Clifton College is a co-educational independent school in the suburb of Clifton in the city of Bristol in South West England, founded in 1862. In its early years it was notable (compared with most public schools of the time) for emphasising science rather than classics in the curriculum, and for being less concerned with social elitism, e.g. by admitting day-boys on equal terms and providing a dedicated boarding house for Jewish boys, called Polack's House. Having linked its General Studies classes with Badminton School, it admitted girls to the Sixth Form in 1987 and is now fully coeducational. Polack's House closed in 2005 but a scholarship fund open to Jewish candidates still exists. Clifton is one of the original 26 English public schools as defined by the Public Schools Yearbook of 1889.
Clifton College crest
Independent boarding and day school
|Motto||Latin: Spiritus Intus Alit|
The spirit nourishes within
|Department for Education URN||109334 Tables|
|Head of College||Dr Tim Greene|
|Age||2 to 18|
|Houses||12 (in the Upper School)|
|Colour(s)||Blue, Green, Navy|
|Former pupils||Old Cliftonians|
The school was also the headquarters of the US army in Britain during part of the Second World War. General Omar Bradley used the school's buildings as a staff office from October to November 1944.
Clifton College is one of the few schools in the UK to have educated several Nobel laureates: Sir John Kendrew, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1962; Sir John Hicks, winner of the 1972 Nobel Prize in Economics; and Sir Nevill Francis Mott, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1977.
The school takes boys and girls aged between 13 and 18. It has its own preparatory school, Clifton College Preparatory School (known as the 'Pre'), for children from 8 to 13 which adjoins the school and shares many of the same facilities; there is also a pre-preparatory school for younger children aged 3 to 8 called Butcombe. To distinguish it from the junior schools, Clifton College proper is referred to as the 'Upper School'.
There are around 720 children in the Upper School of whom about a third are girls. At the start of the 2004 – 2005 school year, a new boarding/day house for girls (Hallward's House) was opened.
In 2005, the school was one of fifty of the country's leading independent schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, exposed by The Times, which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents. Each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared.
World War IIEdit
During World War II the heavy bombing of Bristol caused the students to be evacuated to Bude. In February 1941 the buildings were used by the Royal Army Service Corps as an Officer Cadet Training Unit. In 1942 they were replaced by the United States Army who established it as the headquarters of V Corps and then the First Army. Staff were involved in preparations for the Normandy landings under General Omar Bradley. After D-Day the college was taken over as headquarters of the Ninth Army under General William Hood Simpson.
To enable rapid travel and communications between the headquarters and dispersed units extensive use was made of light aircraft for travel. Some flights used Filton Airfield and others Whitchurch, however the majority were from the college's playing fields at Beggars Bush Field, between the college and Leigh Woods, which was turned into an airfield.
Before 1987, Clifton was a boys-only school with seven boarding houses (School House, Brown's, Watson's, Dakyns', Oakeley's, Wiseman's, Polack's) and three day-houses (East Town, North Town and The South Town). In each of the current seven boarding Houses (four for boys, three for girls) live the Housemaster or Housemistress and family, an Assistant and the Matron. In addition, each House has up to four non-residential Tutors. Also, pupils wear ties with different coloured stripes according to their house membership; which are also the colours of the jerseys the pupils wear to distinguish between houses in inter-house sporting events.
There are 12 houses currently in the Upper School of Clifton College, which have an order of precedence based on the date of their foundation; it is traditional that day-pupil only houses are known as "Towns" and any house that admits boarders "Houses". There are also houses in Clifton College Preparatory School that are not listed below.
|School House||Black/Red||Latin: Spes Ancora Vitae
Hope is the anchor of life
|Moberly's House||Red-Purple/Blue/White||Latin: Stet fortuna domus
May fortune attend those who dwell here
|Oakeley's House||Black/White||Latin: Floruit Floret Floreat
It has flourished, it is flourishing, may it flourish
|F (M until 1986)||Boarding|
|Wiseman's House||Black/Purple||Latin: Nec tenui ferar penna
On no feeble wing shall I be borne
|Watson's House||Pale Blue/Black||Latin: Fratres in Unum
|North Town||Dark Blue/Black/White||Latin: Vestigia Nulla Retrorsum
Always go forward in life
|The South Town||Black/Green||Latin: Vis Unita Fortior
Together we are stronger
|East Town||Black/Yellow/Orange||Latin: Sol Semper Resurgit
The sun always rises again
|Worcester House||Black/Green/White||Latin: Possunt quia posse videntur
They can because they think they can
|West Town||Black/Pink||Latin: A posse ad esse
From the possible to the actual
|Hallward's House||Black/Purple/Green||Latin: Si vobis confiditis, mundus vobis erit
Believe in yourself and the world is yours
|F||Day with Sixth Form Boarding|
Holland's house, a girls day house, was made in 2017 with colours white, pink and navy.
Several other houses have existed during the school's history. In WW2, while the school was evacuated to Bude, United House (UH) was created from pupils of houses placed in temporary abeyance. Dakyns' House and Brown's House were closed in 1993, and Polack's House, which took Jewish boys only, was closed in 2005. These are listed below:
|Dakyns' House||White-Pink-White (tie)
|Strike Dakyns, The Devil's in the Hemp||M||Boarding||1993|
|Brown's House||Black/Yellow||Greek: Arche Andra Deixei
Authority reveals the man
|Polack's House||Black/Red/White||Latin: Vires acquirit eundo
We gather strength as we go
In the decades after the school's foundation, with the exception of School House, the Houses were named after the Housemaster at the time, but in the late 19th century this pattern was abandoned, and all Houses reverted to the name of their first Housemaster. This nomenclature convention was not however used for Hallward's House (founded in 2004 and named after a former Headmaster, Bertrand Hallward, nor for Worcester House (the second girl's house, founded in 1989 and named after the road in which it is situated). When Dakyns' House and Brown's House were merged in September 1993, the original suggestion was to name the new establishment "Dakyns-Brown's House", but following a suggestion from a pupil, the name "Moberly's House" was chosen, commemorating the only teacher who had been involved in both of the antecedent establishments (as Housemaster of both Dakyns' and House Tutor of Brown's).
Buildings and groundsEdit
The first school buildingsEdit
The college buildings were designed by the architect Charles Hansom (the brother of Joseph Hansom); his first design was for Big School and a proposed dining hall. Only the former was built and a small extra short wing was added in 1866 – this is what now contains the Marshal's office and the new staircase into Big School. It has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II listed building.
Hansom was called back in the 1870s and asked to design what is now the Percival Library and the open-cloister classrooms. This project was largely completed by 1875 – although the Wilson Tower was not built until 1890 (grade II listed). Other buildings were added as follows:
- By 1875, Brown's, Dakyns' and Oakley's had been opened along with what is now 32 College Road – originally this functioned as accommodation for bachelor masters
- Three fives courts (1864)
- The original sanitorium (1865)
- Gymnasium (1867)
- Two swimming pools (1869)
- An open rackets court (1872)
- The present workshop (1873)
- The Chapel (1867); this was built to Charles Hansom's original design, but was moved from the intended site (which is now the gym). As built, the Chapel was a narrow aisleless building, and just the width of its present west end. It was the gift of the widow of Canon Guthrie. Hansom was given permission "to quarry sufficient stone from the college grounds for the purposes of the Chapel building".
The Chapel building was licensed by the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol in 1867. It is now grade II* listed.
The school's present buildings have evolved in various phases.
In early Percival years, the nucleus of the school buildings was laid down.
In 1880, the school's East Wing was completed as far as the staircase (this had yet to be linked to the library by the Wilson Tower) and added a science lecture-room (which is the reason for the curious 'stepped' windows), a laboratory and several classrooms. In 1886, a porters' lodge and what is now the staff common room were added by enlarging what had been the original science school. On the ground floor was the school tuck-shop and above this (in what is now the Upper Common Room) was a drawing-school. The day boys were provided for in Town Rooms for both North and South Town. The East Wing was then completed by carrying it beyond the staircase and then creating an additional classroom at each end. The ground-floor classroom (then Room 12) is now known as the "Newbolt Room" and has been furnished by the Old Cliftonian Society, which still uses it for reunions. Between 1890 and the start of the First World War, the new Music School (1897) was added and the Chapel rebuilt (1910).
Dr John King, whose headmastership spanned the war years, had little scope for building after 1914, but he did oversee the development of the playing fields at Beggar's Bush, the building of the Memorial Arch, the neo-classical cricket pavilion and the opening of the new Sanitorium in Worcester Road. On 3 December 1918, the former headmaster John Percival died and was buried in the vault of the school Chapel. In 1921, a special memorial chapel was created and consecrated about his tomb. Norman Whatley was the headmaster between 1923 and 1938; his tenure saw the building of the Science School (on the site of the previous Junior School) and the opening of the Preparatory School. Also at this time, the school acquired Hugh Ray Easton's new east windows. The windows also contain a curiosity: beneath the representation of the heavenly Jerusalem is depicted a game of cricket on the Close – with one of Whatley's sons taking part. In 1965–1967, the theatre was built by the architects Whicheloe and MacFarlane.
In 1982, on the site of the old swimming pools, the new Sports Hall, remedial gym and a new covered swimming pool were built; previously boys used the outdoor Victorian pool and its outdoor covered changing cubicles. The 1980s also saw the building of the Coulson Centre which links together two previously separate classroom blocks, at Muir and Birdwood houses. As a result of the improvements in modern medicine, the Sanitorium in Worcester Road was unnecessarily large for the school's needs, and so the old pre-1921 Sanatorium on the Close has been refitted to serve this purpose, whilst the Worcester Road sanitorium has been refitted as the headmaster's house.
More recently, in the latter 2000s, the Music School building in Guthrie Road was refurbished and extended.
At the side of College Road, opposite what was Dakyns' boarding house (now East Town and North Town), is the college's memorial arch designed by Charles Holden, which commemorates teachers and pupils who died in the two World Wars. Traditionally, the removal of headgear is expected when walking through the arch. There is also a school rule that states hands must be out of pockets when walking through the arch. It is now grade II listed. The college's buildings, mainly School House, were used as the main HQ where the D-Day landings were planned. The college played a major part in both World Wars; Field Marshal Douglas Haig was an Old Cliftonian who went on to command the British armed forces in the First World War. Through the memorial arch and in front of School House is a life-size statue of Haig. At the edge of the quad is a memorial to those killed in the South African Wars.
The college sporting facilities include:
- Close Pavilion
- 20 acres (81,000 m2) of local playing fields including the Close and College fields
- 80 acres (32 ha) of playing fields at Clifton College Sports Ground (Begger's Bush Lane) which includes:
- Four Fives courts
- Indoor heated swimming pool
- New pavilion
- On-campus cricket nets
- One 3G Football pitch
- One Olympic standard 4G hockey pitch
- Rackets court
- Real tennis court
- Seven on-campus tennis courts
- Twenty four tennis courts (including some under cover of the dome or 'bubble')
- Two Astroturf hockey pitches
- Two indoor gyms
The college ground, known as the Close, played a role in the history of cricket and witnessed 13 of W G Grace's first-class hundreds for Gloucestershire in the County Championship. Grace's children attended the college.
The Close featured in the poem by O.C. Sir Henry Newbolt – Vitaї Lampada
- There's a breathless hush in the Close to-night
- Ten to make and the match to win
- A bumping pitch and a blinding light,
- An hour to play, and the last man in.
- And it's not for the sake of a ribboned coat.
- Or the selfish hope of a season's fame,
- But his captain's hand on his shoulder smote
- "Play up! Play up! And play the game!"
- The sand of the desert is sodden red –
- Red with the wreck of the square that broke
- The gatling's jammed and the colonel dead,
- And the regiment blind with dust and smoke.
- The river of death has brimmed its banks,
- And England's far, and Honour a name,
- But the voice of a schoolboy rallies the ranks –
- "Play up! Play up! And play the game!"
- This is the word that year by year,
- While in her place the school is set,
- Every one of her sons must hear,
- And none that hears it dare forget.
- This they all with a joyful mind
- Bear through life like a torch in flame,
- And falling fling to the host behind –
- "Play up! Play up! And play the game!"
Clifton College was one of the original 8 "Lord's Schools", who were entitled to play fixtures at Lord's against each other. These matches were Clifton v Tonbridge, Rugby v Marlborough, Cheltenham v Haileybury, and Eton v Harrow. The Clifton v Tonbridge fixture at Lord's was first played in 1914, but ceased to be played in the 1960s, along with most other Lord's Schools matches. Today, only Eton v Harrow continues to take place at Lord's. A centenary match took place in June 2014 to commemorate the anniversary of the first playing of this match.
On one of the college's cricket pitches, now known as Collins' Piece, what was for 116 years the highest-ever cricket score was reached in June 1899, in the inter-house match between Clark's House and North Town. In this match A. E. J. Collins, killed in the First World War, scored 628 not out, but not under the current rules of the game. The record was surpassed in January 2016 by 15-year-old Pranav Dhanawade of Mumbai, India, with a score of 1,009 in a schools' match. Collins was not the first Clifton schoolboy to hold this record: in 1868, Edward Tylecote, who went on to help England reclaim the Ashes in 1882–83, was a previous holder, with 404 not out in a game between Classicals and Moderns. Collins' achievement is commemorated on a small plaque on the side of the ceramics building.
A number of famous cricketers are Clifton alumni. A fuller entry can be found under the List of Old Cliftonians, and includes:
- W. G. Grace junior, son of W. G. Grace, Gloucestershire and MCC cricketer.
- Sir Kingsmill Key, Bt., captain of Surrey, MCC and England cricketer.
- John Daniell, captain of Somerset, England rugby international
- Basil Allen, cricketer, Gloucestershire captain
- Edwin Field, Middlesex cricketer, England rugby international
- James Kirtley, England cricketer
- Matt Windows, Gloucestershire cricketer and England 'A' cap.
- Edward Tylecote, England cricketer
- George Whitehead, England cricketer
- Charlie Townsend, England cricketer
- Dr. Edward Scott, Gloucestershire & MCC cricketer, England rugby international (captain).
- James Bush Gloucestershire cricketer, England rugby international
- Robert Edwin Bush Gloucestershire cricketer
- William Brain, English cricketer and footballer
- Archibald Fargus, English cricketer, scholar, clergyman
- Lothian Bonham-Carter, English cricketer, Justice of the Peace and soldier
The college employs a master called "The Marshal", whose sole job is to enforce discipline, attendance at classes and other school rules (such as dress code, drinking, smoking and hair length) along with the general maintenance of safety of the pupils at the College. Many public houses near the school had photos of the Marshal, who was permanently banned so as not to discourage the attendance of pupils who were regular patrons. The current Marshal is Christopher Hughes who took his position in the term starting September 2010. The previous Marshal was Major Paul Simcox MBE. By tradition, a Marshal's name is not added to the plaque listing the names of the school's Marshals until after his death.
Clifton has chapel services and a focus on Christianity, but for 125 years there was also a Jewish boarding house (Polack's), complete with kosher dining facilities and synagogue for boys in the Upper School. This was the last of its kind in Europe. However, at the end of the 2004–05 school year, the Polack's trust announced that Polack's House would be closed due to the low numbers of boys in the house (although many pupils were turned down subsequently).
The school chapel was the inspiration behind Newbolt's poem Clifton Chapel, which starts:
- This is the Chapel: here, my son,
- Your father thought the thoughts of youth,
- And heard the words that one by one
- The touch of Life has turn'd to truth.
- Here in a day that is not far,
- You too may speak with noble ghosts
- Of manhood and the vows of war
- You made before the Lord of Hosts.
The words of this poem were recently used as the lyrics for a new hymn in the college hymn books that was written by James Hills, housemaster of The South Town and former director of music.
Clifton College has its own theatre, originally known as the Clifton College Theatre, but later renamed in honour of old-boy actor Michael Redgrave. The theatre was built in the 1960s and has a seating capacity of 323. As well as school productions, the venue hosts visiting small scale productions including many by the nearby Bristol Old Vic Theatre School.
Listed in order of appointment:
- 1862–1879 John Percival (Bishop of Hereford)
- 1879–1890 James Wilson
- 1891–1905 Michael George Glazebrook
- 1905–1910 Albert David (Bishop of Liverpool)
- 1910–1923 John Edward King
- 1923–1938 Norman Whatley
- 1938–1948 Bertrand Hallward
- 1948–1954 Henry Desmond Pritchard Lee
- 1954–1962 Nicholas Hammond
- 1963–1975 Stephen McWatters
- 1975–1990 Stuart Morrison Andrews
- 1990–2000 Andrew Hugh Monro
- 2000–2005 Stephen Spurr
- 2005–2015 Mark Moore
- 2015– Dr Tim Greene
Notable former mastersEdit
- Alexander Jones (1854–1878), former Wales footballer, killed in a shooting accident on a train while bringing a group of college cadets home from rifle practice.
- J. R. Eccles (1874–1956), an old boy who was a Physics master at Clifton, was later headmaster of Gresham’s
- J. L. Thorn, master at Clifton 1949 to 1961, later head of Repton and Winchester
- T. E. Brown, scholar, poet, and theologian
- R. P. Keigwin, Clifton housemaster, later Warden of Wills Hall
- James Gordon MacGregor, a science master 1877–1879
- Sir William McKie, Australian organist, Conductor, and composer
- Wilfrid Oldaker was Chaplain from 1931 to 1938, later headmaster of Christ Church Cathedral School
- Rt Revd David Stancliffe, later Bishop of Salisbury
- T. H. Stokoe, second master at Clifton, later head of Richmond Grammar School, Reading School, and King's College School.
- Sir Reginald Thatcher (1888–1975), composer and Principal of the Royal Academy of Music
Jonathan Thomson-Glover, a housemaster and former pupil, pleaded guilty to making covert films of children aged twelve to seventeen showering, changing, going to the toilet and conducting private acts, in the college itself and at an address in Cornwall. He was convicted at Taunton Crown Court and sentenced to three years and nine months' imprisonment after admitting to 36 counts of taking, making and possessing indecent images of children.
Clifton College subsequently commissioned an independent expert to undertake a thorough review of safeguarding at the school, culminating in a report which it published in full. The report contained a number of recommendations, all of which were then implemented. This, together with a complete change in the school’s leadership in 2016, led to a wholesale transformation in safeguarding culture and practices at the school.
The Old Cliftonian Society and the Clifton College RegisterEdit
The Old Cliftonian Society [OCS] is the Society for the alumni of Clifton College – whether pupils or staff. The OCS organises reunions at the school and publishes a newsletter for alumni. Alumni are known as Old Cliftonians or OCs.
The Register's motto:
- "There be of them, that have left a name behind them, that their praises might be reported..."
The Clifton College Register is the official set of records held for Clifton College in Bristol. The Register is kept and maintained by the Old Cliftonian Society.
These records have been maintained unbroken from the start of the school in 1862 and list every pupil, master and headmaster. Each person is allocated a school number – for masters and headmasters the number is prefixed with either an M or HM. The Register also maintains a record of the school roll in numbers, the Heads of School and summarises the major sporting records for each year.
The Register is published by the Old Cliftonian Society; there are three volumes:
- 1862 – 1947
- 1948 – 1977
- 1978 – 1994
First entries in the Register:-
- P1. September 1862 – Francis Charles Anderson (14 November 1846 – 1881)
- M1. September 1862 – Rev Dr T. H. Stokoe, educated at Uppingham; Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford; left 1863; Preacher of Gray's Inn; d 1903)
The early years
- Numbers of pupils in the school
- 1862 – 69
- 1863 – 195 (including the new junior school)
- 1864 – 237
- 1865 – 258
- 1866 – 278
- Heads of School
- 1862 – H. W. Wellesley
- 1863 – A. W. Paul
- John Roach. Secondary Education in England, 1870–1902. p. 145.
- Meriel Vlaeminke (2000). The English Higher Grade Schools. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-7130-0220-1.
- D. J. Martin (October 1999). "Review of Clifton after Percival by Derek Winterbottom (1990)" (PDF). p. 47. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2008.
- "Polack's House Educational Trust".
- "Clifton and World War II: Evacuation from Bristol and supporting the War Effort". Clifton College. 7 August 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
- Halpin, Tony (10 November 2005). "Independent schools face huge fines over cartel to fix fees". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
- The Office of Fair Trading: OFT names further trustees as part of the independent schools settlement Archived 10 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Wakefield, Ken (1994). Operation Bolero: The Americans in Bristol and the West Country 1942–45. Crecy Books. pp. 79–97. ISBN 0-947554-51-3.
- "School uniform" (PDF). Official school website. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- Moberly's House takes its precedence from its two antecedent houses, Dakyns' and Brown's, which were second and third most senior respectively before they were merged in 1993.
- "School house system". Archived from the original on 8 November 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- "Moberly's House Booklet" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
- Historic England. "Clifton College, Big School (1282342)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
- Historic England. "Clifton College, Percival Buildings and Wilson Tower (1202134)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
- Historic England. "Clifton College, Guthrie Memorial Chapel (1355185)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
- Burrough, THB (1970). Bristol. London: Studio Vista. ISBN 0-289-79804-3.
- Historic England. "Clifton College, Victory Arch (1202135)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
- Historic England. "Clifton College, Statue of Earl Haig (1298816)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
- Historic England. "Clifton College, South African War Memorial (1282343)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
- Tonbridge v Clifton at Lords. http://www.tonbridge-school.co.uk/news/sport/article/date/2014/06/watch-tonbridge-v-clifton-at-lords/ Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 27 August 2015
- "Extraordinary Cricket". Bristol Mercury. 24 June 1899. p. 8. Retrieved 26 March 2015 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Fells, Maurice (2014). The A-Z of Curious Bristol. History Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0750956055.
- George Whitehead Archived 10 July 2012 at Archive.today at cricinfo.com, accessed 25 November 2008
- "Redgrave Theatre". Theatre Bristol. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- "Redgrave Theatre". Clifton College. Archived from the original on 21 November 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- "Bristol Old Vic Theatre school – catch our shows". oldvic.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 24 October 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
- "Alexander Fletcher Jones: 1854–1878". Historic Redland. Redland Parish Church. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- S. G. G. Benson, Martin Crossley Evans, I Will Plant Me a Tree: an Illustrated History of Gresham's School (James & James, London, 2002), pp. 35-36
- "OLDAKER, Wilfrid Horace", in Crockford's Clerical Directory, Issue 81 (Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 919
- "Sir Reginald Sparshatt Thatcher - Person - National Portrait Gallery". www.npg.org.uk. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- Troup Buchanan, Rose (27 August 2015). "Ex-Clifton College teacher Jonathan Thomson-Glover jailed after admitting 36 counts of taking indecent images of more than 120 children". London: Independent. Archived from the original on 29 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- "Ex-Clifton College teacher jailed for secret filming at boarding school". BBC News Online. 27 August 2015. Archived from the original on 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- "Penny Jones Report" (PDF).
- "LADO evidence to IICSA" (PDF). p. 124.
- Clifton College Register 1862 – 1962 – Published by the Old Cliftonian Society
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clifton College.|