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Claudio Abbado, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI[1] (Italian pronunciation: [ˈklaudjo abˈbaːdo]; 26 June 1933 – 20 January 2014) was an Italian conductor. One of the most celebrated and respected conductors of the 20th century, particularly in the music of Gustav Mahler, he served as music director of the La Scala opera house in Milan, principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra, principal guest conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, music director of the Vienna State Opera, founder and director of Lucerne Festival Orchestra, music director of European Union Youth Orchestra and principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra.

Claudio Abbado
Claudio Abbado - L'Aquila - 2012 - 2.jpg
Abbado in 2012
Senator for Life
In office
30 August 2013 – 20 January 2014
Nominated byGiorgio Napolitano
Personal details
Born(1933-06-26)26 June 1933
Milan, Italy
Died20 January 2014(2014-01-20) (aged 80)
Bologna, Italy
Political partyIndependent

Contents

Family history and early lifeEdit

The Abbado family for several generations enjoyed both wealth and respect. Abbado's great-grandfather squandered the family fortune and reputation by gambling. His son, Abbado's grandfather, became a professor at the University of Turin.[2] His grandfather re-established the family's reputation and also showed talent as an amateur musician.[citation needed]

Born in Milan, Italy on June 26, 1933,[3] Claudio Abbado was the son of violinist and composer conductor Michelangelo Abbado,[4] and the brother of the musician Marcello Abbado (born 1926). His father, a professional violinist and a professor at the Giuseppe Verdi Conservatory, was his first piano teacher. His mother also was an adept pianist. Marcello Abbado later became a concert pianist and teacher at the Rossini Conservatory in Pesaro. His sister also exhibited talent in music, but did not pursue a musical career after her marriage. His other brother later became a successful architect.[2][5]

Abbado's childhood encompassed the Nazi occupation of Milan. During that time, Abbado's mother spent time in prison for harbouring a Jewish child.[6] This period solidified his anti-fascist political sentiments. Claudio himself is known for having a famous anecdote about how when he was just twelve years old he wrote "Viva Bartók" on a local wall which caught the attention of the Gestapo and sent them on the hunt for the culprit. His passionate opposition to fascism continued into his adult years.[7] However, his musical interests also developed, with attendance at performances at La Scala,[5] as well as orchestral rehearsals in Milan led by such conductors as Arturo Toscanini and Wilhelm Furtwängler. He later recalled that Toscanini's periods of abusive behaviour to musicians in rehearsal repelled him.[6]

Other conductors who influenced him as a child were Victor de Sabata and Rafael Kubelík.[5] It was not until hearing Antonio Guarnieri's conducting of Claude Debussy's Nocturnes that Abbado resolved to become a conductor himself.[8] At age 15, Abbado first met Leonard Bernstein when Bernstein was conducting a performance featuring Abbado's father as a soloist.[9] Bernstein commented, "You have the eye to be a conductor."[5]

Musical education and early engagementsEdit

 
Claudio Abbado in 1965

Abbado studied piano, composition, and conducting at the Milan Conservatory,[4][10] and graduated with a degree in piano in 1955.[2] The following year, he studied conducting with Hans Swarowsky at the Vienna Academy of Music,[4] on the recommendation of Zubin Mehta.[11] Abbado and Mehta both joined the Academy chorus to be able to watch such conductors as Bruno Walter and Herbert von Karajan in rehearsal.[2][5][6] He also spent time at the Chigiana Academy in Siena.[4]

In 1958, Abbado made his conducting debut in Trieste.[2] That summer, he won the international Serge Koussevitzky Competition for conductors[10] at the Tanglewood Music Festival,[2][4] which resulted in a number of operatic conducting engagements in Italy. In 1959, he conducted his first opera, The Love for Three Oranges, in Trieste. He made his La Scala conducting debut in 1960. In 1963, he won the Dimitri Mitropoulos Prize for conductors,[4][10] which allowed him to work for five months with the New York Philharmonic as an assistant conductor to Bernstein.[2] Abbado made his New York Philharmonic professional conducting debut on 7 April 1963. A 1965 appearance at the RIAS Festival in Berlin led to an invitation from Herbert von Karajan to the Salzburg Festival the following year to work with the Vienna Philharmonic. In 1965, Abbado made his British debut with the Hallé Orchestra, followed in 1966 by his London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) debut.[4][6]

Abbado taught chamber music for 3 years during the early 1960s in Parma.[12][13] His early advocacy of contemporary music included conducting the world premiere of Giacomo Manzoni's Atomtod, on 25 March 1965, in Milan.[citation needed]

Conducting careerEdit

In 1969, Abbado became principal conductor at La Scala. Subsequently, he became the company's music director in 1972. He took the title of joint artistic director, along with Giorgio Strehler and Carlo Maria Badini, in 1976.[11] During his tenure, he extended the opera season to four months, and focused on giving inexpensive performances for the working class and students. In addition to the standard opera repertoire, he presented contemporary operas, including works of Luigi Dallapiccola and of Luigi Nono, in particular the world premiere of Nono's Al gran sole carico d'amore. In 1976, he brought the La Scala company to the US for its American debut in Washington D.C. for the American Bicentennial.[14] In 1982, he founded the Filarmonica della Scala for the performance of orchestral repertoire by the house orchestra in concert. Abbado remained affiliated with La Scala until 1986.[1]

On 7 October 1968, Abbado made his debut with the Metropolitan Opera with Don Carlo. He began to work more extensively with the Vienna Philharmonic (VPO) after 1971,[4] which included two engagements as conductor of the orchestra's New Year's Day concert, in 1988 and 1991. He was a recipient of both the Philharmonic Ring and the Golden Nicolai Medal from the Vienna Philharmonic.[15]

He served as Principal Guest Conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra (LSO)[16] from 1975 to 1979 and became its Principal Conductor in 1979,[1][4] a post he held until 1987 (he was also the LSO's Music Director from 1984 until the end of his principal conductor tenure).[17] From 1982 to 1985, he was principal guest conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO). In 1986, Abbado became the Generalmusikdirector (GMD) of the city of Vienna, and in parallel, was music director of the Vienna State Opera from 1986 to 1991.[1][4] During his tenure as GMD in Vienna, in 1988, he founded the music festival Wien Modern. There he backed numerous contemporary composers including György Ligeti, Pierre Boulez, and Luigi Nono.[18]

Berlin PhilharmonicEdit

Abbado first conducted the Berlin Philharmonic in December 1966. In the late 1980s it was suspected that he might become music director of the New York Philharmonic.[19] However, after 33 appearances as a guest conductor, in 1989, the Berlin Philharmonic elected him as its chief conductor and artistic director, in succession to Herbert von Karajan.[1][4][20] During his Berlin tenure, he oversaw an increased presence in contemporary music in the orchestra's programming. In 1992, he co-founded 'Berlin Encounters', a chamber music festival.[1] In 1994, he became artistic director of the Salzburg Easter Festival.[1] In 1998, he announced his departure from the Berlin Philharmonic after the expiration of his contract in 2002.[21] Prior to his departure, he was diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2000,[22] which led to his cancellation of a number of engagements with the orchestra. Subsequent medical treatment led to the removal of a portion of his digestive system,[12] and he cancelled his conducting activities for 3 months in 2001.[23]

In 2004, Abbado returned to conduct the Berlin Philharmonic for the first time since his departure as chief conductor, for concerts of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 recorded live for commercial release.[24] The resulting CD won Best Orchestral Recording and Record of the Year in Gramophone Magazine's 2006 awards. The Orchestra Academy of the Berlin Philharmonic established the Claudio Abbado Kompositionspreis (Claudio Abbado Composition Prize) in his honour, which has since been awarded in 2006, 2010 and 2014.

Other orchestras and post-Berlin workEdit

In addition to his work with long-established ensembles, Abbado founded a number of new orchestras with younger musicians at their core. These included the European Community Youth Orchestra (later the European Union Youth Orchestra (EUYO)), in 1978, and the Gustav Mahler Jugendorchester (GMJO; Gustav Mahler Youth Orchestra) in (1988).[1] In both instances, musicians from the respective youth orchestras founded spinoff orchestras, the Chamber Orchestra of Europe (COE) and the Mahler Chamber Orchestra, respectively. Abbado worked with both these ensembles regularly as well, and was artistic advisor to the COE, though he did not hold a formal title with the Mahler Chamber Orchestra. In turn, the Mahler Chamber Orchestra formed the core of the newest incarnation of the Lucerne Festival Orchestra, which Abbado and Michael Haefliger of the Lucerne Festival established in the early 2000s, and which featured musicians from various orchestras with which Abbado had long-standing artistic relationships.[12][25] The final new orchestra that Abbado helped to establish was the Orchestra Mozart, of Bologna, Italy, in 2004,[23] and he served as its founding music director until his death.

In addition to his work with the EUYO and the GMJO, Abbado worked with the Orquesta Sinfónica Simón Bolívar of Venezuela.[26]

RepertoireEdit

Amongst a wide range of Romantic works which he recorded and performed, Abbado had a particular affinity with the music of Gustav Mahler, whose symphonies he recorded several times. Despite this, he never managed to complete a cycle with a single orchestra: in a mix of studio and concert releases, he recorded Symphonies 1–2 and 5–7 in Chicago, Symphonies 2–4, 9 and the Adagio from 10 in Vienna, Symphonies 1 and 3–9 in Berlin, and Symphonies 1–7 and 9 in Lucerne. A planned Eighth in Lucerne (the intended culmination of his traversal of the symphonies there) had to be cancelled owing to his ill health. The symphony was finally performed and recorded in 2016 under Riccardo Chailly as a tribute to Abbado.[27]

He was also noted[by whom?] for his interpretations of modern works by composers such as Arnold Schoenberg, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Giacomo Manzoni, Luigi Nono, Bruno Maderna, György Ligeti, Giovanni Sollima, Roberto Carnevale, Franco Donatoni and George Benjamin.

Musical styleEdit

Abbado tended to speak very little in rehearsal, sometimes using the simple request to orchestras to "Listen".[6] This was a reflection of his own preference for communication as a conductor via physical gesture and the eyes, and his perception that orchestras did not like conductors who spoke a great deal in rehearsal.[15] Clive Gillinson characterised Abbado's style as follows:

"...he basically doesn't say anything in rehearsals, and speaks so quietly, because he's so shy, so people can get bored. But it works because everyone knows the performances are so great. I've never known anybody more compelling. He's the most natural conductor in the world. Some conductors need to verbally articulate what they want through words, but Claudio just shows it, just does it."[13]

In performance, Abbado often conducted from memory,[5] as he himself noted:

"...it is indispensable to know the score perfectly and be familiar with the life, the works and the entire era of the composer. I feel more secure without a score. Communication with the orchestra is easier." [15]

Selected Honours and AwardsEdit

 
Claudio Abbado 1982

Abbado received honorary doctorates from the universities of Ferrara (1990), Cambridge (1994), Aberdeen (1986)[1] and Havana.

On 30 August 2013, Giorgio Napolitano, the President of Italy, appointed Abbado to the Italian Senate as a Senator for life, in honour of his "outstanding cultural achievements". Abbado became a member of the Public Education and Cultural Heritage Commission of the Italian Senate on 25 September 2013.[34]

Recordings and AwardsEdit

Abbado recorded extensively for a variety of labels, including Decca, Deutsche Grammophon, Columbia (later Sony Classical), and EMI. He conducted many opera recordings which received various awards. Among these were the Diapason Award in 1966 and 1967; also in 1967 he received the Grand Prix du Disque.[35] In 1968 he was presented with the Deutscher Schallplattenpreis and also the Dutch Edison Award. In 1973, the Vienna Mozart Society awarded him the Mozart medal.[35] Abbado received the 1997 Grammy Award in the Best Small Ensemble Performance (with or without conductor) category for "Hindemith: Kammermusik No. 1 With Finale 1921, Op. 24 No. 1" and the 2005 Grammy Award in the Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with Orchestra) category for "Beethoven: Piano Concertos Nos. 2 & 3" performed by Martha Argerich.

In 2012, Abbado was voted into the Gramophone Hall of Fame that April, and in May, he received the conductor prize at the Royal Philharmonic Society Music Awards.[36][37]

Personal lifeEdit

From his first marriage in 1956, to singer Giovanna Cavazzoni, Abbado had two children, Daniele Abbado (born 1958), who became an opera director, and Alessandra (born 1959). His first marriage ended in divorce.[11][38] From his second marriage, to Gabriella Cantalupi, Abbado had a son, Sebastiano. His four-year relationship with Viktoria Mullova resulted in Mullova's first child, a son, Misha.[11][39] Abbado's nephew, the son of his brother, Marcello, is the conductor Roberto Abbado.

Gastric cancer changes music and lifeEdit

When a reporter called Abbado's former Asia agent Jamie, he broke down in tears. "I thought of him yesterday afternoon," he said. The picture is that he was saying 'too late', I don't know what 'too late' is, I learned the news of his death today." Jamie, who once squeezed the Beijing subway with Abbado, chose the subway every day for his six-day performance at the national center for the performing arts in 2009, and he chose to stand. But actually close person all knows, that is because of his stomach disease is really serious, unfavorable sit.

After being diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2000, Abbado had nearly half of his intestines and half of his stomach removed, leaving the dark-haired, high-spirited conductor haggard. Life must diet was planning for every two hours to eat a small amount of things, in order to recuperate, Abbado moved to Sardinia, the room hung with Mr Gong - Schiller's works, abstract, fragile, picture description and let more fascinated in an era of the turn of the century period of Vienna, where lived the Brahms, Bruckner and Mahler. Prior to this, Abbado's life had been brilliant enough, although he is still regarded as a model of "late bloomer".

Abbado was born into a music family in Milan, Italy on June 26, 1933. He studied composition, piano and conducting in his early years. He really became famous when he took over the post of music director of the Berlin philharmonic orchestra, the uncrowned king of the world symphony orchestra. Since then, the baton in his hand was almost equivalent to the highest scepter of the classical music kingdom, and he also took the baton from the conductor emperor Karajan. Abbado, 56 years old, was the least known and least experienced of the big names on the competition list at the time, including Barenboim, Mehta, Muti, Maazel and Hardenk. Abbado's election surprised the world the year the Berlin wall fell. Perhaps because Karajan was too authoritarian, the musicians were eager for a new atmosphere to revive the orchestra. Anyone who has come into contact with Abbado has been impressed by its coy, self-effacing personality, and music's coolness and composure stands in stark contrast to Karajan's. In the documentary Abbado's first year in Berlin, we can still recall Abbado as a democratic and persuasive conductor, living above the podium, just what Berliners want after more than 30 years of repression.

A bout of stomach cancer marked a watershed in Abbado's music career. The surgery was so successful that the cancer did not spread, but Abbado, who lost most of his digestive system, had to rely on a tube for nutrition most of the time, making it extremely difficult and slow to eat. But his artistic pursuits took him to the next level. In music style, all music fans have found his changes -- deep, warm, compassionate, with detached relief, although the treatment method is still the old school, the sound level is thick and concentrated, the artistic conception is simple and pure, with the tranquillity and simplicity after the flash of glory. Especially in Mahler symphony of attainments with extra authority and persuasion.

In his career, he had two festival orchestras, the European Union youth orchestra and Gustav Mahler youth orchestra, under his control, but he still wanted to establish his own ideal music kingdom. In 2003, he founded the Lucian festival orchestra. Is different from general traditional festival orchestra, insisted, much in the Lucerne festival orchestra in the enable the highest music accomplishment, as well as their most intimate musicians, so from the Berlin philharmonic and the Vienna philharmonic MingTuan, more selective "veteran" gathered from all directions to Lucerne, this year, they show the Mahler second symphony. After the concert, the musicians all hugged each other to prolonged applause. "That's the power that music gives me." "It's good to be sick," Abbado said after the music meeting. "for my music, for my life, for my children, for everything, it makes me look at things in a different way. I gave myself more time to be in peace and learn more, because I realized I knew too little.

Abbado, a former President of La Scala opera house, returned to the theater on Oct. 31 last year after 26 years to perform Mahler's work, which ended with 15 minutes of cheers and applause, and of course a lot of flowers. As a conductor, Abbado maintained a special relationship with the members of the orchestra, giving each member a degree of independence, critics said.

Abbado advocates a different kind of listening, one that allows the audience not only to hear the band but also to experience the "silence" that precede and precede the performance. Abbado also has comments on his recordings. "Listening to the music I recorded, I knew I could do a lot better." Modest as he was, he pointed out that Beethoven's symphonies with the Vienna philharmonic in the 1980s were not bad at the time, but much better later with the Berlin philharmonic. On Mahler's symphonies, he said, he has worked with the Chicago symphony orchestra, the Berlin philharmonic and the Vienna philharmonic. "I've listened to Mahler's first symphony many times with the Chicago symphony orchestra.[40]

DeathEdit

After suffering stomach cancer in 2000, his physical condition was unstable in consequence of which he often cancelled performances. After the Lucerne music festival on August in 2013, he cancelled all further performances including the Japanese tour. Italian prime minister Enrico Letta made a statement that Abbado's talent, his contributions, the international reputation he had gained during his long career, the outstanding results he had achieved would endure and become an important standard for music and culture around the world.[41]

Abbado died in Bologna on 20 January 2014 at the age of 80. One week later, in tribute to him, the orchestra "Filarmonica della Scala", conducted by Daniel Barenboim, performed the slow movement of Beethoven's Symphony No 3 (Marcia funebre: Adagio assai in C minor) to an empty theater, with the performance relayed to a crowd in the square in front of the opera house and live-streamed via La Scala's website.[42] He is buried in Switzerland.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Europa Publications 1996, p. 2
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ewen 1978, p. 1
  3. ^ "Abbado obituary". Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hoiberg 2010, p. 8
  5. ^ a b c d e f Moritz et al. 1974, p. 1
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Claudio Abbado – obituary". Telegraph. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  7. ^ "Abbado obituary". Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  8. ^ Phillip Scott, "Claudio Abbado: The Legacy", Limelight, March 2014, p. 52
  9. ^ "Abbado obituary". Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  10. ^ a b c Randel 1996, p. 1
  11. ^ a b c d David Nice (20 January 2014). "Claudio Abbado obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  12. ^ a b c Tom Service (22 August 2007). "The Maestro". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  13. ^ a b Tom Service (8 August 2009). "A life in music: Claudio Abbado". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  14. ^ Ewen 1978, pp. 2–3
  15. ^ a b c Paul Hoffmann (1 March 1987). "How Claudio Abbado Wins Ovations in Vienna". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  16. ^ Allan Kozinn (20 January 2014). "Claudio Abbado, an Italian Conductor With a Global Reach, Is Dead at 80". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  17. ^ "Claudio Abbado obituary". Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  18. ^ "Abbado obituary". Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  19. ^ "Abbado obituary". Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  20. ^ Ross 2001
  21. ^ Alan Riding (24 June 1999). "Simon Rattle Will Direct The Berlin Philharmonic". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  22. ^ Daniel J Wakin (7 September 2007). "Abbado, Ill, Cancels Appearances". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  23. ^ a b "La morte di Claudio Abbado". Il Post. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  24. ^ David Gutman (2005). "Mahler Symphony No 6". Gramophone. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  25. ^ Andrew Clements (24 August 2007). "Lucerne Festival Orchestra/Abbado". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  26. ^ Charlotte Higgins (24 November 2006). "Land of hope and glory". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  27. ^ Clements, Andrew (22 June 2017). "Mahler: Symphony No 8 DVD review – Chailly pays impressive tribute to Abbado". the Guardian.
  28. ^ "Abbado obituary". Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  29. ^ "ABBADO Claudio". Le onorificenze della Repubblica Italiana (in Italian). Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  30. ^ a b "Claudio Abbado". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Gale. 2004. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  31. ^ "Prize Winner Archive". Ernst von Siemens Musikstiftung. 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  32. ^ "Claudio Abbado". Praemium Imperiale. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  33. ^ Brown, Mark; Tilden, Imogen; Davies, Lizzy (20 January 2014). "Claudio Abbado: 'one of the greatest musicians of the past 50 years'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  34. ^ "senato.it – Scheda di attività di Claudio ABBADO – XVII Legislatura". www.senato.it (in Italian). Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  35. ^ a b Ewen 1978, p. 3
  36. ^ "Claudio Abbado, Renowned Italian Conductor, Dies at 80". BBC News. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  37. ^ "Claudio Abbado awarded classical honour". BBC News. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  38. ^ Paolo di Stefano (9 May 2011). "Giovanna Cavazzoni". Corriere della Serra. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  39. ^ Tim Ashley (2 February 2011). "And This One's by the Bee Gees". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  40. ^ "The imperial conductor claudio abadow suffered from pre-gastric cancer before his death".
  41. ^ "The imperial conductor claudio abadow suffered from pre-gastric cancer before his death".
  42. ^ Lizzy Davies (27 January 2014). "Daniel Barenboim leads La Scala's last tribute to Claudio Abbado". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2015.

SourcesEdit

  • Europa Publications, ed. (1996). "Abbado, Claudio". The International Who's Who: 1996–97 (60th ed.). London, UK: Europa Publications Limited. ISBN 1-85743-021-2.
  • Ewen, David, ed. (1978). "Claudio Abbado". Musicians Since 1900: Performers in Concert and Opera. New York, NY: The H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 1–3. ISBN 0-8242-0565-0. LCCN 78012727.
  • Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abbadio, Claudio". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  • Moritz, Charles; Lohr, Evelyn; Sloan, Henry; Dugan, Kieran, eds. (1974). "Abbado, Claudio". Current Biography Yearbook 1973. New York, NY: The H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 1–3. ISBN 0-8242-0543-X. LCCN 40027432.
  • Randel, Don Michael (1996). "Claudio Abbado". The Harvard biographical dictionary of music. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-37299-9.
  • Ross, Alex (22 October 2001). "Beethoven Unbound". The New Yorker. 77 (32): 83–85. ISSN 0028-792X. Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.

External linksEdit