Coal phase-out means stopping burning coal, and is part of fossil fuel phase-out. Coal is the most carbon intensive fossil fuel, therefore phasing it out is critical to limiting climate change and keeping global warming to 1.5 °C as laid out in the Paris Climate Agreement. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that coal is responsible for over 30% of the global average temperature increase above pre-industrial levels.
China is the major provider of public finance for coal projects. Several countries and financial institutions have taken initiatives to phase out coal out such as ending funding for building coal plants. The health and environmental benefits of coal phase-out, such as limiting biodiversity loss and respiratory diseases, are greater than the cost. It has been suggested that developed countries could finance the process for developing countries provided they do not build any more coal plants and do a just transition. One major intergovernmental organisation (the G7) committed in 2021 to end support for coal-fired power stations within the year.
Coal phase-out by countryEdit
This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: implications of Eskom financial problems and Ramaphosa leadership.(June 2019)
As of 2007, South Africa's power sector is the 8th highest global emitter of CO2. In 2005/2006, 77% of South Africa's energy demand was directly met by coal, and when current projects come online, this ratio will increase in the near term.
There are no plans to phase out coal-fired power plants in South Africa, and indeed, the country is investing in building massive amounts of new coal-fired capacity to meet power demands, as well as modernizing the existing coal-fired plants to meet environmental requirements.
On 6 April 2010, the World Bank approved a $3.75B loan to South Africa to support the construction of the world's 4th largest coal-fired plant, at Medupi. The proposed World Bank loan includes a relatively small amount – $260 million – for wind and solar power.
Rated at 4800 MW, Medupi Power Station would join other mammoth coal-fired power plants already in operation in the country, namely Kendal Power Station (4100 MW), Majuba Power Station (4100 MW), and Matimba Power Station (4000 MW), as well as a similar-capacity Kusile Power Station, at 4800 MW, currently under construction. Kusile is expected to come online in stages, starting in 2012, while Medupi is expected to first come online in 2013, with full capacity available by 2017. These schedules are provisional, and may change.
Since 2008, South Africa's government started funding solar water heating installations. As of January 2016, there have been 400 000 domestic installations in total, with free-of-charge installation of low-pressure solar water heaters for low-cost homes or low-income households which have access to the electricity grid, while other installations are subsidised.
In 2005, Canada annually burned 60 million tonnes of coal, mainly for electrical power, increasing by 15 percent annually. In November 2016, the Government of Canada announced plans to phase out coal-fired electricity generation by 2030. As of 2020[update], only four provinces burn coal to generate electricity: Alberta, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Saskatchewan. Canada aims to generate 90% of its electricity from non-emitting sources by 2030. Already, it generates 82% from non-emitting sources.
Beginning in 2005, Ontario planned coal phase-out legislation as a part of the Ontario electricity policy. The province annually consumed 15 million tonnes of coal in large power plants to supplement nuclear power. Nanticoke Generating Station was a major source of air pollution, and Ontario suffered "smog days" during the summer. In 2007, Ontario's Liberal government committed to phasing out all coal generation in the province by 2014. Premier Dalton McGuinty said, "By 2030 there will be about 1,000 more new coal-fired generating stations built on this planet. There is only one place in the world that is phasing out coal-fired generation and we're doing that right here in Ontario." The Ontario Power Authority projected that in 2014, with no coal generation, the largest sources of electrical power in the province will be nuclear (57 percent), hydroelectricity (25 percent), and natural gas (11 percent). In April 2014, Ontario was the first jurisdiction in North America to eliminate coal in electricity generation. The final coal plant in Ontario, Thunder Bay Generating Station, stopped burning coal in April 2014.
This section needs to be updated.(May 2019)
In 2017, fossil fuels provided 81 percent of the energy consumed in the United States, down from 86 percent in 2000.
from coal (TWh)
In 2007, 154 new coal-fired plants were on the drawing board in 42 states. By 2012, that had dropped to 15, mostly due to new rules limiting mercury emissions, and limiting carbon emissions to 1,000 pounds of CO2 per megawatt-hour of electricity produced.
In July 2013, US Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz outlined Obama administration policy on fossil fuels:
In the last four years, we’ve more than doubled renewable energy generation from wind and solar power. However, coal and other fossil fuels still provide 80 percent of our energy, 70 percent of our electricity, and will be a major part of our energy future for decades. That’s why any serious effort to protect our kids from the worst effects of climate change must also include developing, demonstrating and deploying the technologies to use our abundant fossil fuel resources as cleanly as possible.
Then-US Energy Secretary Steven Chu and researchers for the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory have noted that greater electrical generation by non-dispatchable renewables, such as wind and solar, will also increase the need for flexible natural gas-powered generators, to supply electricity during those times when solar and wind power are unavailable. Gas-powered generators have the ability to ramp up and down quickly to meet changing loads.
In the US, many of the fossil fuel phase-out initiatives have taken place at the state or local levels.
California's SB 1368 created the first governmental moratorium on new coal plants in the United States. The law was signed in September 2006 by Republican Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, took effect for investor-owned utilities in January 2007, and took effect for publicly owned utilities in August 2007. SB 1368 applied to long-term investments (five years or more) by California utilities, whether in-state or out-of-state. It set the standard for greenhouse gas emissions at 1,100 pounds of carbon dioxide per megawatt-hour, equal to the emissions of a combined-cycle natural gas plant. This standard created a de facto moratorium on new coal, since it could not be met without carbon capture and sequestration.
On 15 April 2008, Maine Governor John E. Baldacci signed LD 2126, "An Act To Minimize Carbon Dioxide Emissions from New Coal-Powered Industrial and Electrical Generating Facilities in the State." The law, which was sponsored by Rep. W. Bruce MacDonald (D-Boothbay), requires the Board of Environmental Protection to develop greenhouse gas emission standards for coal gasification facilities. It also puts a moratorium in place on building any new coal gasification facilities until the standards are developed.
In early March 2016, Oregon lawmakers approved a plan to stop paying for out-of-state coal plants by 2030 and require a 50 percent renewable energy standard by 2040. Environmental groups such as the American Wind Energy Association and leading Democrats praised the bill.
In 2006, a coalition of Texas groups organized a campaign in favor of a statewide moratorium on new coal-fired power plants. The campaign culminated in a "Stop the Coal Rush" mobilization, including rallying and lobbying, at the state capital in Austin on 11 and 12 February 2007. Over 40 citizen groups supported the mobilization.
In January 2007, a resolution calling for a 180-day moratorium on new pulverized coal plants was filed in the Texas Legislature by State Rep. Charles "Doc" Anderson (R-Waco) as House Concurrent Resolution 43. The resolution was left pending in committee. On 4 December 2007, Rep. Anderson announced his support for two proposed integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coal plants proposed by Luminant (formerly TXU).
Washington has followed the same approach as California, prohibiting coal plants whose emissions would exceed those of natural gas plants. Substitute Senate Bill 6001 (SSB 6001), signed on 3 May 2007, by Governor Christine Gregoire, enacted the standard. As a result of SSB 6001, the Pacific Mountain Energy Center in Kalama was rejected by the state. However, a new plant proposal, the Wallula Energy Resource Center, shows the limits of the "natural gas equivalency" approach as a means of prohibiting new coal plants. The proposed plant would meet the standard set by SSB 6001 by capturing and sequestering a portion (65 percent, according to a plant spokesman) of its carbon.
Utility action in the USEdit
- Progress Energy Carolinas announced on 1 June 2007, that it was beginning a two-year moratorium on proposals for new coal-fired power plants while it undertook more aggressive efficiency and conservation programs. The company added, "Additional reductions in future electricity demand growth through energy efficiency could push the need for new power plants farther into the future."
- Public Service of Colorado concluded in its November 2007 Resource Plan: "In sum, in light of the now likely regulation of CO2 emissions in the future due to broader interest in climate change issues, the increased costs of constructing new coal facilities, and the increased risk of timely permitting to meet planned in-service dates, Public Service does not believe it would not be prudent to consider at this time any proposals for new coal plants that do not include CO2 capture and sequestration.
- Xcel Energy noted in its 2007 Resource Plan that "given the likelihood of future carbon regulation, we have only modeled a future coal-based resource option that includes carbon capture and storage."
- Minnesota Power Company announced in December 2007 that it would not consider a new coal resource without a carbon solution.
- Avista Utilities announced that it does not anticipate pursuing coal-fired power plants in the foreseeable future.
- NorthWestern Energy announced on 17 December 2007, that it planned to double its wind power capacity over the next seven years and steer away from new baseload coal plants. The plans are detailed in the company's 2007 Montana Electric Supply Resource Plan.
- California Energy Commission (CEC) has initiated its review of two 53.4-megawatt solar thermal power plants that will each include a 40-megawatt biomass power plant to supplement the solar power.
As of 2020, over half of the world's coal-generated electricity was produced in China. In the 2020 alone, China added 38 gigawatts of coal-fired power generation, over three times what the rest of the world built that year.
China is confident of achieving a rich zero carbon economy by 2050.
China's exceedingly high energy demand has pushed the demand for relatively cheap coal-fired power. Each week, another 2 GW of coal-fired power is put online in China. Coal supplies about 80% of China's energy needs today, and that ratio is expected to continue, even as overall power usage grows rapidly. Serious air quality deterioration has resulted from the massive use of coal and many Chinese cities suffer severe smog events. [needs update]
In 2009, China had 172 GW of installed hydro capacity the largest in the world, producing 16% of China's electricity, the Eleventh Five-Year Plan has set a 300 GW target for 2020. China built the world's largest power plant of any kind, the Three Gorges Dam.
In addition to the huge investments in coal power, China has 32 nuclear reactors under construction, the highest number in the world.
This section needs to be updated.(May 2019)
India is the third largest consumer of coal in the world. India's federal energy minister is planning to stop importing thermal coal by 2018. The annual report of India's Power Ministry has a plan to grow power by about 80 GW as part of their 11th 5-year plan, and 79% of that growth will be in fossil fuel–fired power plants, primarily coal. India plans four new "ultra mega" coal-fired power plants as part of that growth, each 4000 MW in capacity. As of 2015[update], there are six nuclear reactors under construction. In the first half of 2016, the amount of coal-fired generating capacity in pre-construction planning in India fell by 40,000 MW, according to results released by the Global Coal Plant Tracker. In June 2016, India's Ministry of Power stated that no further power plants would be required in the next three years, and "any thermal power plant that has yet to begin construction should back off."
This section needs to be updated.(June 2019)
Japan, the world's third-largest economy, made a major move to use more fossil fuels in 2012, when the nation shut down nuclear reactors following the Fukushima accident. Nuclear, which had supplied 30 percent of Japanese electricity from 1987 to 2011, supplied only 2 percent in 2012 (hydropower supplied 8 percent). Nuclear electricity was replaced with electricity from petroleum, coal, and liquified natural gas. As a result, electricity generation from fossil fuels rose to 90 percent in 2012.
In January 2017, the Japanese government announced plans to build 45 new coal-fired power plants in the next ten years, largely to replace expensive electricity from petroleum power plants. Japan has 140 coal plants of which 114 are classified as inefficient and as a result the government intends to shut these down by 2050 to meet its climate commitments.
This section needs to be updated.(May 2019)
In July 2014, CAN Europe, WWF European Policy Office, HEAL, EEB and Climate-Alliance Germany published a report calling for the decommissioning of the thirty most polluting coal-fired power plants in Europe.
Austria closed its last coal power plant in 2020.
After the government denied a 2009 application to build a new power plant in Antwerp, the Langerlo power station burned its last ton of coal in March 2016, ending the use of coal fired power plants in Belgium.
As part of their Climate Policy Plan, Denmark stated that it will phase out oil for heating purposes and coal by 2030. Additionally, their goal is to supply a 100% of their electricity and heating needs with renewable energy five years later (i.e. 2035).
In 2019, Finland enacted a ban of coal use for energy purposes starting in 1 May 2029, ahead of the 2030 schedule discussed earlier. As of 2020, coal represented only 4.4% of electricity generated in the country. Finland is a founding member of the Powering Past Coal Alliance along 18 other countries.
In December 2017, to fight against global warming, France adopted a law banning new fossil fuel exploitation projects and closing current ones by 2040 in all of its territories. France thus became the first country to programme the end of fossil fuel exploitation.
Hard coal mining has long been subsidized in Germany, reaching a peak of €6.7 billion in 1996 and dropping to €2.7 billion in 2005 due to falling output. These subsidies represent a burden on public finances and imply a substantial opportunity cost, diverting funds away from other, more beneficial public investments.
In 2007, Germany announced plans to phase out hard coal-industry subsidies by 2018, a move which is expected to end hard coal mining in Germany. [needs update] This exit is later than the EU-mandated end by 2014. Solar and wind are major sources of energy and renewable energy generation, around 15% as of December 2013, and growing. Coal is still the largest source of power in Germany.
In 2007, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and her party agreed to legislation to phase out Germany's hard coal mining sector. That does not mean that they support phasing out coal in general. There were plans to build about 25 new plants in the coming years. Most German coal power plants were built in the 1960s, and have a low energy efficiency. Public sentiment against coal power plants is growing and the construction or planning of some plants has been stopped. A number are under construction and still being built. No concrete plan is in place to reduce coal-fired electricity generation. As of October 2015, the remaining coal plants still under planning include: Niederaussem, Profen, and Stade. The coal plants currently under construction include: Mannheim, Hamm D, Datteln, and Willhelmshaven. Between 2012 and 2015, six new plants went online. All of these plants are 600–1800 MWe.
In 2014, Germany's coal consumption dropped for the first time, having risen each year since the low during the 2009 recession.
A 2014 study, found that coal is not making a comeback in Germany, as is sometimes claimed. Rather renewables have more than offset the nuclear facilities that have been shut down as a result of Germany's nuclear phase-out (Atomausstieg). Hard coal plants now face financial stringency as their operating hours are cut back by the market. But in contrast, lignite-fired generation is in a safe position until the mid-2020s unless government policies change. To phase-out coal, Germany should seek to strength the emissions trading system (EU-ETS), consider a carbon tax, promote energy efficiency, and strengthen the use of natural gas as a bridge fuel.
In 2016, the German government and affected lignite power plant operators Mibrag, RWE, and Vattenfall reached an understanding (Verständigung) on the transfer of lignite power plant units into security standby (Überführung von Braunkohlekraftwerksblöcken in die Sicherheitsbereitschaft). As a result, eight lignite-fired power plants are to be mothballed and later closed, with the first plant scheduled to cease operation in October 2016 and the last in October 2019. The affected operators will receive state compensation for foregone profits. The European Commission has declared government plans to use €1.6 billion of public financing for this purpose to be in line with EU state aid rules.
A 2016 study, found that the phase-out of lignite in Lusatia (Lausitz) by 2030 can be financed by future owner EPH in a manner that avoids taxpayer involvement. Instead, liabilities covering decommissioning and land rehabilitation could be paid by EPH directly into a foundation, perhaps run by the public company LMBV. The study calculates the necessary provisions at €2.6 billion.
In November 2016, the German utility STEAG announced it will be decommissioning five coal-fired generating units in North Rhine-Westphalia and Saarland due to low wholesale electricity prices.
A coal phase-out for Germany is implied in Germany's Climate Action Plan 2050, environment minister Barbara Hendricks said in an interview on 21 November 2016. "If you read the Climate Action Plan carefully, you will find that the exit from coal-fired power generation is the immanent consequence of the energy sector target. ... By 2030 ... half of the coal-fired power production must have ended, compared to 2014", she said.
Plans to cut down the ancient Hambach Forest to extend the Hambach open pit mine in 2018 have resulted in massive protests. On 5 October 2018 a German court ruled against the further destruction of the forest for mining purposes. The ruling states, the court needs more time to reconsider the complaint. Angela Merkel, the chancellor of Germany, welcomed the court's ruling. The forest is located approximately 29 km west of the city center of Cologne (specifically Cologne Cathedral).
In January 2019 the German Commission on Growth, Structural Change and Employment initiates Germany's plans to entirely phase out and shut down the 84 remaining coal-fired plants on its territory by 2038.
In the first half of 2021, coal was the largest source of power generation in Germany.
This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: legal action.(February 2021)
On 22 September 2016, the Dutch parliament voted for a 55% cut in CO
2 emissions by 2030, a move which would require the closure of the country's five coal-fired power plants. The vote is not binding on the government however. In December 2019 the Dutch senate banned coal for power generation by 2030 at the latest.
On 14 January 2021 Portugal turned off The Sines coal plant. The last remaining station (Pego) will be put offline in November 2021, making Portugal coal free.
In October 2018, the Sánchez government and Spanish Labour unions settled an agreement to close ten Spanish coal mines at the end of 2018. The government pre-engaged to spend 250 million Euro to pay for early retirements, occupational retraining and structural change. In 2018, about 2.3 percent of the electric energy produced in Spain was produced in coal-burning power plants.
As of 2019 coal is used to a limited extent to fuel three co-generation plants in Sweden that produces electricity and district heating. The operators of these plants plan to phase out coal by 2020, 2022 and 2025 respectively. In August 2019 one of the three remaining coal burning power producers announced that they had phased out coal prematurely in 2019 instead of 2020. Värtaverket was scheduled to close in 2022, but closed in 2020.
In addition to heat and power coal is also used for steel production, there are long-term plans to phase out coal from steel production: Sweden is constructing hydrogen-based pilot steel plant to replace coke and coal usage in steel production. Once this technology is commercialized with the hydrogen generated from renewable energy sources (biogas or electricity), the carbon foot print of steel production would reduce drastically.
Remaining coal-fired power stations will be closed by 2024 or earlier. This will not be a complete phase-out of fossil fuels because gas-fired power stations will continue to provide some firm power.
Coal power in England has also reduced substantially. In generating capability there has been the closure of the Hinton Heavies, and closure or conversion to biomass of the remaining coal plants will be completed by 2024. In terms of actual production, in 2018 it was less than at any time since the industrial revolution. The first "coal free day" took place in 2017. Coal supplied 5.4% of UK electricity in 2018, down from 30% in 2014, and 70% in 1990.
This section needs to be updated.(May 2020)
The Australian Greens party have proposed to phase out coal power stations. The NSW Greens proposed an immediate moratorium on coal-fired power stations and want to end all coal mining and coal industry subsidies. The Australian Greens and the Australian Labor Party also oppose nuclear power. The Federal Government and Victorian State Government want to modify existing coal-fired power stations into clean coal power stations. The Federal Labor government extended the mandatory renewable energy targets, an initiative to ensure that new sources of electricity are more likely to be from wind power, solar power and other sources of renewable energy in Australia. Australia is one of the largest consumers of coal per capita, and also the largest exporter. The proposals are strongly opposed by industry, unions and the main Opposition Party in Parliament (now forming the party in government after the September 2013 election).
This section needs to be updated.(February 2021)
In October 2007, the Clark Labour government introduced a 10 year moratorium on new fossil fuel thermal power generation. The ban was limited to state-owned utilities, although an extension to the private sector was considered. The new government under MP John Key (NZNP) elected in November 2008 repealed this legislation.
In 2014, almost 80 percent of the electricity produced in New Zealand was from sustainable energy. On 6 August 2015, Genesis Energy Limited announced that it would close its two last coal-fired power stations.
- "Coal Phase Out". climateanalytics.org. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- "How to accelerate the energy transition in developing countries". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
- "Emissions – Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2019 – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- Jessop, Susanna Twidale, Sinead Cruise, Simon (5 December 2019). "Big European banks face call to end funding for firms building coal-fired plants". Reuters. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- Rauner, Sebastian; Bauer, Nico; Dirnaichner, Alois; Dingenen, Rita Van; Mutel, Chris; Luderer, Gunnar (23 March 2020). "Coal-exit health and environmental damage reductions outweigh economic impacts". Nature Climate Change. 10 (4): 308–312. doi:10.1038/s41558-020-0728-x. ISSN 1758-6798. S2CID 214619069.
- Eco-Business. "How to replace coal power with renewables in developing countries". Eco-Business. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
- "G7 commits to end support for coal-fired power stations this year". euronews. 21 May 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Power Plants Rated Worldwide". Sciencedaily.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 December 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Webster, Ben (6 April 2010). "Britain may block World Bank loan for coal plant in South Africa". The Times. London. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Rycroft, Mike (14 January 2016). "Solar water heater rollout programme gains momentum". Ee.co.za.
- Quigley, Joseph (4 February 2016). "Coal in Canada: A by-the-numbers look at the industry". CBC News. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "Canada plans to phase out coal-powered electricity by 2030". The Guardian. London, United Kingdom. 21 November 2016. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "Coal phaseout in Canada - Ex-colleagues helping miners' job transition". Balkan Green Energy News. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- Canada, Environment and Climate Change (24 November 2016). "Powering our future with clean electricity". aem. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- Canada, Natural Resources (6 October 2017). "electricity-facts". www.nrcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- "Ontario's Coal Phase-out Will Have Drastic Consequences, Say The Thinking Companies". www.businesswire.com. 16 February 2005. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "Nanticoke plant is province's biggest polluter, study finds". Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- Foran, Vanessa (19 January 2017). "Air is cleaner, Ontarians healthier since Ontario shut down coal". CNW Group on behalf of Asthma Society of Canada. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "Ont. Liberals promise to close coal plants by 2014". CTV News. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Ontario Power Authority, Long-Term Energy Plan 2013, module 3, 2014.
- "Creating Cleaner Air in Ontario". news.ontario.ca. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "Ontario Power Generation Moves to Cleaner Energy Future : Thunder Bay Station Burns Last Piece of Coal" (PDF). Opg.com. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- US Energy Information Administration, Primary energy consumption by source, accessed 5 April 2018
- "Electric Power Annual (Section 3.1A and 4.1)". US Energy Information Administration. October 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- Eco Concern: Coal Plant Boom Archived 14 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Keith Johnson in Washington, Rebecca Smith in San Francisco and Kris Maher in Pittsburgh (28 March 2012). "EPA Proposes CO". WSJ.
- Ernest Moritz, Excerpts of Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz’s Remarks at National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown, United States Department of Energy, 29 July 2013.
- April Lee and others, Opportunities for synergy between natural gas and renewable energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dec. 2012.
- John Funk, DOE boss says shale gas could benefit wind and solar, Cleveland Plain Dealer, 18 January 2012.
- US EIA, Natural gas-fired combustion turbines are generally used to meet peak electricity load, 1 October 2013.
- "SB 1368 Emission Performance Standards". Energy.ca.gov. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "California Takes on Power Plant Emissions: SB 1368 Sets Groundbreaking Greenhouse Gas Performance Standard," Natural Resources Defense Council Fact Sheet, August 2007.
- Rhonda Erskine, "Maine Governor Baldacci Signs Bill to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions,"[permanent dead link] WCSH WCSH6.com, 15 April 2008
- "Oregon lawmakers approve far-reaching climate change bill". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
- "Stop the Coal Rush" Rally & Lobby Day Set for February 11 & 12" Archived 30 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Sierra Club Lone Star Chapter.
- "StopTheCoalRush - Hot Rush in Marketing". stopthecoalrush.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008.
- "Text of HCR 43" (PDF).
- "Texas Legislature Online - 80(R) History for HCR 43". state.tx.us.
- Rep. Anderson press release Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 4 December 2007.
- Christina Russell, "Wallula Coal Plant Proposal Controversial Among Students, Faculty," Archived 21 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Whitman College Pioneer, 11/15/07
- "Progress Energy Carolinas Customer Service Phone Number, Reviews". Customerservicenumbers.com. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Progress Energy Carolinas sets goal of doubling efficiency savings to 2,000 MW," Progress Energy Inc press release, 1 June 2007.
- "Public Service Company of Colorado". Rmao.com. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Don't Get Burned: The Risks of Investing in New Coal-Fired Generating Facilities," Archived 30 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Synapse Energy Economics, 2008, p. 11 (PDF file)
- "Minnesota Power, an ALLETE Company - Home". Mnpower.com. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Welcome to Avista". avistautilities.com.
- "Home". northwesternenergy.com.
- "NorthWestern Energy Plans For More Wind; Says New Coal is Too Risky," Archived 23 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine Renewable Northwest Project, 12/17/07.
- "EERE News: Georgia Power Wins Approval to Switch Coal Plant to Biomass Power". energy.gov.
- "China generated over half world's coal-fired power in 2020: study". Reuters. 28 March 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
China generated 53% of the world’s total coal-fired power in 2020, nine percentage points more that five years earlier
- "China generated half of global coal power in 2020: study". Deutsche Welle. 29 March 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
new coal-fired power installations reached 38.4 GW in 2020. That's more than three times the amount built by the rest of the world
- "China 2050: A Fully Developed Rich Zero-Carbon Economy" (PDF). Retrieved 6 January 2020.
- "Why is the smog in China so bad?". popsci.com. 18 March 2019.
- "China's Beijing city to abolish coal-fired power plants by end 2014 - Electric Power - Platts News Article & Story". Platts.com.
- "PRIS - Country Details". Iaea.org. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
- Carrington, Damian (25 July 2016). "China's coal peak hailed as turning point in climate change battle". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus (25 July 2016). "China's post-coal growth" (PDF). Nature Geoscience. 9 (8): 564–566. Bibcode:2016NatGe...9..564Q. doi:10.1038/ngeo2777.
- Bureau, Our (15 May 2015). "Thermal coal imports will stop by 2017: Goyal".
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Alister Doyle, "Global coal power plans fall in 2016, led by China, India: study," Reuters, 6 September 2016
- "India won't need extra power plants for next three years, says government report", The Economic Times, 2 June 2016
- "Lafargeholcim - Geocycle secures biomass needs from local farmers in India". Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "New IEA Report: Renewable Energy for Industry". Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Japan’s fossil-fueled generation remains high because of continuing nuclear plant outages", US Energy Information Administration, 15 March 2013.
- Babs McHugh, "Japan plans to build 45 coal power plants in next decade," Platts, 3 February 2017.
- Reuters Staff (2 July 2020). "Japan to shut or mothball 100 ageing coal-fired power plants: Yomiuri". Reuters. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
- Gutmann, Kathrin; Huscher, Julia; Urbaniak, Darek; White, Adam; Schaible, Christian; Bricke, Mona (July 2014). Europe's dirty 30: how the EU's coal-fired power plants are undermining its climate efforts (PDF). Brussels, Belgium: CAN Europe, WWF European Policy Office, HEAL, the EEB, and Climate-Alliance Germany. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "Wind is now the largest power source in Iowa and Kansas - Electrek". Electrek. 20 April 2020.
- "Belgium says goodbye to coal power use..." Caneurope. 5 April 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Finland approves ban on coal for energy use from 2029". Reuters. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- Morgan, Sam. "Finland confirms coal exit ahead of schedule in 2029". Euractiv. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- Electricity generation - Energiateollisuus, retrieved 5 March 2021
- Finland co-founds a Powering Past Coal alliance in Bonn Climate Conference, retrieved 5 March 2021
- POWERING PAST COAL ALLIANCE: DECLARATION (PDF), retrieved 5 March 2021
- "France remains committed to 2022 coal phase-out". www.endseurope.com. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
- Felix, Bate (22 March 2019). "France's EDF in race to convert Cordemais plant from coal to biomass". Reuters. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
- "France's EDF closes a 580 MW coal-fired power unit in Le Havre | Enerdata". www.enerdata.net. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
- Agence France-Presse, "France bans fracking and oil extraction in all of its territories ", The Guardian, 20 December 2017 (page visited on 30 December 2017).
- (in French) "La France devient le premier pays à programmer la fin des hydrocarbures", Radio télévision suisse, 30 December 2017 (page visited on 30 December 2017).
- Frondel, Manuel; Kambeck, Rainer; Schmidt, Christoph M (2007). "Hard coal subsidies: a never-ending story?" (PDF). Energy Policy. 35 (7): 3807–3814. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2007.01.019. hdl:10419/18604.
- "Germany to shut down coal mines in 2018". Forbes. 30 January 2007.[dead link]
- "End of an Industrial Era: Germany to Close its Coal Mines". Spiegel Online. 30 January 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "German plan to close coal mines". BBC News. 29 January 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Breaking News, World News & Multimedia". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- "The World From Berlin: Good Riddance to Coal Mining". Spiegel Online. 30 January 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Germany stays firm on plan to scrap coal subsidies in 2018". Dw.com. Deutsche Welle. 17 November 2010.
- "Germany targets 47% Renewable Energy Production by 2020". Rncos.com. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "The demise of coal in Germany and globally". 15 October 2015. Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2015 (PDF). London, UK: BP. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- Jungjohann, Arne; Morris, Craig (June 2014). The German coal conundrum (PDF). Washington, DC, US: Heinrich Böll Stiftung. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- "EU Commission Approves State Aid for Closure of Lignite-Fired Power Plants". German Energy Blog. 31 May 2016. Archived from the original on 2 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "IEEFA Europe: Blueprint for a Lignite Phase-Out in Germany". Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis. 22 September 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
- Wynn, Gerard; Julve, Javier (September 2016). A Foundation-Based Framework for Phasing Out German Lignite in Lausitz (PDF). Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA). Retrieved 23 September 2016.
- "Utility to shut down five coal plants". Clean Energy Wire (CLEW). Berlin, Germany. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- "Steag: Energiekonzern schaltet fünf Kohlekraftwerke ab" [Steag: Energy corporation switches off five coal-fired power plants]. Handelsblatt (in German). Düsseldorf, Germany. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- "Coal exit is in the Climate Action Plan". Clean Energy Wire (CLEW). Berlin, Germany. 21 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- Götze, Susanne; Schwarz, Susanne (21 November 2016). "Kohleausstieg steht im Klimaschutzplan" [Coal exit is in the Climate Action Plan]. klimaretter.info (in German). Berlin, Germany. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- Smith-Spark, Laura. "Hambach Forest clearance halted by German court". CNN. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
- Kirschbaum, Erik (26 January 2019). "Germany to close all 84 of its coal-fired power plants, will rely primarily on renewable energy". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
Germany, one of the world’s biggest consumers of coal, will shut down all 84 of its coal-fired power plants over the next 19 years to meet its international commitments in the fight against climate change, a government commission said Saturday.
- Solomon, Erika. "Environmentalists on back foot as Germany's newest coal plant opens". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- "Climate activists protest Germany's new Datteln 4 coal power plant". Detsche Welle. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- "Enel lines up three Italian coal closures for early 2021 | S&P Global Platts". 9 September 2020.
- "Italy: Enel lines up three Italian coal closures for early 2021". 14 September 2020.
- Neslen, Arthur (23 September 2016). "Dutch parliament votes to close down country's coal industry". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
- "Vattenfall's last coal power plant in the Netherlands is closing". Vattenfall. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "State aid: Commission approves compensation for early closure of coal fired power plant in the Netherlands". European Commission - European Commission. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- "Portugal on track to become coal-free by year end". 15 January 2021.
- theguardian.com 26. October 2018: Spain to close most coal mines after striking €250m deal
- "Mälarenergi ska vara fossilfritt 2020". www.energinyheter.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "Kolet ska bort från Värtaverket 2022". Mitt i Stockholm (in Swedish). Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "E.ON fasar ut fossilt och investerar flera hundra miljoner i nytt värmeverk i Norrköping". Bioenergitidningen (in Swedish). 26 March 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- Radio, Sveriges. "Mälarenergi har slutat elda kol - P4 Västmanland". sverigesradio.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 September 2019.
- Andersson, Anna (2020). "Det koleldade kraftvärmeverket KVV6 vid Värtaverket har varit i drift och levererat värme och el till stockholmarna sedan 1989. Nu stängs det. - Stockholm Exergi". www.stockholmexergi.se (in Swedish).
- "Sweden starts construction on fossil fuel-free steel plant". Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "UK coal phase-out date pulled forward, as latest stats show emissions fell again last year". www.businessgreen.com. 4 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- "End of coal power to be brought forward in drive towards net zero". GOV.UK. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- "UK coal plants must close by 2025, Amber Rudd announces".
- "Longannet switch-off ends coal-fired power production in Scotland". 24 March 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- Clowes, Ed (11 December 2019). "Wales' last coal power plant to go dark on Friday". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- Evans, Simon (10 February 2016). "Countdown to 2025: Tracking the UK coal phase out". Carbon Brief. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Australian Options Magazine, CFMEU on coal phase out Archived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "New Zealand issues ten-year ban on new thermal power plants". Power-Gen Worldwide. PennWell Corporation. 11 October 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "New Zealand will shut down its last large coal-fired power generators in 2018". Sciencealert.com. 10 August 2015.
- "Market release: GNE announces timetable to end coal-fired generation in New Zealand" (PDF).
- "Beyond Coal". sierraclub.org.