Clash of the Titans (1981 film)
Clash of the Titans is a 1981 British-American heroic fantasy adventure film directed by Desmond Davis and written by Beverley Cross which retells the Greek mythological story of Perseus. It stars Harry Hamlin, Judi Bowker, Burgess Meredith, Maggie Smith and Laurence Olivier. The film features the final work of stop motion visual effects artist Ray Harryhausen. It was released on June 12, 1981 and grossed $41 million at the North American box office, which made it the 11th highest-grossing film of the year. A novelization of the film by Alan Dean Foster was published in 1981.
|Clash of the Titans|
Film poster by Brothers Hildebrandt
|Directed by||Desmond Davis|
|Written by||Beverley Cross|
|Music by||Laurence Rosenthal|
|Edited by||Timothy Gee|
|Distributed by||United Artists (United States/Canada)|
Cinema International Corporation (International)
|Budget||$9 million or $15 million|
|Box office||$41 million (North America)|
King Acrisius of Argos imprisons his daughter Danaë, jealous of her beauty. When the god Zeus impregnates her, Acrisius banishes his daughter and his newborn grandson Perseus to sea in a wooden chest. In retribution, Zeus kills Acrisius and orders Poseidon to release the last of the Titans, a gigantic sea monster called the Kraken, to destroy Argos. Danaë and Perseus safely float to the island of Seriphos, where Perseus grows to adulthood.
Calibos, son of the sea goddess Thetis, is betrothed to Princess Andromeda, daughter of Queen Cassiopeia of Joppa; but for committing several atrocities against Zeus, including destroying Zeus's sacred flying horses (excepting only Pegasus), Zeus transforms Calibos into a deformed monstrous satyr-like creature. In revenge, Thetis transports an adult Perseus from Seriphos to an abandoned amphitheater in Joppa, where he befriends an elderly poet named Ammon and learns that Andromeda is under a curse and cannot marry unless her suitor, upon the threat of execution if he fails, successfully answers a riddle concocted by Calibos. Zeus sends Perseus a god-crafted helmet from Athena which makes its wearer invisible, a magical sword from Aphrodite, and a shield from Hera. Perseus, wearing the helmet, captures Pegasus and follows Calibos' giant vulture carrying off Andromeda's spirit during her sleep to learn the next riddle. Perseus is discovered and nearly killed by Calibos, but manages to sever one of Calibos' hands, losing his helmet in the process.
The next morning, Perseus presents himself as suitor and correctly answers the riddle, winning Andromeda's hand in marriage. Finding that Thetis cannot act against Perseus, Calibos instead demands that she takes vengeance on Joppa. At the wedding in Thetis' temple, Queen Cassiopeia declares Andromeda's beauty greater to that of Thetis herself, whereupon an earthquake shakes the temple, causing the head of the statue of Thetis to break off and crash to the floor. Thetis, using the statue's head to speak through, demands Andromeda be sacrificed to the Kraken on pain of Joppa's destruction. Perseus seeks a way to defeat the Kraken, but Pegasus is captured by Calibos and his men. Zeus commands Athena to give Perseus her owl Bubo, but she orders Hephaestus to build a golden replica of Bubo instead, who leads Perseus to the Stygian Witches. By taking their magic eye, Perseus forces them to reveal that the only way to defeat the Kraken is by using the head of Medusa, who lives on an island in the River Styx at the edge of the Underworld. The next day, the group continues on their journey without Andromeda and Ammon, who return to Joppa.
On the Gorgon's island, Perseus fights and kills Medusa's guardian, a two-headed dog named Dioskilos. Perseus then enters the Gorgon's lair, where he uses the reflective underside of his shield to deceive Medusa, decapitate her, and collect her head; but the shield is dissolved by her caustic blood. As Perseus and his party set to return, Calibos enters their camp and punctures the cloak carrying Medusa's head, causing her blood to spill and produce three giant scorpions. Calibos and the scorpions attack and kill Perseus' remaining escorts, but Perseus overcomes the scorpions and thereafter kills Calibos.
Weakened by his struggle, Perseus sends Bubo to rescue Pegasus from Calibos' henchmen and reaches the amphitheater in Joppa, where he collapses from exhaustion. Andromeda is shackled to the sea cliffs outside Joppa, and the Kraken itself is summoned. Bubo diverts the Kraken's attention until Perseus, whose strength was secretly restored by Zeus, appears on Pegasus. In the subsequent battle, Perseus petrifies the Kraken with Medusa's head, causing it to crumble to pieces. He then tosses the head into the sea, frees Andromeda, and marries her.
The gods predict that Perseus and Andromeda will live happily, rule wisely, and produce children, and Zeus forbids the other gods to pursue vengeance against them. The constellations of Perseus, Andromeda, Pegasus, and Cassiopeia are created in their honor.
- Harry Hamlin as Perseus
- Judi Bowker as Andromeda
- Burgess Meredith as Ammon
- Maggie Smith as Thetis
- Siân Phillips as Cassiopeia
- Claire Bloom as Hera
- Ursula Andress as Aphrodite
- Laurence Olivier as Zeus
- Pat Roach as Hephaestus
- Susan Fleetwood as Athena
- Tim Pigott-Smith as Thallo
- Jack Gwillim as Poseidon
- Neil McCarthy as Calibos
- Vida Taylor as Danaë
- Donald Houston as Acrisius
- Flora Robson, Anna Manahan, and Freda Jackson as the Stygian Witches
In 1978, Andor Films submitted a copy of the script to the British Board of Film Classification, seeking advice on how to secure either a "U" or an "A" certificate. The draft script included scenes which the BBFC considered would not be acceptable under those certificates, including the Kraken tearing Pegasus to pieces and Andromeda being naked during the climax of the film. Changes to the script and, on submission, some cuts to Perseus' final battle with Calibos were made and the film secured the "A" certificate: "Those aged 5 and older admitted, but not recommended for children under 14 years of age".
Ray Harryhausen used stop-motion animation to create the various creatures in the film, including Calibos, his vulture, Pegasus, Bubo the mechanical owl, Dioskilos, Medusa, the scorpions, and the Kraken. Harryhausen was also co-producer of the film, and retired from film-making shortly after it was released. Despite Bubo's similarities to the droid R2-D2 of the 1977 film Star Wars, Harryhausen claimed Bubo was created before Star Wars was released. The BBFC, reviewing the film for certification in 1981, said Harryhausen's effects were well done and would give entertainment to audiences of all ages, but might appear a little "old hat" to those familiar with Star Wars and Superman.
Columbia Pictures were initially set to distribute the film having made most of Harryhausen and producer Charles H. Schneer's films, but after a change of guard at the studio, they dropped the project during pre-production, leading to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to pick it up instead.
The film's screenwriter, Beverley Cross, was married to Maggie Smith, who played Thetis, until his death in 1998. Cross worked with producer Charles H. Schneer before, writing the screenplay for Schneer's production of Jason and the Argonauts.
Clash of the Titans was released on June 12, 1981. By the time it finished its theatrical run, it had grossed $41,000,000 in North America. (Another source puts its domestic gross at $15.5 million. The film had a world wide gross of over $60,000,000 and was one of 1981's biggest hits.
On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 68% based on 40 reviews, and an average rating of 5.94/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "A goofy, old-school sword-and-sandal epic, Clash of the Titans mines Greek mythology for its story and fleshes it out with Ray Harryhausen's charmingly archaic stop-motion animation techniques."
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film three-and-a-half out of four stars and called it "a grand and glorious romantic adventure, filled with brave heroes, beautiful heroines, fearsome monsters, and awe-inspiring duels to the death. It is a lot of fun." Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune also gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four and called it "a special effects spectacular that succeeds brilliantly as an old-fashioned adventure film based on the legends of Greek mythology." Variety called it "an unbearable bore of a film that will probably put to sleep the few adults stuck taking the kids to it. This mythical tale of Perseus, son of Zeus, and his quest for the 'fair' Andromeda, is mired in a slew of corny dialog and an endless array of flat, outdated special effects that are both a throwback to a bad 1950's picture." Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote, "Though not very witty, the adventures are many and involve a lot of Mr. Harryhausen's specialities," though he thought the monsters were "less convincing than interesting." Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times stated that the film "has charm, it has imagination, but it is also too often stodgy. It is an instance of the whole not being nearly as good as its parts. However, Harryhausen's contributions do delight, and this may be more than enough for his ardent admirers and most youngsters." Gary Arnold of The Washington Post wrote that Hamlin was "always a magnetic presence" but the film's appeal was "quaint and stilted." Geoff Brown of The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote that the film "unfortunately fails to shake much dust off the genre ... Despite the producers' protracted labours, there's a real possibility that some audiences will be turned to stone before Medusa shows up." Time stated "The real titan is Ray Harryhausen."
In a book published in 2000, Stephen R. Wilk suggested that "most people today who are aware of the story of Perseus and Medusa owe their knowledge to...Clash of the Titans."
Other locations include:
The four-issue comic book miniseries Wrath of the Titans (2007), released by TidalWave Productions as part of their Ray Harryhausen Signature Series, picked up the story 5 years after the events of the film.
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- 1981 Yearly Box Office Results - BoxOfficeMojo.com
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- From the Archive….we look back at Clash of the Titans[permanent dead link], BBFC, retrieved 2012-03-13
- Ray Harryhausen and Tony Dalton, Ray Harryhausen: An Animated Life, page 270 (London: Aurum Press Ltd, 2003) ISBN 1-85410-940-5.
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- Siskel, Gene (June 15, 1981). "Special-effects spectacular 'Clash of the Titans' is moviemaking at its fanciful best". Chicago Tribune. Section 3, p. 7.
- "Film Reviews: Clash of the Titans". Variety. June 10, 1981. 18.
- Canby, Vincent (June 12, 1981). "Film: 'Clash of Titans' With Olivier as Zeus". The New York Times. C6.
- Thomas, Kevin (June 12, 1981). "Special Effects Sparkle in 'Clash of the Titans'". Los Angeles Times. Part VI, p. 1.
- Arnold, Gary (June 15, 1981). "Olympian Trials & Treachery". The Washington Post. D3.
- Brown, Geoff (July 1981). "Clash of the Titans". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 48 (570): 134.
- Wilk, Stephen R. (June 26, 2000). Medusa: Solving the Mystery of the Gorgon. p. 209. ISBN 0-195-12431-6.
- "Ray Harryhausen Presents: 20 Million Miles More #1 (Preview)". CBR.com. September 1, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
- "Clash of the Titans Commences Production for Warner Bros. Pictures and Legendary Pictures". Business Wire. April 25, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- "Medusa's Head Hiding Within Perseus' Sack? Three Blind Witches!". Bloody-disgusting.com. October 2, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- "New Clash of the Titans Remake Stills". Dreadcentral.com. October 2, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2009.