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Clevedon (/ˈklvdən/, KLEEV-dən) is an English town and civil parish in the unitary authority of North Somerset, which covers part of the ceremonial county of Somerset. It recorded a population of 21,281 in the United Kingdom Census 2011.[1] It lies among a group of small hills, including Church Hill, Wain's Hill (topped by the remains of an Iron Age hill fort), Dial Hill, Strawberry Hill, Castle Hill, Hangstone Hill and Court Hill, a Site of Special Scientific Interest along the Severn estuary. It features in the Domesday Book of 1086. Clevedon grew in the Victorian period as a seaside resort and in the 20th century as a dormitory town.

Clevedon
ClevedonFromAir2007.jpg
View of Clevedon from the air, showing the pier
Clevedon is located in Somerset
Clevedon
Clevedon
Location within Somerset
Population21,281 [1]
OS grid referenceST406714
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townCLEVEDON
Postcode districtBS21
Dialling code01275
PoliceAvon and Somerset
FireAvon
AmbulanceSouth Western
EU ParliamentSouth West England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Somerset
51°26′17″N 2°51′14″W / 51.438°N 2.854°W / 51.438; -2.854Coordinates: 51°26′17″N 2°51′14″W / 51.438°N 2.854°W / 51.438; -2.854

Facilities and functionsEdit

The seafront has ornamental gardens, a Victorian bandstand and other attractions. Salthouse Field has a light railway running round the perimeter and is used for donkey rides in the summer. The shore consists of pebbled beaches and low rocky cliffs, with an old harbour at the western edge of the town, at the mouth of the Land Yeo. The rocky beach has been designated as the Clevedon Shore Geological Site of Special Scientific Interest.

Clevedon Pier, which opened in 1869, is one of the earliest surviving examples of a Victorian pier. On 17 October 1970, two outward spans collapsed when the seventh set of legs from the shore failed during a routine insurance load test. A trust was eventually formed and the pier and its buildings were restored and reopened on 27 May 1989, when the Waverley paddle steamer berthed and took on passengers. Other landmarks include Walton Castle, Clevedon Court the Clock Tower and the Curzon Cinema.

Clevedon's light industry is located mainly in industrial estates, including Hither Green Trading Estate near the M5 motorway junction. It is a dormitory town for Bristol. The town is home to educational, religious and cultural buildings and sports clubs.

HistoryEdit

 
Clevedon about 1900

The name derives from the Old English, cleve meaning "cleave" or "cleft" and don meaning "hill".[2][3]

Wain's Hill is an univallate Iron Age hill fort situated approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) south-west of Clevedon. The hill fort is defined by a steep, natural slope from the south and north with two ramparts to the east.[4]

The Domesday Book mentions Clevedon as a holding of a tenant-in-chief by the name of Mathew of Mortaigne,[5] with eight villagers and ten smallholders.[6] The parish of Clevedon formed part of the Portbury Hundred.[7]

The small rivers the Land Yeo and Middle Yeo supported at least two mills. The Tuck Mills lay in the fields south of Clevedon Court and were used for fulling cloth. Other mills, near Wain's Hill, probably date from the early 17th century.[8]

During the Victorian era Clevedon is transformed from an agricultural village into a popular seaside town.[9] The Victorian craze for bathing in the sea was catered for in the late 19th century by saltwater baths adjacent to the pier (since demolished, though the foundations remain), and bathing machines on the main beach.[10]

 
Clevedon Pier, which opened in 1869

Clevedon was the site of St Edith's Children's Home for almost 100 years, until it closed in 1974. The home was run by nuns from the Community of the Sisters of the Church, an international body of women within the Anglican Communion, living under the gospel values of poverty, chastity and obedience.[11] The building on Dial Hill is listed,[12] so that the outside has changed little, but now contains privately owned flats.

The first large-scale production of penicillin took place in the town.[5] In 1938 Howard Florey was working at Lincoln College, Oxford University with Ernst Boris Chain and Norman Heatley, when he read Alexander Fleming's paper discussing the antibacterial effects of Penicillium notatum mould. He made arrangements for this to be grown in deep culture tanks at the Medical Research Council's Antibiotic Research Station in Clevedon, enabling mass production of this mould, for a medicine injected into forthcoming World War II soldiers who suffered from infections.[13]

Clevedon was served by a branch line from the main railway at Yatton. It opened in 1847, six years after the main line itself,[14] but closed in 1966.[15] The site of the station is now Queen's Square, a shopping precinct.[16] The town was the headquarters for another railway, the Weston, Clevedon and Portishead Light Railway, which connected the three coastal towns in its name. It opened to Weston-super-Mare in 1897,[17] was extended to Portishead ten years later,[18] and closed in 1940.[19] Its trains crossed the road in the town centre, known as The Triangle, preceded by a man with red and green flags.[20]

 
The clock tower in Clevedon town centre
 
A coastal bay at Clevedon. Lithograph after a sketch by Lady Elton, 1838

GovernanceEdit

The town has seven electoral wards. Their area and population are the same as mentioned above.

Clevedon falls within the non-metropolitan district of North Somerset unitary authority which replaced the Woodspring district, having formerly been part of Somerset, and between 1974 and 1996 within the county of Avon. Until 2010 the parliamentary constituency was still called Woodspring. Following the review of parliamentary representation by the Boundary Commission for England in Somerset, this seat was renamed North Somerset. It elects one Member of Parliament (MP), currently Liam Fox of the Conservative Party. It is also part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament, which currently elects six MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.

GeographyEdit

 
Salthouse Fields

Clevedon is situated on and round seven hills called Church Hill, Wain's Hill (which is topped by the remains of an Iron Age hill fort),[21] Dial Hill, Strawberry Hill, Castle Hill, Hangstone hill and Court Hill which is a Site of Special Scientific Interest.[22] On a clear day there are far reaching views across the Severn estuary to Wales. When the visibility is good the islands of Steep Holm and Flat Holm in the Bristol Channel can be seen. The tidal rise and fall in the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel can be as great as 14.5 m (48 ft),[23] second only to Bay of Fundy in Eastern Canada.[24][25]

The seafront stretches for approximately half a mile from the pier to Salthouse Field, and includes ornamental gardens, a Victorian bandstand, a bowling green, tennis courts, crazy golf and other amusements. An addition to this list is Marine Lake, which was once a Victorian swimming pool, is now used for boating activities, as well as a small festival once a year where people can try out new sports. The Salthouse Field has a light railway running round the perimeter and is still used for donkey rides during the summer.[26]

The shore at Clevedon is a mixture of pebbled beaches and low rocky cliffs, with the old harbour being at the western edge of the town at the mouth of the Land Yeo river. It is remembered as the place at which John Ashley conceived of the idea of creating The Mission to Seafarers.[27] The rocky beach, which has been designated as the Clevedon Shore geological Site of Special Scientific Interest. It is the side of a mineralised fault, which runs east-west adjacent to the pier, and forms a small cliff feature in Dolomitic Conglomerate on the north side of Clevedon Beach, containing cream to pink baryte together with sulfides. The minerals identified at the site include: haematite, chalcopyrite, tennantite, galena, tetrahedrite, bornite, pyrite, marcasite, enargite and sphalerite. Secondary alteration of this assemblage has produced idaite, Covellite and other Copper sulphides.[28]

"Poets' Walk" is a footpath round Wain's Hill and Church Hill, to the south-west of the seafront. The upper part of the town contains many other footpaths through parks and wooded areas, which were laid out in the 19th century. The name of the walk is a commemoration of the poets and writers who have visited Clevedon. These include Coleridge in 1795 and Tennyson in 1834. It is a local nature reserve covering Church Hill and Wain's Hill and includes calcareous grassland, coastal scrub and woodland.[29]

ClimateEdit

 
Windswept Clevedon seafront has shaped this tree

Along with the rest of South West England, Clevedon has a temperate climate which is generally wetter and milder than the rest of the country.[30] The annual mean temperature is about 10 °C (50.0 °F). Seasonal temperature variation is less extreme than in most of the United Kingdom because of the adjacent sea temperatures. The summer months of July and August are the warmest, with mean daily maxima of some 21 °C (69.8 °F). In winter, mean minimum temperatures of 1 °C (33.8 °F) or 2 °C (35.6 °F) are common.[30] In the summer, the Azores high pressure affects the south-west of England. However, convective cloud sometimes forms inland, reducing the number of hours of sunshine. Annual sunshine rates are slightly less than the regional average of 1,600 hours.[30] In December 1998 there were 20 days without sun recorded at Yeovilton. Most of the rainfall in the South-West is caused by Atlantic depressions or by convection. Most of the autumn and winter rainfall is caused by the Atlantic depressions, which is when they are most active. In summer, a large proportion of the rainfall is caused by the sun heating the ground, leading to convection and to showers and thunderstorms. Average rainfall is about 700 mm (28 in). About 8–15 days of snowfall is typical. November to March have the highest mean wind speeds, and June to August have the lightest winds. The predominant wind direction is from the south-west.[30]

DemographyEdit

The town had a population of 21,957 according to the United Kingdom Census 2001. Of these almost 20 per cent were over the age of 65 years and 98.8 per cent were white. Almost three-quarters of the population described themselves as being Christian, with 17.4 per cent having no religion and another 7.3 per cent not stating any religion. Of the 15,408 people between the ages of 16 and 74, 72.4 per cent are economically active.[1]

EconomyEdit

 
Horse and carts used by Yeates Removals in 1910

Clevedon has some light industry, mainly in industrial estates including Hither Green Trading Estate near the M5 motorway junction, and it is also a dormitory town for Bristol. The Clerical Medical pensions and investments group, part of HBOS, had its headquarters in the town on the former site of the Hales Cakes factory, but after its closure, North Somerset Council entered into talks to take over the lease.[31] Percy Daniel & Co is a firm of organ builders, whose work includes the instrument in Brentwood Cathedral.[32]

Yeates Removals was established in 1910, using horses and carts for general haulage in Clevedon and the surrounding areas. The removals company has always been run by family members and is currently headed by James Griffin, who took over from his father John in 2001.[33]

LandmarksEdit

 
Clevedon Pier and the Severn estuary. Wales can be seen on the horizon

Clevedon Pier was opened on Easter Monday 1869,[27][34] and is now one of the earliest examples of a Victorian pier still in existence in the United Kingdom. After a set of legs collapsed during an insurance load check on 17 October 1970, it fell into disrepair until 1985, when it was dismantled and taken to Portishead dock for restoration, and was rebuilt in 1986. In 2001, the pier was upgraded to a Grade-1 listed building,[34][35][36] The Paddle Steamer Waverley and Motor Vessel Balmoral offer day sea trips from Clevedon Pier to various destinations along the Bristol Channel and Severn estuary.[37] Adjoining the pier and contemporary with it is the Toll House, built in the style of a folly castle and provided as accommodation for the pier-master.[38]

Clevedon Marine Lake opened in 1929, and after becoming derelict and disused after the 1960s, was restored in 2015[39] with funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund.

 
Toll House

The Royal Pier Hotel is a Grade II listed building located next to the pier.[40] The Royal Pier Hotel was built in 1823 by Thomas Hollyman, and originally called The Rock House. In 1868, the building was expanded by local architect Hans Price and renamed Rock House & Royal Pier Hotel, later shortened to Royal Pier Hotel.[41] After its closure in 2001 the building fell into disrepair,[42] but it was being converted into luxury apartments in the summer of 2015.

Walton Castle is a 17th-century fort located on Castle Hill that overlooks the Walton St Mary area at the northern end of Clevedon. It was built sometime between 1615 and 1620. The castle was designed as a hunting lodge for Lord Poulett, a Somerset MP. The English Civil War saw the decline of Poulett's fortunes, and by 1791 the castle was derelict and being used as a dairy by a local farmer.[43] In 1978, the castle was purchased for £1 by Martin Sessions-Hodge, who restored the building to its former glory.[44]

 
Millennium monument

Clevedon Court is on Court Hill east of the town centre, close to the road to Bristol. It is one of only a few remaining 14th-century manorial halls in England, having been built by Sir John de Clevedon in about 1320.[45] Since the early 18th century, the house has been owned by the Elton family, which was responsible for much building work on the house and many improvements in the town, and although the house itself is now owned by the National Trust,[46] the associated estates are still owned by the Elton family. Sir Edmund Elton (1846–1920) was a potter who produced unusually shaped ware in a variety of richly coloured glazes, including a gold glaze of his own invention, at the Clevedon Elton Sunflower Pottery.[47]

Clevedon clock tower in the centre of the town is decorated with "Elton ware".[48] It was completed in 1898, and donated by Sir Edmund Elton to celebrate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.[49] The Curzon cinema was built in 1912,[50] for Victor Cox,[51] and is one of the oldest purpose-built, continuously operated cinemas in the world.[52]

The town's market hall on Alexandra Road was designed by the local architect Hans Price.[53] A monument known as the "Spirit of Clevedon" was erected near the seafront to mark the Millennium. Unveiled in June 2000, the 5 ft (1.5 m)-tall sculpture cost £9,000.[54] It was designed by local citizens and includes panels and plaques representing the town's history and community. Its base contains a time capsule with information about the town.[55]

EducationEdit

Clevedon School is a large secondary comprehensive school serving the whole town and surrounding rural areas. It has about 1,200 pupils in years 7 to 11 (Lower School) and 12 to 13 (Upper School or sixth form). It has regained its Language College status.[56] There are six primary schools in the town:[57] Mary Elton Primary School, St John the Evangelist of Bath and Wells Academy Trust Church of England School, All Saints C of E Primary School and St Nicholas's Chantry CEVC Primary School. Yeo Moor Primary School, which opened on 19 April 2010, amalgamating the infant and junior schools that shared the site. The footballer Jack Butland attended Yeo Moor School and Clevedon Community School.[58][59]

St Brandon's School was an independent boarding school until 1991[60] and a co-educational infant and junior school until 2004.[61]

A drama company, Take The Lead, from Clevedon School, has put on productions in the town.[62]

Religious sitesEdit

 
Church of St Andrew - circa 1907

There are several churches serving the town,[63] including St. Andrew's church, built in the 13th century, although there are thought to be Saxon foundations under the present building. It is the burial place of Arthur Hallam, subject of the poem In Memoriam A. H. H. by his friend Alfred, Lord Tennyson.[64]

The Church of St John was built in 1876–1878, by William Butterfield for Sir Arthur Elton.[65] The Church of All Saints was built in 1861 by C E Giles.[66] The tower of Christ Church, on Chapel Hill, is an important landmark in Clevedon, erected in 1838–1839 to designs by Thomas Rickman, in an early 14th-century style.[67]

The Copse Road Chapel is an Independent Evangelical Church, built in 1851 and attributed to Foster and Wood of Bristol,[68] which also designed the United Reformed Church in Hill Road.[69] The Roman Catholic church of the Immaculate Conception is served by the Franciscan order.[70]

RailwaysEdit

 
Station name boards note Yatton is "for Clevedon". Following the closure of the Clevedon Branch Line in 1966, Yatton is the closest station to Clevedon.

The nearest railway station is Yatton on the Bristol to Exeter Line, with trains provided by Great Western Railway. Clevedon was previously served by a branch line from Yatton. However, this closed in 1966 and the site of the town station is now a shopping centre. The Weston, Clevedon and Portishead Light Railway also served the town.

SanitationEdit

In 1863, Sir Arthur Elton, 7th Baronet of Clevedon Court was largely responsible for the creation of the Clevedon Waterworks Company, which had built the first water works and sewage treatment works in Clevedon by 1867. Features included reservoirs to the north of Dial Hill and Old Street pumping station. However, as the population increased, the water works proved to be inadequate, and a new pumping station was created on Tickenham Road in 1901, some 1.2 miles (2 km) to the north-east. The new site could be seen from Clevedon Court, and the 8th Baronet, Sir Edmund Elton, took exception to the designs of the engineer James Mansergh, so the Waterworks Company employed the architect Henry Dare Bryan to improve the appearance of the buildings, which included the pumping station, a coal shed and store, a lodge for the foreman, and the boundary wall and gates. The original pumping station was reused as a fire station. The new pumping station contained a vertical triple-expansion engine manufactured by the Scottish company Glenfield and Kennedy. This was upgraded to a Marshal horizontal compound engine in 1916, and was again replaced in 1938, when a steam turbine was fitted. The boiler house, engine house and chimney are grade II listed, as they are largely unaltered buildings in Domestic Revival style, with the interior retaining its glazed tiling and elaborate roof trusses, although the machinery has been replaced by modern equipment, and the site is still operational.[71] Clevedon Waterworks Company were one of the first of the smaller waterworks in the region to amalgamate with Bristol Water, which occurred on 1 January 1953.[72]

At the pump house, water is extracted from a well, which is 110 feet (33.53 m) deep. The upper 69 feet (21 m) are lined with brick, and the well supplies around 990,000 imperial gallons (4.5 Ml) of water to the public supply network each day.[73]

SportEdit

The town's location makes water sports are a feature. Clevedon Canoe Club at the marine lake facilitates sea paddling trips along the North Somerset coast on the Severn Estuary,[74] and to other sites such as the Wye Valley and Woolacombe. Nearby is the Clevedon Sailing Club.[75]

Clevedon Cricket Club, founded in 1874, competes in the West of England Premier League.[76] Clevedon Town Football Club began in the late 19th century. It was a founder member of the Western Football League, winning its championship in the 1990s.[77] The club plays at Everyone Active Stadium, formerly the Hand Stadium. Another Non-League football club, Clevedon United F.C., plays at Colleridge Vale.

Clevedon Bowling Club was formed in 1910, and since then has achieved several international honours.[78] Other facilities include Clevedon Golf Club, with a Par 72, 6,500-yard course,[79] Riding Centre,[80] a Rugby Club,[81] and several others.[82]

CultureEdit

 
Curzon Cinema, opened on 20 April 1912

Literary figures linked with the town include Samuel Taylor Coleridge (who spent some months living in a cottage here after his marriage to Sara Fricker),[83] William Makepeace Thackeray (a frequent guest of the Elton family at Clevedon Court),[83] and George Gissing (The Odd Women is set in the town).[84]

In the 1993 movie, The Remains of the Day, starring Anthony Hopkins, Emma Thompson and Christopher Reeve, references are made to Clevedon, where the final scene of the film is set and was filmed.[85] The television movie Cider with Rosie (1998) also featured scenes filmed in the town.[86] Scenes from the 2010 film, Never Let Me Go, starring Keira Knightley were filmed in Clevedon during the summer of 2009.[87] Clevedon has its own comic book superhero, Captain Clevedon.[88]

Clevedon has been twinned with Ettlingen, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, since 1980, Épernay, France, since 1990, and Middelkerke, Belgium, since 1991.[89]

Clevedon was the setting for the eponymous town Broadchurch, a detective drama first aired on ITV on 4 March 2013.[90][91][92]

Notable peopleEdit

In birth order:

ReferencesEdit

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