Combretum

Combretum, the bushwillows or combretums, make up the type genus of the family Combretaceae. The genus comprises about 272 species of trees and shrubs, most of which are native to tropical and southern Africa, about 5 to Madagascar, but there are others that are native to tropical Asia, New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago, Australia, and tropical America. Though somewhat reminiscent of willows (Salix) in their habitus, they are not particularly close relatives of these.

Combretum
Combretum collinum Bild0860.jpg
Combretum collinum with fruit
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Combretaceae
Genus: Combretum
Loefl.
Species

About 3272 see text

Synonyms[1]
  • Aetia Adans.
  • Bucholzia Stadtm. ex Willemet
  • Bureava Baill.
  • Cacoucia Aubl.
  • Calopyxis Tul.
  • Campylochiton Welw. ex Hiern
  • Campylogyne Welw. ex Hemsl.
  • Chrysostachys Pohl
  • Codonocroton E.Mey. ex Engl. & Diels
  • Cristaria Sonn.
  • Embryogonia Blume
  • Forsgardia Vell.
  • Gonocarpus Ham.
  • Grislea L.
  • Hambergera Scop.
  • Kleinia Crantz
  • Mekistus Lour. ex Gomes Mach.
  • Physopodium Desv.
  • Poivrea Comm. ex DC.
  • Quisqualis L.
  • Schousboea Willd.
  • Seguiera Rchb. ex Oliv.
  • Sheadendron G.Bertol.
  • Sphalanthus Jack
  • Thiloa Eichler
  • Udani Adans.

EcologyEdit

Bushwillow trees often are important plants in their habitat. Savannahs in Africa, in particular those growing on granitic soils, are often dominated by Combretum and its close relative Terminalia. For example, C. apiculatum is a notable tree in the Angolan mopane woodlands ecoregion in the Kunene River basin in southern Africa.[2]

Other species of this genus are a major component of Southwestern Amazonian moist forests. This genus contains several species that are pollinated by mammals other than bats, which is quite rare indeed.[3] But most species are more conventionally pollinated by insects or birds.[citation needed]

Typhlodromus combretum, a mite of the family Phytoseiidae, was discovered on a bushwillow plant and is named after this genus. Other herbivores that eat Combretum foliage include the caterpillars of the Brown Awl (Badamia exclamationis) which is found on C. albidum, C. latifolium and C. ovalifolium; those of the Orange-tailed Awl (Bibasis sena) are recorded from C. extensum and C. latifolium.[citation needed]

Use by humansEdit

 
Combretum acutum - MHNT

Several species are used in African or Indian herbal medicine.[citation needed] The class of chemical compounds known as combretastatins were first isolated from South African Bushwillow (Combretum caffrum), from which they get their name. One synthetic derivative, fosbretabulin disodium (combretastatin A4 phosphate), underwent preliminary study for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer,[4] but it was not effective enough to progress to more advanced trials. C. molle is also recorded to contain antioxidants such as punicalagin,[citation needed] which is also found in pomegranates (Punica granatum), a somewhat related plant.

The botanist George Don studied this genus extensively. The Luvuvhu River in southern Africa was named after the river's bushwillows (C. erythrophyllum), locally known as muvuvhu.

SpeciesEdit

As of April 2021, there are 272 accepted species of Combretum:[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Combretum Loefl". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  2. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2012. Kunene River. Topic ed. P.Saundry. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC.
  3. ^ Carthew, S (1997). "Non-flying mammals as pollinators". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 12 (3): 104–108. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(96)10067-7. ISSN 0169-5347. PMID 21237993.
  4. ^ "Combretastatin A4 However there is the possibility that a modified version of an isomer of aombretastatin-A4 can be rendered effective. After replacing adjacent carbon atoms with nitrogen atoms, using blue light, the isomer can be switched to a form that attacks microtubules of cancer cells. So far this has been tested in vitro with breast cancer cells. Phosphate in Treating Patients With Advanced Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer". clinicaltrials.gov.

External linksEdit