The Co-operative Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom supporting co-operative values and principles. Established in 1917, the Co-operative Party was founded by co-operative societies to politically campaign for the fairer treatment of co-operative enterprise and to elect co-operators to Parliament. The Party’s roots lie in the Parliamentary Committee of the Co-operative Union established in 1881.
|General Secretary||Claire McCarthy|
|Founded||17 October 1917|
65 St John Street|
London, EC1M 4AN
|Youth wing||Co-operative Party Youth|
|Membership (December 2016)||10,127 |
|National affiliation||Labour and Co-operative Party|
|House of Commons||
37 / 650
|House of Lords||
14 / 793
7 / 25
1,500 / 20,565
|Police & Crime Commissioners||
1 / 41
7 / 129
|National Assembly for Wales||
11 / 60
|Northern Ireland Assembly||
0 / 90
Since 1927, the Co-operative Party has had an electoral pact with the Labour Party, with both parties agreeing not to stand candidates against each other. Instead, candidates selected by members of both parties contest elections using the description of Labour and Co-operative Party. The Co-operative Party is a legally separate entity from the Labour Party, and is registered as a political party with the Electoral Commission. Co-operative Party members are not permitted to be members of any other political party in the UK apart from the Labour Party and the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) in Northern Ireland.
The Co-operative Party is arguably the third-largest party in the House of Commons with 37 Members of Parliament, although as all of its MPs sit in the Parliamentary Labour Party, this distinction is seldom made. It also has representatives in the House of Lords, Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, London Assembly and local government.
In keeping with its co-operative values and principles, the Co-operative Party does not have a leader like other political parties. Instead, Gareth Thomas serves as Chair of the National Executive Committee, Claire McCarthy as General Secretary, and Gavin Shuker as Chair of the Co-operative Party Group of Parliamentarians.
The Co-operative Party was formed in 1917 after being approved by the May Congress of the British co-operative movement held in Swansea. Since an electoral pact established in 1927, the party has stood joint candidates with the Labour Party. In 1938, a written constitution was adopted by the Co-operative Party which formalised links between the two parties, and in 1946 Co-operative candidates first stood in elections under the Labour Co-operative banner.
In its formative years, the Co-operative Party was almost exclusively concerned with the trading and commercial problems of the co-operative movement. Since the 1930s, it has widened its emphasis, using influence gained through strong links with the political and commercial left to spread what it sees as co-operative ethos and moral principles. The basic principles underpinning the party are to seek recognition for co-operative enterprises, recognition for the social economy, and to advance support for co-operatives and co-operation across Europe and the developing world. The party stands for a sustainable economy and society, a culture of citizenship and socially responsible business represented by the practice of retail and industrial co-operatives. The Co-operative Party seeks to advance its agenda through the Parliamentary Labour Party, with whom it shares common values.
Joint Parliamentary CommitteeEdit
The Joint Parliamentary Committee was set up in 1881 by The Co-operative Union. It was primarily a watchdog on parliamentary activities. Issues and legislation could be raised in the House of Commons only by lobbying sympathetic, usually Labour, MPs. As it was somewhat unsatisfactory to have to lobby MPs on each individual issue, motions were passed at the Co-operative Union Annual Congress urging direct parliamentary representation. However, for much of this early period societies would not commit funds.
First World WarEdit
At the start of the war, the many retail societies in the Co-operative movement grew in both membership and trade, in part because of their very public anti-profiteering stance. When conscription was introduced and food and fuel supplies restricted, these societies began to suffer. The movement was under-represented on the various governmental distribution committees and draft tribunals. Co-operatives received minimal supplies and even management were often drafted, whereas business opponents were able to have even clerks declared vital for the war effort. Societies were also required to pay excess profits tax, although their co-operative nature meant they made no profits.
A motion was tabled at the 1917 Congress held in Swansea by the Joint Parliamentary Committee and 104 retail societies, calling for direct representation at national and local government levels. The motion was passed by 1979 votes to 201.
Central Co-operative Parliamentary Representation CommitteeEdit
An Emergency Political Conference was held on 18 October 1917. As a result, the Central Co-operative Parliamentary Representation Committee was formed in 1917, with the objective of putting co-operators into the House of Commons. This was soon renamed the Co-operative Party. The first national secretary was Samuel Perry, later a Member of Parliament and the father of Fred Perry.
At first the party put forward its own candidates. The first was H. J. May, later Secretary of the International Co-operative Alliance, who was unsuccessful at the Prestwich by-election, January 1918. Ten then stood in the 1918 general election. One candidate met with success, Alfred Waterson, who became a Member of Parliament for the Kettering seat. Waterson took the Labour whip in Parliament. In 1919, 151 Co-operative Party councillors were elected at local level. Waterson retired from Parliament in 1922, but four new Co-operative MPs were elected that same year, including A.V. Alexander, all of whom took the Labour whip. Six were elected in 1923 and five in 1924.
However, since the 1927 Cheltenham Agreement, the party has had an electoral agreement with the Labour Party, which allows for a limited number of Labour Co-operative candidates. This means that the parties involved do not oppose each other. The agreement has been amended several times, most recently in 2003, which was made in the name of the Co-operative Party rather than the Co-operative Union. After the formal agreement, nine Labour Co-operative MPs were elected at the 1929 general election, and Alexander was made a cabinet minister. However, only one was returned at the 1931 election against the backdrop of a massive defeat for Labour.
The rise of the sister partyEdit
Labour's recovery as a credible party of government during World War II and the formal links and local affiliations brought by the 1927 agreement saw benefits electorally for the Co-operative Party. In 1945, 23 Labour Co-operative MPs were elected and two had high office in the Labour government – Alexander and Alfred Barnes, who had been chair of the Party.
But with Labour's fluctuating fortunes and the slow post-war decline of the co-operative movement, the Party saw its influence and standing fall. By 1983, another nadir for Labour fortunes, only eight Labour Co-operative MPs were elected.
However, in 1997, all 23 candidates won seats in Parliament and, after Labour assumed power, the Party gained its first members of the Cabinet since AV Alexander: Alun Michael 1998–99 (later First Minister for Wales) and Ed Balls 2007–2010. In 2001, only one candidate was defeated: Faye Tinnion, who had stood against the Leader of the Conservative Party, William Hague.
Organisation and structureEdit
At a local level, members are allocated to a branch which includes one or more local authority areas. Branches are organised into autonomous 'Society Party Councils', which normally includes one or more counties and are linked to a retail co-operative such as the Co-operative Group or Midcounties Co-operative.
Branches and party councils organise the Party's local activity including selecting candidates, campaigning and liaising with Constituency Labour Parties.
Funding and financeEdit
Most of the party's income comes from grants made by six of the largest retail co-operative societies and from members' fees. The Co-operative Group is a substantial funder of the party, but no funding is given by The Co-operative Bank since it split from the group in 2013. Local retail societies provide most funding for local party councils, which form the basis of members contact with the party. The party recognises several structures which exist without society support (voluntary parties) as being part of the whole. Subscriptions from members also support the party financially.
As a result of an electoral agreement with the Labour Party, "Labour and Co-operative Party" candidates receive financial help with election expenses from the Co-operative Party, including funding parliamentary candidates. There are other Labour MPs who are Co-operative Party members but are not sponsored. One of these was Gareth Thomas MP, chair of the Co-operative Party since 2001 and of the Co-operative Congress in 2003, who was invited to join the parliamentary group in 2003. Until the 1990s, the number of Labour Co-operative candidates was capped at 30. The party's capacity to support more than the previously agreed number is debatable as the prospects of non-sponsored members are not always unfavourable. The benefits of the agreement are twofold, Labour gaining candidates with lower election costs and the party gaining influence within a Labour movement.
The Co-operative Party has not registered a logo with the Electoral Commission for use on ballot papers. Following the passing of the Electoral Administration Act 2006, candidates standing under a joint description were unable to use any registered emblem. The law was amended in 2013 to allow the use of an emblem by candidates standing jointly for two parties; this allowed Labour and Co-operative Party candidates to use the registered Labour Party emblem in the 2015 general election.
The party holds an annual conference with delegates elected by their local members by local parties and societies. The inaugural conference was held in 1920 in Methodist Central Hall Westminster and the first annual conference in Preston in 1924. The 2006 conference was held in Sheffield in September. The 2007 conference, marking 90 years, was held at Central Hall, Westminster. The 2010 Conference, held in Cardiff included a reception hosted at the Welsh Assembly Building, the Senedd, marking the launch of the Party's Manifesto for the 2011 Welsh Assembly Election. In 2014, the Party's Annual Conference was held from 10–12 October at TUC Congress House in London.
The current General Secretary is Claire McCarthy, appointed in October 2015.
McCarthy succeeded Karin Christiansen (appointed 2012) who had been the first female in the position. Previous General Secretaries include Michael Stephenson (from June 2008; a former adviser to Tony Blair), Peter Hunt (from 1998), and Peter Clarke.
Chairs of the Co-operative PartyEdit
- 1918–1924 William Henry Watkins
- 1924–1945 Alfred Barnes MP
- 1945–1955 William Coldrick MP
- 1955–1957 Albert Ballard
- 1957–1965 James Peddie
- 1965–1972 Herbert Kemp CSD, JP
- 1972–1978 John Parkinson
- 1978–1982 Tom Turvey JP
- 1982–1989 Brian Hellowell
- 1989–1995 Jessie Carnegie
- 1995–1996 Peter Nurse
- 1996–2001 Jim Lee
- 2001–present Gareth Thomas MP
General Secretaries of the Co-operative PartyEdit
The modern party is the political arm of the wider British co-operative movement and membership of another co-operative enterprise is a requirement for candidates. Co-operative members who wish to stand for election must also be members of the Labour Party, and stand as Labour and Co-operative Party candidates.
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House of CommonsEdit
There are 37 Labour and Co-operative MPs in the House of Commons:
- Jon Ashworth (MP for Leicester South)
- Adrian Bailey (MP for West Bromwich West)
- Luciana Berger (MP for Liverpool, Wavertree)
- Tracy Brabin (MP for Batley and Spen)
- Stella Creasy (MP for Walthamstow)
- Geraint Davies (MP for Swansea West)
- Anneliese Dodds (MP for Oxford East)
- Stephen Doughty (MP for Cardiff South and Penarth)
- David Drew (MP for Stroud)
- Louise Ellman (MP for Liverpool, Riverside)
- Chris Evans (MP for Islwyn)
- Mike Gapes (MP for Ilford South)
- Preet Gill (MP for Birmingham, Edgbaston)
- Mark Hendrick (MP for Preston)
- Meg Hillier (MP for Hackney South and Shoreditch)
- Gerard Killen (MP for Rutherglen and Hamilton West)
- Chris Leslie (MP for Nottingham East)
- Seema Malhotra (MP for Feltham and Heston)
- Rachael Maskell (MP for York Central)
- Jim McMahon (MP for Oldham West and Royton)
- Alex Norris (MP for Nottingham North)
- Kate Osamor (MP for Edmonton)
- Luke Pollard (MP for Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport)
- Lucy Powell (MP for Manchester Central)
- Jo Platt (MP for Leigh)
- Steve Reed (MP for Croydon North)
- Christina Rees (MP for Neath)
- Jonathan Reynolds (MP for Stalybridge and Hyde)
- Lloyd Russell-Moyle (MP for Brighton, Kemptown)
- Barry Sheerman (MP for Huddersfield)
- Gavin Shuker (MP for Luton South)
- Gareth Snell (MP for Stoke on Trent Central)
- Alex Sobel (MP for Leeds North West)
- Paul Sweeney (MP for Glasgow North East)
- Gareth Thomas (MP for Harrow West)
- Anna Turley (MP for Redcar)
- Stephen Twigg (MP for Liverpool West Derby)
House of LordsEdit
There are fourteen Labour and Co-operative peers in the House of Lords:
- Lord Bassam of Brighton
- Lord Foulkes of Cumnock
- Baroness Hayter of Kentish Town
- Lord Hunt of Kings Heath
- Lord Kennedy of Southwark
- Lord Knight of Weymouth
- Lord McAvoy
- Lord Monks
- Lord Moonie
- Baroness Royall of Blaisdon
- Baroness Smith of Basildon
- Baroness Thornton
- Lord Tomlinson
- Lord Touhig
- Lord Davies of Coity
on leave of absence since 20 February 2018)
- Lord Graham of Edmonton
(on leave of absence since 5 September 2017)
National Assembly for WalesEdit
- Mick Antoniw (AM for Pontypridd)
- Alun Davies (AM for Blaenau Gwent)
- Rebecca Evans (AM for Mid and West Wales)
- Vaughan Gething (AM for Cardiff South and Penarth)
- John Griffiths (AM for Newport East)
- Huw Irranca-Davies (AM for Ogmore)
- Ann Jones (AM for Vale of Clwyd)
- Jeremy Miles (AM for Neath)
- Lynne Neagle (AM for Torfaen)
- Rhianon Passmore (AM for Islwyn)
- Lee Waters (AM for Llanelli)
- Claudia Beamish (MSP for South of Scotland)
- Neil Bibby (MSP for West of Scotland)
- Kezia Dugdale (MSP for Lothian)
- Rhoda Grant (MSP for Highlands and Islands)
- James Kelly (MSP for Glasgow)
- Johann Lamont (MSP for Glasgow)
- David Stewart (MSP for Highlands and Islands)
- Jennette Arnold (AM for North East London)
- Leonie Cooper (AM for Merton and Wandsworth)
- Andrew Dismore (AM for Barnet and Camden)
- Len Duvall (AM for Greenwich and Lewisham)
- Florence Eshalomi (AM for Lambeth and Southwark)
- Nicky Gavron (London-wide AM)
- Joanne McCartney (AM for Enfield and Haringey)
Police and Crime CommissionersEdit
Northern Ireland AssemblyEdit
The Co-operative party is affiliated with the Labour Party in Northern Ireland. Labour and SDLP members are permitted to join the party, but does not currently have any representation in the assembly.
- Co-operative Party Annual Report 2016. The Co-operative Party. 2016. p. 28.
- "National Agreement between the Labour Party and the Co-operative Party (2003)" (PDF).
- "Overview of donations and loans reported in 2013". Donations and loans to political parties. The Electoral Commission. (Registration required (. ))
- James C. Docherty; Peter Lamb (2006). Historical Dictionary of Socialism. Scarecrow Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-8108-6477-1.
- Arthur Birnie (2013). An Economic History of the British Isles. Routledge. p. 367. ISBN 978-1-136-58979-9.
- David Marsh (2013). The Changing Social Structure of England and Wales. Taylor & Francis. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-136-24163-5.
- Simon Hall (1999). The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History. Taylor & Francis. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-57958-107-7.
- Rosen, Greg (2007). "Serving the People: Co-operative Party History from Fred Perry to Gordon Brown". Co-operative Party. ISBN 978-0-9549161-4-5.
- "Rules for a Society Party Council" (PDF). The Co-operative Party. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "Co-op Group to continue funding political parties". BBC News. 16 May 2015.
- "City Council Candidates condemn electoral mix-up". The Cambridge Student Online. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- "Electoral Registration and Administration Act 2013 Part 2 Section 20". Electoral Registration and Administration Act 2013. London. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Gareth Thomas (22 October 2015). "Claire McCarthy appointed General Secretary". Co-operative Party. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Michael Stephenson is new General Secretary". Co-operative Party. 5 June 2008.
- "Members of Parliament".
- "Members of the House of Lords".
- "Members of the Welsh Assembly".
- "Members of the Scottish Assembly".
- "Members of the London Assembly".
- "Alun Michael".
- "Northern Ireland".
- Consumers in politics, a history and general review of the Co-operative Party (1969), Thomas F. Carbery, Manchester U.P.