Claves (/ˈklɑːvz, klvz/; Spanish: [ˈklaβes]) are a percussion instrument consisting of a pair of short, wooden sticks about 20-25 centimeters (8-10 inches) long and about 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in diameter.[1][2] Although traditionally made out of wood (typically rosewood, ebony or grenadilla) many modern manufacturers, such as Latin Percussion, offer claves made out of fiberglass or plastic.

Claves
Claves.jpg
Percussion instrument
Classification Hand percussion
Hornbostel–Sachs classification111.11
(Concussion idiophone)

When struck, claves produce a bright, penetrating clicking noise. This makes them useful when playing in large dance bands.[3] Claves are sometimes hollow and carved in the middle to amplify the sound.

HistoryEdit

Claves have been very important in the development Afro-Cuban music, such as the son and guaguancó. They are often used to play an ostinato, or repeating rhythmic figure, throughout a piece known as the clave.[4]

Many examples of clave-like instruments can be found around the world.[5]

TechniqueEdit

 
Playing a pair of claves

The basic principle when playing claves is to allow at least one of them to resonate. The usual technique is to hold one lightly with the thumb and fingertips of the non-dominant hand, with the palm up. This forms the hand into a resonating chamber for the clave. Holding the clave on top of fingernails makes the sound clearer. The other is held by the dominant hand at one end with a firmer grip, much like how one normally holds a drumstick. With the end of this clave, the player strikes the resting clave in the center.[6]

Traditionally, the striking clave is called el macho ("the male") and the resting clave is called la hembra ("the female"). This terminology is used even when the claves are identical.

A roll can be achieved on the claves by holding one clave between the thumb and first two fingers, and then alternating pressure between the two fingers to move the clave back and forth. This clave is then placed against the resonating clave to produce a roll.[7]

Use in popular musicEdit

Among the bands to have used claves are the Beatles in their recording "And I Love Her" and The Who in their song "Magic Bus".

Claves are also utilized in the interstitial spaces of the Night Court theme.

Use in classical musicEdit

Many composers looking to emulate Afro-Cuban music will often use claves such as Arturo Marquez with Danzón No. 2 or George Gershwin with his Cuban Overture.

Steve Reich's Music for Pieces of Wood is written for five pairs of claves.[8]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Claves - Instruments of the world". instrumentsoftheworld.com. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  2. ^ "Claves | musical instrument". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  3. ^ "Claves". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-1002240531. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  4. ^ Godfried T. Toussaint, “A mathematical analysis of African, Brazilian, and Cuban clave rhythms,” Proceedings of BRIDGES: Mathematical Connections in Art, Music and Science, Towson University, Towson, MD, July 27–29, 2002, pp. 157–168.
  5. ^ "Claves", Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, 2, 2003, pp. 352–355
  6. ^ Klöwer, Töm (1997). The Joy of Drumming: Drums & Percussion Instruments From Around the World. Binkey Kok. p. 72. ISBN 90-74597-31-9. OCLC 38453581.
  7. ^ Karl Peinkofer and Fritz Tannigel, Handbook of Percussion Instruments, (Mainz, Germany: Schott, 1976), 142.
  8. ^ Steve Reich, Writings about Music, New York University Press, 1974.

SourcesEdit

  • F. Ortiz, La Clave, Editorial Letras Cubanas, La Habana, Cuba, 1995.
  • D. Peñalosa, The Clave Matrix – Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins, Bembe Books, Redway California, U.S.A., 2009.
  • O. A. Rodríguez, From Afro-Cuban Music to Salsa, Piranha, Berlin, 1998.
  • E. Uribe, The Essence of Afro-Cuban Percussion and Drum Set, Warner Brothers Publications, Miami, Florida, 1996.