Client state

  (Redirected from Client king)

A client state, in international relations, is a state that is economically, politically, and/or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state (called "controlling state" in this article).[1] A client state may variously be described as satellite state, associated state, dominion, condominium, self-governing colony, neo-colony, protectorate, vassal state, puppet state, and tributary state.

Controlling states in historyEdit

Persia, Greece, and RomeEdit

Ancient states such as Persia and Parthia, Greek city-states, and Ancient Rome sometimes created client states by making the leaders of that state subservient, having to provide tribute and soldiers. Classical Athens, for example, forced weaker states into the Delian League and in some cases imposed democratic government on them. Later, Philip II of Macedon similarly imposed the League of Corinth. One of the most prolific users of client states was Republican Rome[2][3] which, instead of conquering and then absorbing into an empire, chose to make client states out of those it defeated (e.g. Demetrius of Pharos), a policy which was continued up until the 1st century BCE when it became the Roman Empire. Sometimes the client was not a former enemy but a pretender whom Rome helped, Herod the Great being a well-known example. The use of client states continued through the Middle Ages as the feudal system began to take hold.

Chinese dynastiesEdit

Ottoman EmpireEdit

Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire in 1590

The number of tributary or vassal states varied over time but notable were the Khanate of Crimea, Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania, Sharifate of Mecca and the Sultanate of Aceh.

19th and 20th centuriesEdit

Russian EmpireEdit

The Austro-Hungarian Empire tried to make Serbia a client state in order to form a Christian opposition to the Ottoman Empire, but after the 1903 May Coup, Serbia came under the influence of Russia, which was forming a pan-Eastern Orthodox opposition to the Latin Christianity represented by the Austro-Hungarian empire. In 1914, Russia repeatedly warned the Austro-Hungarian Empire against attacking Serbia. When it did attack, Russia mobilized its army.[4][5][6] Russia also wanted Bulgaria[7] and Montenegro[8] as client states.

At the time, Great Britain and Austria both considered Serbia as a client state controlled by Russia,[9] and most historians today might call Serbia a client state, but historian Christopher Clark, author of The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914, in a 2014 conference on the causes of World War I (“The Great War”), argues that Serbia was a “client state” only in the imaginations of Russia's leaders:

It was a risk enhancing initiative [of Russian Foreign Minister Serge Sazanov] to allow Serbia to become to see Serbia as a kind of client; ... Serbia, to my knowledge, has never been a client of anyone. […] This is a mistake, when Great Powers think they can secure the services of “client states”; That Those “clients” are never in fact “clients”! That’s a mistake that is presumably going to continue being made by our political leaderships, though one hopes one day it will stop.[10]

First French Empire and French RepublicEdit

First French Empire and French satellite states in 1812

During the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras (1789–1815), France conquered most of western Europe and established several client states.

At first, during the French revolutionary wars these states were erected as "Républiques soeurs" ("sister republics"). They were established in Italy (Cisalpine Republic in Northern Italy, Parthenopean Republic in Southern Italy), Greece (Îles Ioniennes), Switzerland (Helvetic Republic and Rhodanic Republic), Belgium and the Netherlands (Batavian Republic).

During the First French Empire, while Napoleon I and the French army conquered Europe, such states changed, and several new states were formed. The Italian republics were transformed into the Kingdom of Italy under Napoleon's direct rule in the north, and the Kingdom of Naples in the south, first under Joseph Bonaparte's rule and later under Marshal Joachim Murat. A third state was created in the Italian Peninsula, the Kingdom of Etruria. The Batavian Republic was replaced by the Kingdom of Holland, ruled by Napoleon's third brother, Louis Bonaparte.

A total of 35 German states, all of them allies of France, seceded from the Holy Roman Empire to create the Confederation of the Rhine, a client state created to provide a buffer between France and its two largest enemies to the east, Prussia and Austria. Two of those states were Napoleonic creations: the huge Kingdom of Westphalia, which was controlled by Jerome Bonaparte, the Emperor's youngest brother; and the Grand Duchy of Würzburg.

Following the French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain too was turned into a client Kingdom of Spain under Joseph Bonaparte; as was Poland, then the Duchy of Warsaw.

In the 20th century, France started to apply the concept of Françafrique, its name for its former African colonies,[11][12] sometimes extended to the former Belgian colonies. At present the term is used on some occasions to criticise the allegedly neocolonial relationship France has with its former colonies in Africa.

The countries involved provide oil and minerals important to the French economy. In addition, French companies have commercial interests in several countries of the continent.

British EmpireEdit

Map of the British Indian Empire. The princely states are in yellow.

In the British Empire the Indian Princely States were technically independent and were given their separate independence in 1947 (although the Nizam of Hyderabad indeed opted for independence but could not retain his independence from India). Egyptian Independence in 1922 ended a British protectorate in Egypt. Sudan continued to be governed as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan until Sudanese independence in 1956; Britain also had an interest in Egypt until the Suez Crisis was over. Iraq was made a kingdom in 1932. In each case the economic and military reality did not amount to full independence, but a status where the local rulers were British clients. Similarly in Africa (e.g. Northern Nigeria under Lord Lugard), and Malaya with the Federated Malay States and Unfederated Malay States; the policy of indirect rule.


After France was defeated in the Battle of France, Vichy France was established as a client state of Nazi Germany, which remained as such until 1942 when it was reduced to a puppet government until its liberation in 1944. Germany also established, in its newly conquered Eastern territories, client states including the Slovak Republic, the Croatian State and the Albanian Kingdom.

United States of AmericaEdit

The leaders of some of the SEATO nations hosted by Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos on 24 October 1966

The term has been applied to authoritarian regimes with close ties to the United States during the Cold War, also referred to as U.S. proxy states, such as South Vietnam, Indonesia (1967–1998) under the Suharto Regime, Iran until 1979, Cambodia under the regime of Lon Nol from 1970 to 1975, the Philippines under Ferdinand Marcos from 1965 to 1986,[13] and Saudi Arabia. U.S. - Iran relations under Mohammad Reza Shah (reigned 1941 to 1979) have been cited as a modern political-science case-study.[14]

The term has also been applied to states which are extremely economically dependent on a more powerful nation. The three Pacific Ocean countries associated with the United States under the Compact of Free Association (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau) have been called client states.

Imperial JapanEdit

Location of Manchukuo (red) within Imperial Japan's sphere of influence in 1939

In the late 19th century, the Japanese Empire gradually reduced Joseon Korea's status to that of a client state. In the early 20th century, this was converted to direct rule. Manchukuo, in contrast, remained a puppet state throughout World War II.

Soviet UnionEdit

Soviet proxy or "client" states included much of the Warsaw Pact nations whose policies were heavily influenced by Soviet military power and economic aid. Other third world nations with Marxist-Leninist governments were routinely criticized as being Soviet proxies as well, among them Cuba following the Cuban Revolution, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea,[20] the People's Republic of Angola, the People's Republic of Mozambique, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). Within the Soviet Union itself, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR, had seats at the United Nations, but were actually proper Soviet territory.

21st centuryEdit

Antigua and BarbudaEdit









These countries have to varying degrees been called client states of Iran.




New ZealandEdit




Saudi ArabiaEdit



United States of AmericaEdit

There are three Pacific Island states that are under the Compact of Free Association:

At various times,   NATO members have been referred to as American client states.[68]

Various other media have listed the following as client states of United States of America :[69][70][71][72]




In certain instances, particularly in defense, the   European Union has been described as a client state of the US.[128][129][130][131]



See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Michael Graham Fry, Erik Goldstein, Richard Langhorne. Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Continuum International Publishing, 2002. Pp. 9.
  2. ^ Rocca, Samuel (2008). Herod's Judaea. ISBN 9783161497179.
  3. ^ Collected studies: Alexander and his successors in Macedonia, by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond,1994,page 257,"to Demetrius of Pharos, whom she set up as a client king
  4. ^ Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Sazonov warned Austria in 1914 that Russia "Would respond militarily to any action against the client state." Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 (2012) p 481.
  5. ^ Thomas F. X. Noble; et al. (2010). Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries, Volume C: Since 1789. Cengage. p. 692. ISBN 978-1424069606.
  6. ^ Michael J. Lyons (2016). World War II: A Short History. Routledge. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9781315509440.
  7. ^ Barbara Jelavich (2004). Russia and the Formation of the Romanian National State, 1821-1878. Cambridge UP. p. 288. ISBN 9780521522519.
  8. ^ Clive Ponting (2002). Thirteen Days: The Road to the First World War. Chatto & Windus. p. 60. ISBN 9780701172930.
  9. ^ Henry Cowper (1990). World War One and Its Consequences. Open University Press. p. 209. ISBN 9780335093076.
  10. ^ "CIRSD Conference on WWI: Panel "What Kind of Failure?" - Prof. Christopher Clark" (Video), Center for International Relations and Sustainable Development, May 30, 2014, retrieved December 8, 2021 – via YouTube
  11. ^ "The French African Connection". Al Jazeera. April 7, 2014. Archived from the original on November 12, 2018. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  12. ^ Haski, Pierre (July 21, 2013). "The Return of Françafrique". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
  13. ^ "Imelda's Tears". The New Yorker. April 12, 1998.
  14. ^ Gasiorowski, Mark J. (1991). U.S. foreign policy and the Shah: building a client state in Iran. Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801424120. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  15. ^ Williams, Glen (1989). "6: Canada in the International Political Economy". In Clement, Wallace; Williams, Glen (eds.). The New Canadian Political Economy. Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 116, 130. ISBN 9780773506817. Retrieved 2018-09-19. The dependency school, dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s, argued that Canada is an economic colony with a client state. [...] while it might have been possible a decade ago to use a Latin American dependency model when describing Canada, because of its excessive degree of foreign ownership and 'American client state' status, both Canadian capitalists and the Canadian state have now 'come of age.'
  16. ^ "China grapples with preserving reminders of Japanese occupation". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  17. ^ "Transimperial Genealogies of Korea as a Protectorate: The Egypt Model in Japan's Politics of Colonial Comparison | Cross-Currents". Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  18. ^ "How Japan Took Control of Korea | HISTORY". Retrieved 2021-07-02.
  19. ^ "Japanese Rule Over Korea - A Liberation Day Korea History - Koryo Tours". Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  20. ^ a b Mizokami, Kyle (8 January 2016). "Why North Korea is betting big on nuclear weapons". The Week.
  21. ^ India, Press Trust of (2021-05-28). "Mehul Choksi case proving hot potato for Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica govts". Retrieved 2022-07-31.
  22. ^ (PDF) {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ "Estado Mayor Conjunto de las FFAA".
  25. ^ "Pacific correspondent Mike Field". Radio New Zealand. 18 June 2015.
  26. ^ "Chris Kenny visits Nauru as borders open up to allies". The Saturday Paper. 31 October 2015.
  27. ^ Wheeler, Tony; Wheeler, Maureen (2008). The Lonely Planet Story. ISBN 9781854584496.
  28. ^ Ben Doherty (28 October 2015). "This is Abyan's story, and it is Australia's story". The Guardian.
  29. ^ "'Opportunistic' Nauru not fit to sign refugee convention". Crikey. July 15, 2010.
  30. ^ "Nauru's former chief justice predicts legal break down". News.
  31. ^ "Data" (PDF). 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 10, 2015. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  32. ^ Ciorciari, John D. (2013). "China and Cambodia: Patron and Client?". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2280003. ISSN 1556-5068.
  33. ^ Jennings, Ralph (3 May 2017). "Impoverished Laos Shows Resistance To Becoming A Client State Of China". Forbes. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  34. ^ "China's Myanmar Problem". The Diplomat. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  35. ^ Novick, Rebecca (2010-10-05). "Is Nepal China's Client State?". HuffPost. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  36. ^ Lam, Dominic; O'Neil, Mark (21 August 2017). "(Commentary) North Korea is not a client state that China can control". The Standard. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  37. ^ Brautigam, Deborah (22 November 2017). "China and Zimbabwe: After Mugabe". China in Africa: The Real Story.
  38. ^ "Editorial | African solution: Threatened countries must fight off Boko Haram". October 20, 2015.
  39. ^ Yates, Douglas (2019). "The Dynastic Republic of Gabon". Cahiers d'études africaines (234): 483–513. doi:10.4000/etudesafricaines.25961. ISSN 0008-0055. S2CID 182502199.
  40. ^ Astier, Henri (8 November 2004). "France's Ivorian quagmire". BBC News.
  41. ^ Sohail, Esam (4 October 2016). "Bangladesh Just Became a Vassal State". The Diplomat.
  42. ^ Hashmi, Taj (18 June 2020). "Not Only in Ladakh, India Losing Ground in Bangladesh Too". South Asia Journal.
  43. ^ "India treating Bhutan as 'protectorate', says Chinese commentary". The Hindu. 5 August 2013.
  44. ^ "What Were China's Objectives in the Doklam Dispute?". RAND Corporation. 8 September 2017.
  45. ^ "Iraq is a Client State of Iran". International Policy Digest. 2017-11-09. Archived from the original on 2020-05-19. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  46. ^ Schanzer, Tony Badran and Jonathan (2019-09-18). "Opinion | Lebanon, Hezbollah and Iran's Emerging Client State". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  47. ^ "The future of Iran's presence in Syria/". Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  48. ^ Barfi, Barak (2016-01-24). "The Real Reason Why Iran Backs Syria". The National Interest. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  49. ^ "Saudi airstrikes in Yemen may have stopped, but the conflict rages on". Middle East Monitor. April 24, 2015.
  50. ^ "Dispatching P3C patrol aircraft to areas off Somalia marks new stage of SDF missions abroad". Retrieved 2021-07-08.
  51. ^ "自衛隊派遣支える「地位協定」 ジブチの法令適用されず". 日本経済新聞 (in Japanese). 2020-01-29. Retrieved 2022-06-24.
  52. ^ "日本は、自衛隊が駐留するジブチに「占領軍」のような不平等協定を強いている – 日刊SPA!" (in Japanese). 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2021-07-08.
  53. ^ "New Armenia Will Stay With Russia, If Reluctantly (Op-ed)". The Moscow Times. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
  54. ^ Foy, Henry; Shotter, James (6 January 2020). "Belarus and Russia ease tensions over oil supplies". Financial Times. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  55. ^ "Cooley: Kyrgyzstan is entering a new era as a Russian client state". 2014-09-19. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  56. ^ "With Massive Russian Military Aid, Is Kyrgyzstan Becoming A Client State?". Eurasianet. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  57. ^ Ginsburg, Tom (1995). "Political Reform in Mongolia: Between Russia and China". Asian Survey. 35 (5): 459–471. doi:10.2307/2645748. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2645748.
  58. ^ "Opinion | Putin already has at least one client regime in Central Europe". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  59. ^ Reid, Ernest A. (July 2021). "Third Rome or Potemkin village: Analyzing the Extent of Russia's Power in Serbia, 2012–2019". Nationalities Papers. 49 (4): 728–737. doi:10.1017/nps.2020.62. ISSN 0090-5992. S2CID 235085045.
  60. ^ Knight, Amy (2015-10-08). "Why Russia Needs Syria". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  61. ^ "Analysis: Despite Icy Relations With U.S., Could Putin End Syrian War?". NBC News. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  62. ^ DeYoung, Karen (2015-09-30). "Obama administration scrambles as Russia attempts to seize initiative in Syria". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  63. ^ Ben-Ami, Shlomo (2019-11-18). "Is Russia the Middle East's New Hegemon? | by Shlomo Ben-Ami". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  64. ^ "Former local U.S. Congressman Sweeney defends Russian bank work | The Daily Gazette". 5 October 2019. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  65. ^ Quinlan, Paul D. (2008). "A foot in both camps: Moldova and the Transnistrian conundrum from the Kozak memorandum". East European Quarterly. 42 (2).
  66. ^ Fisher, Max (2011-09-21). "Obama's UN Address and the Bahrain Exception". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  67. ^ "NATO's Rogue Member Meddles in Another Conflict". Cato Institute. September 29, 2020.
  68. ^ Hassan, Ghali (25 August 2008). "NATO: A Tool of U.S. Imperialism". Counter Currents.
  69. ^ a b Fisher, Max (2011-09-27). "The Decline of American Client States". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
  70. ^ Jegic, Denijal. "Trump's Kosovo-Serbia normalisation deal is all about Israel". Retrieved 2021-04-05.
  71. ^ a b Mason, Mark (2018-01-15). "'Pakistan Is a Fractured Client State of the US Empire, Afghanistan a US Colony'". Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  72. ^ "Why America keeps building corrupt client states". The Economist. 22 August 2021. Retrieved 2022-02-14.
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag[bare URL PDF]
  74. ^ "How the US Helped Build Egypt's Prison State". Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  75. ^ "After Nasser's Death Sadat Turned Egypt into a US Client State". The Real News Network. 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  76. ^ a b "Africa's client states". New African Magazine. 2018-06-01. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  77. ^ C., Johnathan (April 11, 1996). "U.S. COPTERS FERRY HUNDREDS OUT OF CHAOTIC LIBERIA". The New York Times.
  78. ^ Lieven, Anatol (2007-11-14). "A Tale of Two Client States". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 2021-03-03. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
  79. ^ "Opinion | Is Israel a vassal state now?". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  80. ^ "Israel Declared the 51st State of the United States". Haaretz. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  81. ^ Gittings, John (2007-09-12). "Contradictions of a client state". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  82. ^ Bustos, Loren; Cabacungan, Vanessa. "TIMELINE: Efforts to make the Philippines a US state". Rappler. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  83. ^ "U.S. 'liberators' turned South Korea into a neo-colony". Liberation News. 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2021-08-11.
  84. ^ Botto, Kathryn. "Why Doesn't South Korea Have Full Control Over Its Military?". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  85. ^ ""한국은 미국 식민지"...中기관지, 주한미군 음주사건 집중보도". 서울신문. Retrieved 2022-06-04.
  86. ^ "From Stolen Land to Riches: US Neo-Colonialism in South Korea". Hampton Institute. Retrieved 2022-05-28.
  87. ^ "Why US control of the South Korean military is here to stay". Retrieved 2022-05-31.
  88. ^ "Taiwan as a US Overseas Territory". Retrieved 2022-02-16.
  89. ^ Cernetig, Miro. "O say can you see...Taiwan?". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  90. ^ "Is Taiwan becoming just another US colony under Trump?". South China Morning Post. 2018-06-11. Retrieved 2022-02-16.
  91. ^ "What Europe has to do to avoid becoming a US vassal | World news | The Guardian". Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  92. ^ "Putin says US wants 'vassals' not allies - Dec. 15, 2011". KyivPost. 2011-12-15. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  93. ^ "България независима държава ли е, или американска колония? – Официален блог на Костадин Костадинов" (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  94. ^ "Postaju 51. američka država? Tri milijuna Amerikanaca koji služe vojsku, ali ne mogu birati predsjednika". Retrieved 2021-08-11.
  95. ^ "Z Česka udělal kolonii USA. Vedení KSČM podpořilo Filipův útok na Petříčka". (in Czech). 2020-05-18. Retrieved 2021-06-26.
  96. ^ "Denmark Becomes 51st State Every Fourth of July". Los Angeles Times. 1989-07-02. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
  97. ^ "Deutschland, Kolonie der USA – Die Weichen wurden in der unmittelbaren Nachkriegszeit gestellt". Westend Verlag GmbH (in German). 2018-04-12. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  98. ^ Κομνηνού, Ιωάννα (2019-03-18). "Η διαμόρφωση θρησκευτικών ταυτοτήτων σύμφωνα με τις αλλαγές του μοντέλου διδασκαλίας του μαθήματος των Θρησκευτικών στην Ελλάδα από το 2011 και μετά". Social Cohesion and Development. 13 (1): 33. doi:10.12681/scad.19874. ISSN 2459-4156.
  99. ^ a b Sylvan, David (2003-02-25). "An Agent-Based Model of the Acquisition of U.S. Client States" (PDF). The Continuity of Client States and Military Intervention.
  100. ^ Epochi, rizospastis gr | Synchroni (1999-08-10). " - Ιδού η αποικία σας..." ΡΙΖΟΣΠΑΣΤΗΣ. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  101. ^ Osnos, Peter (1983-07-11). "Iceland Guards Its Character Behind a Shield Of U.S. Sentinels". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-05-12.
  102. ^ "Bradanini, ex ambasciatore in Cina e Iran: "L'Italia è una colonia degli Usa"". Spazio Politico (in Italian). 2019-11-16. Retrieved 2021-12-18.
  103. ^ "L'Italia è una colonia USA". (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  104. ^ "Kosovo's America Obsession". Time. Retrieved 2022-02-16.
  105. ^ Leer-Salvesen, Tarjei. "– Norge er som en koloni!". Klassekampen. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  106. ^ SG (2019-11-21). "Polska stała się kolonią USA? Amerykańscy kongresmeni do Polaków: Chronimy was, więc nam za to płaćcie". NCZAS.COM (in Polish). Retrieved 2022-02-14.
  107. ^ searchnewsglobal (2013-11-01). "România este colonie americană" (in Romanian). Retrieved 2021-06-24.
  108. ^ "SLOVENSKO SA DNES STALO AMERICKOU KOLÓNIOU". (in Slovak). Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  109. ^ Zem, · AUTOR; Vek (2019-05-31). "Nie sme proeurópske Slovensko, ale americká kolónia - Zem&Vek". Zem&Vek - Alternatívne spravodajstvo (in Slovak). Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  110. ^ "Škandál! Minister zahraničných vecí USA sa vyjadruje o Slovensku ako o kolónii USA!". HLAVNÝ DENNÍK (in Slovak). 2021-02-26. Retrieved 2021-08-09.
  111. ^ Fenjan, Tamara. "– Sverige är en klientstat till USA". (in Swedish). Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  112. ^ Dubovyk, Volodymyr (2017-02-16). "Is Ukraine a "Client State" of the United States?". PonarsEuarasia - Policy Memos.
  113. ^ Media Matters Staff (23 February 2022). "Tucker Carlson calls Ukraine "a pure client state of the United States State Department"". Media Matters for America. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  114. ^ Cohen, Stephen F. (9 March 2016). "Kiev Increasingly Resembles an American Colony". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  115. ^ "US Wants to Turn Ukraine into Colony, Not Independent Country: Russian Duma Speaker - Other Media news". Tasnim News Agency. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  116. ^ "Britain is a US client state and should not forget it, says the neocons' oracle | Politics | The Guardian". Retrieved 2022-06-24.
  117. ^ Hutton, Will (2003-07-19). "Don't sell out to Uncle Sam". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-06-07.
  118. ^ Leigh, David; Norton-Taylor, Richard (17 July 2003). "We are now a client state". Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  119. ^ "CNN columnist suggests the UK become the 51st state of the US following Brexit vote". Retrieved 2021-08-25.
  120. ^ Conradi, Peter (19 September 2021). "Submarine 'treason' shows Britain is vassal state of US, say fuming French". The Times. Paris. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  121. ^ "New Model Army - 51st State". Retrieved 2022-05-28.
  122. ^ "UK is becoming 51st state of the US under Tories, SNP MP claims". The Herald. 23 December 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  123. ^ "Make UK the 51st state". CNN. 29 June 2016. Retrieved 2021-08-25.
  124. ^ "Assange mother 'shocked' by UK". BBC News. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
  125. ^ Paris, Peter Conradi. "Submarine 'treason' shows Britain is vassal state of US, say fuming French". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2021-09-23.
  126. ^ Nation World News Desk (2021-09-27). "Global Britain Is Becoming America's Puppet". Retrieved 2022-05-28.
  127. ^ Tures, John A. (23 May 2019). "Thanks to Brexit, America Could Now Colonize Great Britain". Observer. Retrieved 2021-11-05.
  128. ^ Cicarelli, Siena (2021-06-01). "The Case for EU Defense". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  129. ^ Garms, Jörg (2009). "Ciò che volevano fare – ciò che dovevano fare – ciò che hanno fatto. Gli storici dell'arte borsisti a Roma". Römische Historische Mitteilungen. 50: 455–474. doi:10.1553/rhm50s455. ISSN 0080-3790.
  130. ^ "EU is 'a puppet of US policies'". Retrieved 2022-05-28.
  131. ^ Paris, Adam Sage. "French devour book that claims the EU is America's puppet". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  132. ^ "The United States and Brazil: Limits of Influence". Foreign Affairs : America and the World. 2009-01-28. ISSN 0015-7120. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  133. ^ Kilian, Crawford (2017-06-07). "Can Canada Become a 'Hard Power'?". The Tyee. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  134. ^ "Canada must not be a vassal state | The Star". Retrieved 2022-06-02.
  135. ^ Wire, True North (2020-05-25). "China sees Canada as a "vassal state" of the US it can bully around: former ambassador". Retrieved 2022-06-04.
  136. ^ "China should punish 'US colony' Canada over possible anti-dumping rules, propaganda outlet says". CNBC. 2018-03-30. Retrieved 2022-06-04.
  137. ^ "Dominica: The Push for Annexation with the United States". Retrieved 2021-04-18.
  138. ^ "How Mexico's New President Is Turning His Country Into a Servile US Client". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  139. ^ Steger, Isabella (2 May 2017). "Australia is at a point where it has to choose between its ally America and its economic backer". Quartz. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  140. ^ "Australia's role as dutiful US client state". Antony Loewenstein. 2014-09-23. Retrieved 2021-06-25.
  141. ^ "Malaysian labels Australia a US puppet". 2003-10-16. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
  142. ^ "Just a vassal of the US". Retrieved 2021-09-23.
  143. ^ "Australia: the new 51st state". 2008-01-13. Archived from the original on 13 January 2008. Retrieved 2022-05-28.
  144. ^ "Paul Keating says Australia's sycophancy to US damaging its own interests | Paul Keating | The Guardian". Retrieved 2022-05-29.