queue up to five hours before the event to ensure early admission.[17] Popular circles are frequently placed near the venue's loading docks so that their queues can extend outside.[2] ComiketPC recommends that first-time attendees arrive in the afternoon to avoid queues.[22]

CatalogEdit

For every Comiket, a catalog is released that contains information about the event. The catalog includes a list of all participating circles, maps of the convention layout, directions to and from the convention, rules for the convention, results from surveys held among Comiket participants, articles about topics relevant to dōjinshi creators, and one to two pictures ("circle cuts") for every participating circle. It is available in print and DVD-ROM format, and since Comiket 83, is available online behind a partial paywall.[23]

Catalogs are made available for sale at stores two weeks before the event.[24] The print version is roughly the size of an average phone book, while the DVD-ROM version includes features such as advanced search functions and a clickable map. To date, there is no English edition of the catalog available, though the catalog does contain a four-page basic guide for attending Comiket in English, Chinese, and Korean.[25]

Prior to Comiket 96, a purchased catalog was not required for admission to Comiket (see 2020 Summer Olympics changes below).

ParticipantsEdit

 
A circle ticket for Comiket 88. The ticket uses holography to prevent counterfeiting, and includes the personal information of the exhibitor (blurred in this image) to prevent scalping.

The overwhelming majority of Comiket circle participants are amateur and hobbyist artists: 70% of participating circles lose money, while only 15% turn a profit.[2] The majority of circle participants at Comiket are female, with women composing 57% of participating circles at Comiket 84.[2] General attendees at Comiket tend to skew male, with men comprising 64% of attendees at Comiket 78.[26]

Of the Comiket circle participants, a 2011 poll showed that nearly half participated because attending the event and showing off their work is enjoyable, and a significant percentage came to spread their works to the public.[27] A smaller percentage of dōjinshi creators' goal is to promote an idea or opinion through attending Comiket.[27]

The majority of those participating in circles in 2010 said that they are a part of a one-person circle (59%), while two-person (20%) and three person (8%) circles were also common.[28]

PhilanthropyEdit

Since 1993, ComiketPC has donated over ¥60 million to sustainable forest management to offset paper used in the production of dōjinshi.[2] Since 2007, ComiketPC has worked with the Japanese Red Cross Society to organize bloodmobiles at Comiket events.[29]

HistoryEdit

 
Crowds at Comiket 49, held in December 1995 at Harumi Fairgrounds [ja].

Comiket was inaugurated in 1975 by Meikyu [ja], a dōjin circle founded by Yoshihiro Yonezawa, Teruo Harada, and Jun Aniwa while studying at Meiji University.[30] The first Comiket was organized amid a period of immense change and upheaval for manga as a medium, characterized by the closure of the experimental manga magazine COM and the ascendance of the Year 24 Group.[31][32][33] A 1975 incident in which a dōjin creator applying for Nihon SF Taikai was refused admission after criticizing the convention's focus on professional guests over dōjin creators in her application became a catalyst for the founding of Comiket as a fan convention.[34][30]

As Comiket grew, a lottery system to allocate exhibition space was implemented in 1979, as the number of applications from circles began to surpass available space.[2] In 1981 the event moved to Harumi Fairgrounds [ja] and began publishing an event catalog in 1982. Comiket would change locations frequently throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, as the Japanese bubble economy led to an upsurge in trade shows that made it difficult to secure a consistent venue. The murders by Tsutomu Miyazaki and subsequent moral panic against otaku would lead to further difficulties in Comiket's ability to secure a venue.[2] Tokyo Big Sight hosted Comiket for the first time in 1996, and remains the convention's primary venue.

In 2012, anonymous threats made against circles creating works related to Kuroko's Basketball led Comiket to prohibit the sale of all Kuroko's Basketball-related items at Comiket 85 (see Kuroko's Basketball § Controversies).[35] Organizers refunded the registration fees for the roughly 900 circles producing Kuroko's Basketball items, resulting in a loss for Comiket of roughly ¥10 million.[36] In 2015, ComiketPC organized a special event specifically focused on doujinshi related to the series.[37] Affectionately nicknamed "Kuroket", the event hosted approximately 2,400 circles producing Kuroko's Basketball items.[38]

In August 2018, ComiketPC announced modified schedules for Comikets 96, 97, and 98 due to the 2020 Summer Olympics. As the east wing of Big Sight closed in 2019 for renovations in advance of the Olympics, the corporate booths of C96 and C97 were moved to Aomi Exhibition Hall, and both events expanded to four days of programming.[39] Admission to both events required the purchase of a wristband – the first time in Comiket's history it was not free to attend – in order to offset the cost of running the event across four days, and to depress attendance in light of the smaller venue space.[40] Wristbands for all four days were included with the purchase of a print event catalog, while individual wristbands for each day were available to purchase at Big Sight the day of the event.[41] C98 in 2020 was slated to be moved to Golden Week in May in order to not conflict with the Olympics in August.[42] On 27 March 2020, ComiketPC announced that C98 had been cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic, making it the first time a Comiket event has been cancelled.[43] On 12 July 2020, it was announced that Comiket 99 would be postponed to 2021, taking place during Golden Week as C98 would have in order to not conflict with the Summer Olympics, which were also postponed. A virtual event titled "Air Comiket" will be held in December to replace its originally planned dates.[44]

Event historyEdit

No. Year Date Dōjin circles[45] Attendance[45] Venues[45]
1 1975 21 December 32 700 Nissho Hall [ja]
2 1976 4 April 39 550 Itabashi Industrial Union Building (板橋産業連合会館)
3 25 July 56 500
4 19 December 80 700
5 1977 10 April 94 1,300 Ōta City Industrial Building (大田区産業会館)
6 30–31 July[b] 100 2,000
7 18 December 131 2,500
8 1978 2 April 144 2,000
CS1[c] 6 May Unknown 250 Yotsuya Public Hall (四谷公会堂)
9 29–30 July 200 3,000
[d] 15 November Unknown Unknown Hitotsubashi University Kunitachi Campus
10 17 December 200 3,000 Ōta City Industrial Building
11 1979 8 April 218 3,000
12 28–29 July 330 4,000 Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Trade Center [ja]
13 23 December 290 4,000 Ōta City Industrial Building
14 1980 11 May 380 6,000 Kawasaki Shimin Plaza (川崎市民プラザ)
15 14 September 340 7,000
16 14 December 340 7,000
17 1981 5 April 400 8,000
18 15–16 August 512 10,000 Yokohama Sanbo Hall [ja]
19 20 December 600 9,000 Harumi Fairgrounds [ja]
20 1982 21 March 780 9,000
21 8 August 970 10,000
22 26 December 1,060 8,000
23[e] 1983 3 April 1,200 13,000
24 7 August 1,500 18,000
25 25 December 1,550 25,000
26 1984 19 August 2,400 30,000
27 23 December 2,300 25,000
28 1985 11 August 3,450 30,000
29 29 December 4,000 30,000
30 1986 10 August 3,900 35,000
31 27–28 December 4,400 40,000 Tokyo Ryutsu Center [ja]
32 1987 8–9 August 4,400 60,000
33 26–27 December 4,400 55,000
34 1988 13–14 August 9,200 70,000 Harumi Fairgrounds [ja]
35 1989 25–26 March 8,900 70,000
36 13–14 August 10,000 100,000
37 23–24 December 11,000 120,000 Makuhari Messe
38 1990 18–19 August 13,000 230,000
39 23–24 December 13,000 250,000
40 1991 16–17 August 11,000 200,000 Harumi Fairgrounds [ja]
41 29–30 December 14,000 200,000
42 1992 15–16 August 12,000 250,000
43 29–30 December 15,000 180,000
44 1993 15–16 August 15,000 250,000
45 29–30 December 16,000 200,000
46 1994 7–8 August 16,000 240,000
47 29–30 December 16,000 200,000
48 1995 18–20 August[f] 22,000 250,000
49 29–30 December 16,000 220,000
CS2[g] 1996 17 March 1,300 8,000
50 3–4 August 18,000 350,000 Tokyo Big Sight
51 28–29 December 22,000 220,000
52 1997 15–17 August 33,000 400,000
53 28–29 December 22,000 300,000
54 1998 14–16 August 33,000 380,000
55 29–30 December 23,000 300,000
56 1999 13–15 August 35,000 400,000
57 24–26 December 25,000 320,000
CS3[h] 2000 13–15 August 200 1,500 Okinawa Convention Center
58 11–13 August 35,000 430,000 Tokyo Big Sight
59 29–30 December 23,000 300,000
60[46] 2001 10–12 August 35,000 480,000
61[47] 29–31 December 23,000 360,000
62[48] 2002 9–11 August 35,000 480,000
63[49] 28–30 December 35,000 450,000
64[50] 2003 15–17 August 35,000 460,000
65[51] 28–30 December 35,000 420,000
66[52] 2004 15–17 August 35,000 510,000
67[53] 28–30 December 23,000 370,000
CS4[54][i] 2005 21 March 3,400 50,000
68[55] 12–14 August 35,000 480,000
69[56] 29–30 December 23,000 350,000
70[57] 2006 11–13 August 35,000 430,000
71[58] 29–31 December[j] 35,000 440,000
72[59] 2007 17–19 August 35,000 550,000
73[60] 29–31 December 35,000 500,000
74[61] 2008 15–17 August 35,000 550,000
75[62] 28–30 December 35,000 510,000
76[63] 2009 14–16 August 35,000 560,000
77[64] 29–31 December 35,000 510,000
CS5[65][k] 2010 14–16 August 1,500 33,000 Isejin Izumi-cho Kita Building (伊勢甚泉町北ビル)
78[66] 13–15 August 35,000 560,000 Tokyo Big Sight
79[67] 29–31 December 35,000 520,000
80[68] 2011 12–14 August 35,000 540,000
81[69] 29–31 December 35,000 500,000
82[70] 2012 10–12 August 35,000 560,000
83[71] 29–31 December 35,000 550,000
84[72] 2013 10–12 August 35,000 590,000
85[73] 29–31 December 35,000 520,000
86[74] 2014 15–17 August 35,000 550,000
87[75] 28–30 December 35,000 560,000
CS6[76][l] 2015 28–29 March 5,200 50,000 Makuhari Messe
88[77] 14–16 August 35,000 550,000 Tokyo Big Sight
89[78] 29–31 December 35,000 520,000
90[79] 2016 12–14 August 34,000 530,000
91[80] 29–31 December 36,000 550,000
92[81] 2017 11–13 August 32,000 500,000
93[82] 29–31 December 32,000 550,000
94[83] 2018 10–12 August 35,000 530,000
95[84] 29–31 December 35,000 570,000
96[85] 2019 9–12 August[m] 32,000 730,000 Tokyo Big Sight & Aomi Exhibition Hall
97[1] 28–31 December 32,000 750,000
98[43] 2020 Cancelled[n] N/A N/A N/A
99[86] 2021 Golden Week[o] Tokyo Big Sight

See alsoEdit

  • Comic World, an anime and doujin festival with events in South Korea, Hong Kong, and Taiwan
  • Comifuro, a doujin convention in Indonesia.
  • Anime Expo, an anime convention in the United States
  • Japan Expo, a Japanese pop culture convention in France
  • Overload, a doujin festival in New Zealand

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Comiket records attendance as the sum total of attendees on each day of the event, and does not account for repeat attendees across multiple days; Comiket 97 in December 2019 saw 190,000 attendees on days 1, 3, and 4, and 180,000 attendees on day 2.[1]
  2. ^ First ever two-day Comiket.
  3. ^ Held as the first "Comiket Special" (コミケスペシャル).
  4. ^ Held as the "Comic Market in Ikkyosai" (コミックマーケットin一橋祭).
  5. ^ The final annual spring event.
  6. ^ First ever three-day Comiket.
  7. ^ Held as the "Farewell Harumi!! Comiket Special" (さよなら晴海!!コミケットスペシャル).
  8. ^ Held as the "Resort Comiket in Okinawa. Comiket Special 3" (リゾコミin沖縄コミケットスペシャル3).
  9. ^ Held as the "30th Anniversary 24 Hours (!?) of Comiket Special 4" (30周年記念24耐(!?)コミケットスペシャル4).
  10. ^ First Comiket held during Ōmisoka.
  11. ^ Held as the "Comiket Special 5 in Mito" (コみケッとスペシャル5 in 水戸).
  12. ^ Held as the "Comiket Special 6 Otaku Sumit 2015" (コミケットスペシャル6 OTAKU SUMMIT 2015).
  13. ^ First ever four-day Comiket.
  14. ^ Scheduled for 2–5 May 2020; cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. First Comiket event to be cancelled.
  15. ^ Originally scheduled for 28–31 December 2020; postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

ReferencesEdit

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  79. ^ "Comic Market 90 Report" (in Japanese). Comic Market official website. 5 November 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  80. ^ "Comic Market 91 Report" (in Japanese). Comic Market official website. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  81. ^ "Comic Market 92 Report" (in Japanese). Comic Market official website. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  82. ^ "Comic Market 93 Report" (in Japanese). Comic Market official website. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  83. ^ "Comic Market 94 Report" (in Japanese). Comic Market official website. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  84. ^ "Comic Market 95 Report" (in Japanese). Comic Market official website. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  85. ^ "Comic Market 96 Report" (in Japanese). Comic Market official website. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  86. ^ 2020年GWコミックマーケット98の開催における開催形態の一部変更について

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 35°37′51″N 139°47′48″E / 35.63083°N 139.79667°E / 35.63083; 139.79667