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There is no standard definition of a collaborative robot but a collaborative robot is generally understood as one that is intended to work alongside and / or directly interact with humans in a shared space. The term cobot is an abbreviation of collaborative robot. It is generally used to refer to robots that have been designed to work alongside or with humans, and therefore have inherent safety features such as lightweight materials and rounded edges. However a robot that was not designed to work with humans can be equipped with sensors to enable collaborative operation in manufacturing environments[1].

Thanks to sensors and other design features such as lightweight materials and rounded edges, collaborative robots (cobots) are able to interact directly and safely with humans.

This is in contrast to traditional industrial robots, designed to operate autonomously or with limited guidance,[2] which is what most industrial robots were up until the decade of the 2010s.

The International Federation of Robotics (IFR)[3], a global industry association of robot manufacturers and national robot associations, collects statistics on two types of robots – 1)industrial robots used in manufacturing and 2) service robots for domestic and professional use. Most service robots can be considered collaborative as they are intended to work alongside humans. Industrial robots have traditionally worked separately from humans, behind fences, but this is changing with a new class of collaborative industrial robot.

Cobots can have many roles. Collaborative service robots perform a variety of functions, from information robots in public spaces[4]; logistics robots that transport materials within a building[5], to; inspection robots equipped with cameras and visual processing technologies that can serve in a variety of applications such as patrolling perimeters of secure facilities[6].

Collaborative industrial robots are used to automate repetitive, unergonomic tasks - such as fetching and carrying heavy parts, machine feeding and final assembly. Industrial robots have traditionally been used in industrial sectors for pre-assembly tasks such as cutting, welding, basic assembly of car bodies and painting. Collaborative industrial robots enable automotive and electronics manufacturers to extend automation to final product assembly, finishing tasks (for example polishing and applying coatings), and quality inspection.

The IFR defines four types of collaborative application in manufacturing applications [7]:

  • Co-existence: Human and robot work alongside each other, but with no shared workspace: Most frequent type of collaboration today (together with sequential collaboration)
  • Sequential collaboration: Human and robot share all or part of a workspace but do not work on a part or machine at the same time: Most frequent type of collaboration today (together with co-existence)
  • Co-operation: Robot and human work on the same part or machine at the same time, and both are in motion: Infrequent today. Typically, either the robot or the worker is immobile if in contact with the same part or machine – for example a robot positions a part and is then immobile while a human works on it. This scenario is sequential, not co-operative
  • Responsive collaboration: The robot responds in real-time to the worker’s motion: This type of application is not yet commercially viable for most collaborative manufacturing applications today and is likely to be most applicable in service robots working in non-standard environments such as construction and agriculture.

In most industrial applications today, the robot and worker share the same space and complete tasks sequentially.


Cobots were invented in 1996 by J. Edward Colgate and Michael Peshkin,[8] professors at Northwestern University. A 1997 US patent filing[9] describes cobots as "an apparatus and method for direct physical interaction between a person and a general purpose manipulator controlled by a computer."

Cobots resulted from a 1994 General Motors initiative led by Prasad Akella of the GM Robotics Center and a 1995 General Motors Foundation research grant intended to find a way to make robots or robot-like equipment safe enough to team with people.[10] The first cobots assured human safety by having no internal source of motive power. Instead, motive power was provided by the human worker.[11] The cobot's function was to allow computer control of motion, by redirecting or steering a payload, in a cooperative way with the human worker. Later cobots provided limited amounts of motive power as well.[12]

The General Motors team used the term Intelligent Assist Device (IAD) as an alternative to cobot, especially in the context of industrial material handling and automotive assembly operations.[13] A draft safety standard for Intelligent Assist Devices was published in 2002.[14] An updated safety standard was published in 2016.[15]

Cobotics[16] (acquired in 2003 by Stanley Assembly Technologies) released several cobot models in 2002.[17] [12]

German based industrial robot pioneer KUKA released its first cobot, LBR 3, in 2004. This computer controlled lightweight robot was the result of a long collaboration with the German Aerospace Center institute.[18] KUKA further refined the technology, releasing the KUKA LBR 4 in 2008 and the KUKA LBR iiwa in 2013.[19]

Universal Robots released its first cobot, the UR5, in 2008.[20] In 2012 the UR10 cobot[21] was released, and later a table top cobot, UR3, in 2015. Rethink Robotics released an industrial cobot, Baxter, in 2012[22] and smaller, faster collaborative robot Sawyer in 2015, designed for high precision tasks.

FANUC[23] released its first collaborative robot in 2015 - the FANUC CR-35iA with a heavy 35kg payload.[24] Since that time FANUC has released a smaller line of collaborative robots including the FANUC CR-4iA, CR-7iA and the CR-7/L long arm version.

ABB released in 2015 YuMi[25], the first truly collaborative dual arm robot.

Standards and guidelinesEdit

During revision and restructuring of the standards relevant to industrial robots, the area of collaborative robots has been established. The revised EN ISO 10218 standard Parts 1[26] and 2[27] and the ISO/TS 15066[28] specification define the safety requirements for collaborative robot applications. In this context, the collaborative robot also comprises the tools adapted on the robot arm to perform tasks as well as the objects handled by it.

Since the safety of a collaborative robot is ultimately determined by the application (for example, a cobot wielding a cutting tool would be unsafe if humans could make contact, whereas the same robot sorting foam chips would not be) . Consequently, the risk assessment accomplished by the robot manufacturer must also cover the envisioned industrial workplace. EN ISO 10218 Parts 1 and 2 build the basis for the risk assessment, together with the Machinery Directive.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^
  2. ^ "I, Cobot: Future collaboration of man and machine" The Manufacturer (2015-11-15). Retrieved on 2016-01-19
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ :
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Mechanical Advantage" Chicago Tribune, Dec. 11, 1996.
  9. ^ "Cobots" US Patent 5,952,796
  10. ^ "Here Come the Cobots!" Industry Week, Dec. 21, 2004
  11. ^ "Cobot architecture" IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol 17. Iss. 4, 2001
  12. ^ a b "A History of Collaborative Robots: From Intelligent Lift Assists to Cobots", October 28, 2016
  13. ^ "Cobots for the automobile assembly line" International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Detroit, MI, 1999, pp. 728-733
  14. ^ "Draft Standard for Intelligent Assist Devices — Personnel Safety Requirements" (PDF).
  15. ^ "ISO/TS 15066:2016 - Robots and robotic devices -- Collaborative robots".
  16. ^ "Stanley moves into materials handling with Cobotics acquisition" Cranes Today, April 2, 2003
  17. ^ "Intelligent Assist Devices: Revolutionary Technology for Material Handling" (PDF).
  18. ^ "DLR Light-Weight Robot III". Archived from the original on 2016-11-14. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  19. ^ "History of the DLR LWR". 2018-03-17.
  20. ^ "A Brief History of Collaborative Robots", May 19, 2016
  21. ^ "UR10 Collaborative industrial robotic arm - Payload up to 10 kg".
  22. ^ "Baxter Kinematic Modeling, Validation and Reconfigurable Representation" SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0334, 2016
  23. ^ "FANUC Announces Record-Breaking 400,000 Robots Sold Worldwide". FANUC America Corporation. Retrieved 2017-02-03.[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ "FANUC America Introduces New CR-35iA Collaborative Robot Designed to Work Alongside Humans". FANUC America Corporation. Retrieved 2017-02-03.[permanent dead link]
  25. ^ "ABB Historical milestones". Retrieved 2019-08-29.
  26. ^ ISO 10218-1:2011 Robots and robotic devices – Safety requirements for industrial robots – Part 1: Robots. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  27. ^ ISO 10218-2:2011 Robots and robotic devices – Safety requirements for industrial robots – Part 2: Robot systems and integration. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  28. ^ ISO/TS 15066:2016 Robots and robotic devices – Collaborative robots. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)