Collective responsibility

Collective responsibility, also known as collective guilt,[citation needed] refers to responsibilities of organizations, groups and societies.[1] In reality[tone] collective responsibility could be both collective guilt as well as collectible honor. Particularly, it could be seen in the Soviet honoring system which was awarding state orders and decorations to Soviet enterprises and even Soviet union republics or cities, such as Hero city.

In businessEdit

As the business practices known as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability mature and converge with the responsibilities of governments and citizens, the term "collective responsibility" is beginning to be more widely used.[2]

Collective responsibility is widely applied in corporations, where the entire workforce is held responsible for failure to achieve corporate targets (for example, profit targets), irrespective of the performance of individuals or teams which may have achieved or overachieved within their area.[3] Collective punishment, even including measures that actually further harm the prospect of achieving targets, is applied as a measure to 'teach' the workforce.

In cultureEdit

The concept of collective responsibility is present in literature, most notably in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner", a poem telling the tale of a ship's crew who died of thirst after they approved of one crew member's killing of an albatross.

1959's Ben-Hur and 1983's prison crime drama Bad Boys depict collective responsibility and punishment. The play 'An Inspector Calls' by J.B Priestley also features the theme of collective responsibility throughout the investigation process.[4]

In politicsEdit

In some countries with parliamentary systems, there is a convention that all members of a cabinet must publicly support all government decisions, even if they do not agree with them. Members of the cabinet that wish to dissent or object publicly must resign from their position or be sacked.[5]

As a result of collective responsibility, the entire government cabinet must resign if a vote of no confidence is passed in parliament.

In lawEdit

Where two or more persons are liable in respect of the same obligation, the extent of their joint liability vary among jurisdictions.

In religionEdit

Jews recognize two kinds of sin, offenses against other people, and offenses against God. Offenses against God may be understood as a violation of a contract (the covenant between God and the Children of Israel). Ezra, a priest and scribe, headed a large body of exiles. On his return to Jerusalem to teach the laws of God he discovered that Jews have been marrying non-Jews. He tore his garments in despair and confessed the sins of Israel before God, before going on to purify the community.[6] The Book of Jeremiah (Yirmiyahu [ירמיהו]) can be organized into five sub-sections. One part, Jeremiah 2-24, displays scorn for the sins of Israel. The poem in 2:1–3:5 shows the evidence of a broken covenant against Israel.[7]

This concept is found in the Old Testament (or Tanakh), some examples include the account of the Flood, the Tower of Babel, Sodom and Gomorrah and in some interpretations, the Book of Joshua's Achan. In those records entire communities were punished for the acts of the vast majority of their members, however it is impossible to state that there were no innocent people, or children too young to be responsible for their deeds, on whom it was inflicted as well.

The practice of blaming the Jews for Jesus' death is the longest example of collective responsibility. In this case, the blame was cast not only on the Jews of the time but upon successive generations. This comes from Matthew 27:25-66 New International Version (NIV) 25: "All the people answered, 'His blood is on us and on our children!'"

Collective punishmentEdit

 
Announcement of execution of 100 Polish roundup (pol: łapanka) hostages as revenge for assassination of 5 German policemen and 1 SS man by Armia Krajowa's guerrilla fighters (referred to in the text as: a Polish "terrorist organization in British service"). Warsaw, 2 October 1943

Collective responsibility in the form of collective punishment is often used as a disciplinary measure in closed institutions, e.g. boarding schools (punishing a whole class for the actions of one known or unknown pupil), military units, prisons (juvenile and adult), psychiatric facilities, etc. The effectiveness and severity of this measure may vary greatly, but it often breeds distrust and isolation among their members. Historically, collective punishment is a sign of authoritarian tendencies in the institution or its home society.[8] For example, in the Soviet Gulags, all members of a brigada (work unit) were punished for bad performance of any of its members.[9]

Collective punishment is also practiced in the situation of war, economic sanctions, etc., presupposing the existence of collective guilt.[10] Collective guilt, or guilt by association, is the controversial collectivist idea that individuals who are identified as a member of a certain group carry the responsibility for an act or behavior that members of that group have demonstrated, even if they themselves were not involved.[11] Contemporary systems of criminal law accept the principle that guilt shall only be personal.[12] Others view groups as being entities in themselves (an entitative group), capable of holding guilt or responsibility independent of any of the group's members.[13]

Terror groups of all kinds bomb civilians who are seen as collectively responsible for the acts of their leaders. The state level bombing of civilians became popular in the Twentieth Century although ancient warriors would often slaughter whole cities if they resisted demands for capitulation or tribute.

During the occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany, the Germans applied collective responsibility: any kind of help given to a person of Jewish faith or origin was punishable by death, and that not only for the rescuer but also for his/her family.[14][15][16] This was widely publicized by the Germans.[17][18] During the occupation, for every German killed by a Pole, 100-400 Poles were shot in retribution.[19] Communities were held collectively responsible for the purported Polish counter-attacks against the invading German troops. Mass executions of łapanka hostages were conducted every single day during the Wehrmacht advance across Poland in September 1939 and thereafter.[20]

Another example is when after the war, ethnic Germans in Central and Eastern Europe were held collectively responsible for Nazi crimes, resulting in numerous atrocities against the German population, including killings (see Expulsion of Germans after World War II and Beneš decrees).[21]

CriticismEdit

In ethics, both methodological individualists and normative individualists question the validity of collective responsibility.

Methodological individualists challenge the very possibility of associating moral agency with groups, as distinct from their individual members, and normative individualists argue that collective responsibility violates principles of both individual responsibility and fairness. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)[22]

Normally, only the individual actor can accrue culpability for actions that they freely cause. The notion of collective culpability seems to deny individual moral responsibility. Does collective responsibility make sense? History is filled with examples of a wronged man who tried to avenge himself, not only on the person who has wronged him, but on other members of the wrongdoer's family, tribe, ethnic group, religion, or nation.[23]

According to genocide scholar A. Dirk Moses, "The collective guilt accusation is unacceptable in scholarship, let alone in normal discourse and is, I think, one of the key ingredients in genocidal thinking."[24]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gregory Mellema (1997). Collective Responsibility. Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-0311-1.
  2. ^ Journal, Scientific Research. "Scientific Research Journal". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ "Building a culture of Responsibility in CEP Plant Timișoara – Continental". Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Samuel Taylor Coleridge | SpringerLink". doi:10.1007/978-0-230-62785-7 (inactive 31 May 2021). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May 2021 (link)
  5. ^ tutor2u (22 December 2018). "Collective Cabinet Responsibility". tutor2u. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  6. ^ Ezra 7–10
  7. ^ O'Connor 2007, p. 491.
  8. ^ "Personality traits predict authoritarian tendencies, study finds". PsyPost. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  9. ^ Alexopoulos, Golfo (January 2008). "Stalin and the Politics of Kinship: Practices of Collective Punishment, 1920s–1940s". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 50: 91–117. doi:10.1017/S0010417508000066. S2CID 143409375.
  10. ^ Dickson, Eric. "On the (in) effectiveness of collective punishment: An experimental investigation" (PDF). NYU.edu.
  11. ^ Fletcher, George (January 2004). "Collective Guilt and Collective Punishment". Theoretical Inquiries in Law 5, No. 1: 163–178.
  12. ^ Edwards, James (2018), "Theories of Criminal Law", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2018 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 6 March 2019
  13. ^ Hamilton, David L.; Sherman, Steven J.; Castelli, Luigi (1 January 2002). "A Group By Any Other Name—The Role of Entitativity in Group Perception". European Review of Social Psychology. 12 (1): 139–166. doi:10.1080/14792772143000049. ISSN 1046-3283. S2CID 144009376.
  14. ^ "Jozef & Wiktoria Ulma – The Righteous Among The Nations – Yad Vashem".
  15. ^ "Vasiuta Wegrzynowska and her children – Righteous Among the Nations".
  16. ^ "Malgorzata Wolska and her children – Righteous Among the Nations".
  17. ^ "Info". citinet.net. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  18. ^ "The Nazi abuse of the Polish people continues – WWII Today". ww2today.com. 19 June 2013.
  19. ^ "Project InPosterum: Forgotten Survivors. Polish Christians Remember The Nazi Occupation<".
  20. ^ Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2004). Between Nazis and Soviets: Occupation Politics in Poland, 1939–1947. Lexington Books. pp. 92, 105, 118, and 325. ISBN 0739104845.
  21. ^ Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees, "The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War" Archived 1 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine, cadmus.iue.it, European University Institute, Florence. HEC No. 2004/1, pp. 53–54; accessed 26 May 2015.
  22. ^ Smiley, Marion (1 January 2011). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  23. ^ Larry May; Stacey Hoffman (27 October 1992). Collective Responsibility: Five Decades of Debate in Theoretical and Applied Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-0-7425-7402-1.
  24. ^ Anderson, Margaret Lavinia; Reynolds, Michael; Kieser, Hans-Lukas; Balakian, Peter; Moses, A. Dirk; Akçam, Taner (2013). "Taner Akçam, The Young Turks' crime against humanity: the Armenian genocide and ethnic cleansing in the Ottoman Empire (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012)". Journal of Genocide Research. 15 (4): 463–509. doi:10.1080/14623528.2013.856095. S2CID 73167962. This is a telling slip; Lewy is talking about ‘the Armenians’ as if the defenceless women and children who comprised the deportation columns were vicariously responsible for Armenian rebels in other parts of the country. The collective guilt accusation is unacceptable in scholarship, let alone in normal discourse and is, I think, one of the key ingredients in genocidal thinking. It fails to distinguish between combatants and non-combatants, on which international humanitarian law has been insisting for over a hundred years now.

Further readingEdit

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