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Ciudad Obregón (Spanish pronunciation: [sjuˈðað oβɾeˈɣon]) is the second largest city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora and named for Sonoran revolutionary general and president of Mexico, Álvaro Obregón. It is situated 525 km (326 mi) south of the state's northern border with the U.S. state of Arizona. It is also the municipal seat of Cajeme municipality, located in the Yaqui Valley.
|• Municipal President||Sergio Pablo Mariscal Alvarado|
|Elevation||40 m (130 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC-7 (MST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-7 (no DST/PDT)|
85000 - 85059
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 City origins
- 5 Roots and traditions
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Government and Economy
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Education and health
- 10 Tourism
- 11 Festivals and Cultural Programs
- 12 Sports
- 13 "Gastronomy"
- 14 Notable People
- 15 International relations
- 16 Notes
- 17 References
The city, previously named Cajeme, takes its name from Mexican Revolutionary Álvaro Obregón, a native of nearby Huatabampo, Sonora. Álvaro Obregón became president of Mexico after the Revolution and initiated an "agricultural revolution" in the Yaqui Valley, introducing modern agricultural techniques and making this valley one of the most prosperous agricultural regions in the country. Renowned U.S. agronomist Dr. Norman Borlaug, the architect of the "Green Revolution" worked here after successful developments in increasing the resistance of wheat. For his efforts he was later awarded the Nobel Prize. The origins of this city date back to the year 1906 when the company's rail track [South Pacific Railway] reached this area of the [Yaqui Valley]; this route, made it possible to incorporate with the [Rio Mayo (Mexico)' valley May]] to the domestic and external market, attracting a wave of investors and settlers who brought out populations.
In [, a flag station was established for the locomotive crossing the state to supply water, this station was called Cajeme. [[Cajeme (Caudillo Yaqui)' Cajeme] is the name of a [yaqui] leader (whose population lives in this area) who fought against them as part of the Porphyrian army; and then lead the Yaqui rebellion against it [Porfirio Díaz].
"The Cajeme station was run by the American Bert Cameron, superintendent, and Emilio Estrella, station manager. They and their families were the first settlers. Soon after, the cowboys arrived to guard the corrals of cattle that from here was sent to other regions. Soon came neighbors of Hope, near the fields cultivated in the Valley." The Yaquis offered resistance to the arrival of the first settlers on their lands.
The first neighborhood was called Plan Oriente. In , 'Cajeme Motors' was installed, owned by American James Huffaker, it was the first auto agency; fact that contributed significantly to the development of Cajeme. At the end of his term as president of the country (1920-1924), the General Alvaro Obregón returned to Sonora and carried out business projects in Navojoa and Cajeme, creating in 1925, the company 'Obregón y Cía.', which provided more work and economic development in the Region. 29 November 1927 was declared the head of the municipality (until then it had been part of [[Cocorit]) by the governor Fausto Topete, and in 1928 year in which the first town hall was installed, it was decreed on 28 July of the same year on 28 July of the same year change of name to Ciudad Obregón in recognition of Alvaro Obregón, while the name of the municipality was preserved. That same year the first printing press was installed and it was where the first news weekly called 'The Pacific Gazette', owned by Lithuanian immigrant Leo Rosenfeld and his wife Virginia Gámez, was printed.
The first colonies were Plano Oriente, Ladrillera, Cumuripa, Hidalgo, Constitución, El Castillo, Quinta Díaz, Bella Vista and Colonia del Valle.
Rice was the most important crop in the Yaqui Valley in the early [twentieth century]; other crops also include wheat, beans, chickpeas, various vegetables and alfalfa. Over the course of the century, wheat became the most important crop. Due to Cajeme's agricultural vocation, the first industry of great importance was rice mills.
In the 1950s the agronomist [[Norman E. Borlaug] (called the Father of the Green Revolution) collaborated with the creation of the Northwest Agricultural Research Center (CIANO) and in 1970 received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in research developing better varieties of wheat and maize. At the end of the twentieth century the railway disappeared as a means of transport for passengers and the station was abandoned.
For the development of productive activities, local commerce offers everything from re-shareholders, agricultural implement stores, agribusiness machinery, safety equipment and all kinds of inputs for production. There are two markets for supplies.
For the realization of economic activities and service to the general public, Ciudad Obregón has offices of the main financial institutions of the country. 
Some prominent characters originating in Ciudad Obregón, or with a track record in their careers connected to the city are -
Stephanie Sigman: Actress and model. She is best known for her starring role in the 2011 film Miss Bala. He also appeared in the film James Bond Spectre, among others.
[[Maria Félix]: Born in Alamos, she is an important figure of the Mexican golden film era. He participated in a total of 47 films, and is known as "The Doña" for his celebrated character.
[[Héctor Espino González]: Mexican baseball player, a member of mexico's Professional Baseball Hall of Fame. He made his debut in the Sonoran Winter League with the Yaquis of Ciudad Obregón
[[Gustavo Karim García Aguayo]: Born in Obregón city, professional professional drinker. Known for being drafted at age 16 by the Los Angeles Dodgers. In 1995 he became the youngest player in a major league baseball when playing for the Dodgers.
[[Norman E. Borlaug' Norman Ernest Borlaug]: He was an agronomist, geneticist, humanist phylopathologist. I study wheat, rust and agronomic practices in the Yaqui Valley, looking for it to have self-sufficiency in wheat. He won a Nobel Prize thanks to his practices and research carried out in Obregón, and even, in recognition by the city, one of the main streets bears his name.
The city is located on the parallel 27-29' north latitude and the meridian 109-59' west longitude. With an altitude above sea level of 40.8 m in the city center.
It is located in the south of the State of Sonora, 50 kilometers from the coast of the Sea of Cortez and 100 kilometers from the [[Sierra Madre Occidental], is also 240 km from Hermosillo, the capital of the State; and 530 kilometers from the border with [[The United States]. 
Ciudad Obregón has a steppe climate (Köppen BWh) featuring long, extremely hot summers and short, mild winters with cold mornings. It is frequent that in summer the temperature reach 40 °C (104.0 °F) or more, with overnight lows greater than 24 °C (75 °F) and sometimes reaching 30 °C (86 °F). Sunny skies and clear nights can be expected through all the year. Many severe thunderstorms with strong winds and sandstorms reach the region in summer. Rainfall is scarce but it is more prominent it the summer. In the winter, daytime temperatures can be hotter than 26 °C (79 °F) but at night the temperature can fall to 2 °C (36 °F). Snow in Ciudad Obregón is nonexistent, but hailstorms can occur during cold fronts.
|Climate data for Ciudad Obregón, Sonora (Downtown) (1981–2010, extremes (1961-present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.2
|Average high °C (°F)||24.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||15.6
|Average low °C (°F)||6.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||25.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.5||2.0||0.8||0.6||0.1||0.8||9.1||9.4||6.0||2.1||1.7||2.3||37.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||70||71||69||63||62||66||73||75||73||67||66||71||69|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||237||237||279||298||325||320||275||272||266||276||241||217||3,243|
|Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (temperature, 1981-2010) (humidity, 1981–2000)|
|Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)[a]|
Cajeme Municipality has as its head Ciudad Obregón. Its first settlers established themselves in the neighborhood called Plano Oriente, as irrigation canals made by the Richardson company around 1910 and two years later, the South Pacific railroad established a station called Cajeme. The town of Cajeme was initially a part of Cocorit Municipality until its elevation to Municipal Seat on September 28, 1927. The first city government was established on January 1, 1928. The July 28, 1928 decree stated that “the city is known now with the name of Ciudad Obregón, the town formerly known as Cajeme.” In 1937 another legislation stated that Cajeme be the name of the Municipality and Ciudad Obregón its seat.
In 1950 Ciudad Obregon had a population on 120,000.
Roots and traditionsEdit
The Yaqui people are settled in eight towns, Potam, Huirivis, Torim, Cocorit, Bacum, Vicam, Rahum and Belem. seven kilometres (4.3 miles) from the city is the first of the eight Yaqui towns that make the autonomous territory of these people known for their independent character, because it is one of the few American ethnic groups not dominated militarily by Spanish colonialists. Yaqui history is covered with acts of heroic resistance for the defense of their territory and culture, an ancestral culture enriched by rites and traditions of which the Deer Dance stands out, a symbolic representation of the hunt for this animal whose aesthetic richness has awakened interest the world over. In the rites of Passover and Easter, or in the Day of the Dead celebration, Yaqui culture reaches its highest splendor and shows us the survival of mystery, the unity of man with the universe and the intimate relationship between people and the nature that surrounds them. One day the wind of Passover takes the Pharisees to roam the nearby cities hidden behind leather masks; another day rivalries and mundane ambitions are forgotten so that the whole tribe may join in the commemoration of its faithfully departed. Men and women that practice traditional medicine apply ancient knowledge passed on by their ancestors and with herbs and ointments cure the sickness of their relatives. Dance, music, traditional medicine and Yaqui festivities are the expression of a magical world of religion that coexists in harmony with western culture. Obregon City is also Birthplace to one of its most notorious past inhabitants: El huilito Rojas from the very first settlement in obregon city: plano oriente of Cardenas Ave. and Guerrero.
Government and EconomyEdit
In Ciudad Obregón lies the seat of the municipal government of Cajeme. The government's exercise rests with the Municipal President and his cabinet, elected every three years.
Of the twenty-one [[Congress of the State of Sonora,' Electoral Districts of the State of Sonora, the state electoral districts of Sonora], three correspond to the city. The municipality of Cajeme has its own federal electoral district, the [VI Federal Electoral District of Sonora]] of the [[Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)] Chamber of Deputies]] of the [[Union Congress (Mexico)] Congress of the Union of Mexico]].
The main economic activities in the entity are maquiladora, agriculture, livestock, [aquaculture] and trade. However, the fertile lands of the municipality favour agriculture and the services derived from it, such as its suppliers and their transport. Real estate and construction development has also had a major boom in the city that, because of its relatively recent foundation, has been able to be planned with wide avenues and modern urban development compared to other Sonorense cities.
According to the national census prepared by the [[INEGI], the economically active population (PEA) in 2010 corresponds to 54.1% of the inhabitants of the municipality of whom 95% have an occupation. 
The city is served by Ciudad Obregón International Airport.
Education and healthEdit
The following institutions of higher education are based in Ciudad Obregón:
- Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora (ITSON) - Campus Obregón and Campus Náinari
- Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Cajeme (ITESCA)
- Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) - Campus Obregón
- Universidad La Salle - Campus Obregón
- Universidad TecMilenio - Campus Obregón
- Universidad Tecnológica del Sur de Sonora (UTS)
- Universidad del Valle de México Campus Ciudad Obregón (UVM)
- Universidad del Desarrollo Professional Ciudad Obregón (UNIDEP)
- Universidad Vizcaya de las Américas
- Instituto Tecnológico del Valle del Yaqui
- Universidad Durango Santander
- Universidad Interamericana de Desarrollo (UNID)
- Instituto de Capacitación para el trabajo Icatson-Cajeme
According to the 2010 population and housing census of INEGI in Cajeme the literacy rate for people aged 15 to 24 years is 98.5 % and that of people aged 25 and over is 96.1 %.
School attendance for people ages 3 to 5 is 44.4%; 6 to 11 years is 97%; 12 to 14 years is 95.1% and 15 to 24 years is 50.5 %.  Higher Education Institutions
Ciudad Obregón has multiple institutions of higher education, and has the most important concentration of these in the south of Sonora. The most important institution is the Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora (ITSON) which has a tuition of approximately seventeen thousand students, twenty-three bachelor's degrees, and whose main campus is located in the city. Ciudad Obregón has the necessary elements to offer the population all academic levels.
In the city there is also an important campus of the University of Sonora, the [Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey] (ITESM), La Salle University (ULSA), the University of the Valley of Mexico (UVM), the State Normal School of (ENEE), the Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Cajeme (ITESCA), the Universidad Tecnológico del Sur de Sonora (UTS), among others. 
Of these above, they stand out:
- La Salle University located in Obregón City has been operating for 25 years. It is private, Christian-inspired. He has 21 bachelor's degrees and 15 postgraduate degrees on this campus .
- The Cajeme Higher Institute was founded in 1997. It's a public, decentralized university. It has nine bachelor's degrees and 17 specialties.
- The [[University Tec Milenio' Tecmilenio University] has been in its company for 15 years since its founding. He has 15 bachelor's degrees and seven master's degrees .
A peculiar tourist attraction, a product of man's whimsy is the artificial “Nainari Lagoon” with a 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) perimeter located at the western city limits between Guerrero and Padre Eusebio Kino avenues. It is used for outdoor sports, and its two piers are a focal point for aquatic activities like skiing, sailing and canoeing being the site for triathlons, marathons, and bicycle races. Cold coconut stands where you can find the freshest coconuts and other fruits such as mango con chile, and restaurants.
This small oasis is artificial, built in 1956, one of the great achievements of City Mayor Rene Gandara, who opened the hydraulic gates to fill the reservoir. Before, it was a lagoon region where there was duck hunting and rice was grown.
The Nainari Lagoon is a tourist attraction that has small boardwalk and a boat dock. It also has a shelter for tourists by the water's edge. Water is constantly circulating as it is connected with one of the main canals in the irrigation district, the Lower Canal.
The Lagoon has been in recent years better tended and remodeled by the authorities. It has at its entrance a small garden with a bronze statue of a discus thrower which gives it much enhancement. Just next to the lagoon there is a sports complex "deportivo". It has an Olympic size swimming pool and it has all types of sport courts such as tennis, basketball, soccer, and fronton.
Ostimuri Children's ParkEdit
Next to the Nainari Lagoon we have the Ostimuru Children's Park and the Ostimuri Zoo, the best place to stroll with the family, here you will find an ample variety of mechanical rides for your children. The trees that surround this place cover it with lush branches like a caress from the sky. At the park's edge is the Ostimuri Zoo - an artificial habitat where a wide variety of animals exist, the song of birds as you stroll through this place is like a melody from heaven.[original research?] As you make your journey in the midst of animals, you are surpassed by a boa as if it were a guardian of this place.
The museum offers a perspective of Yaqui culture having among its objectives rescuing, preserving, investigating and spreading the culture and way of life of the Yaquis. As well as stimulating in the state's population the rediscovery of historical, linguistic and ethnic values of the Yaquis. Another objective is to show Sonoran children and teens the particular characteristics of Yaqui personality and the richness of their folklore.[tone] Another objective is to raise consciousness among Sonorans in regards to the development of historical events of the Yaquis as well as the important influence that they had in the formation of groups and classes that constitute the regions current society. This is made more accessible through visuals and scenes of daily life of the population of said tribe, mounted with the instruments, tools and original clothing that has been with them since ancient times and distinguish them on and international level.
This construction dates from the previous century, its architecture is of colonial style. It has four exhibition rooms and an ample garden where we find permanent samples of painting and sculptures as well as arts and crafts. Among the House's visitors is the internationally renowned sculpture and painter Jose Luis Cuevas. Among the objectives of Cocorit House is to support art in those people with artistic attributes that don't have enough support. That is why local artists call it the region's haven for the arts.
"Álvaro Obregón" DamEdit
The General Álvaro Obregón Dam also called the Oviachic Dam, named taken from the place where it is located, starts its construction in the year 1947 and it's finished in 1952, being filled for the first time on July the same year. It is located 35 kilometres (22 miles) north of Ciudad Obregón.
Lake Oviachic has a surface of 20,500 acres (83 square kilometres) and a storage capacity of 3226 millions of cubic meters; it is part of the dam system on the Yaqui River, it's the state's largest dam and the third located on said river. From the Oviachic Dam a 27,603-kilometre (17,152-mile) network of main and secondary canals is derived that irrigate 450,000 hectares (1,100,000 acres) of surface in the Yaqui and Mayo Valleys, being one of the most important hydraulic infrastructures in the country. During the last two decades this hydraulic work has become one of the main and most visited tourist destinations in our region.
Huivulai Island is located 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of Ciudad Obregón and 5 miles (8.0 kilometres) off the Sonora coast in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez). In Mayo, Huivulai means "long neck". The island is 17 kilometres (10.6 miles) long and 1.2 kilometres (0.7 miles) wide at its widest part. The island features many natural attractions including sand dunes used by four-wheel drive vehicles. The island has a water well oasis surrounded by date trees that attract many species of birds, including gray and white pelicans, corvetta, gray crested cranes, storks, and albatrosses. The island is ringed by beaches and features fishing opportunities off-shore.
Festivals and Cultural ProgramsEdit
Tetabiakte Art and Culture FestivalEdit
This festival of art and culture takes place in November to celebrate the anniversary of the founding of the municipality of Cajeme with the support of the Institute of Municipal Culture and the National Council for Culture and the Arts ([CONACULTA]). This festival offers music, painting, film, poetry, book presentations and shows the culture and traditions of the Yaqui ethnic group.
ITSON Arts Festival'Edit
The Festival, promoted by the Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora through the Directorate of Extension of Culture and Services and is held annually in October. The Festival is a member of the National Network of Festivals of the National Council for Culture and the Arts (CONACULTA). The program serves audiences of higher middle education, university and the community at large, through an artistic program representative of our cultural diversity, with national quality groups, with presentations in university forums, public spaces and theatres, with close access to the commun
"Ars Vocalis México"'Edit
Ars Vocalis México is an international festival and academy dedicated to vocal art that in 2015 is hosted by Ciudad Obregón. This festival, founded by the tenor and cultural promoter [[Carlos Zapién], has a pedagogical program thanks to which young Mexican singers, previously selected through a audition process, have the opportunity to participate in classes lectures given by renowned figures in the operatic world of Europe and the United States, as well as being able to work with coaches from various opera houses and educational institutions. Students also have the opportunity to work on the German vocal repertoire (Lied), ancient and baroque music and Mexican music. The audience has the opportunity to listen to recitals and operatic performances at no cost.
'IPN International Book FairEdit
Since 2013, the National Polytechnic Institute has organized the International Book Fair held in September. The program has been attended by renowned figures in the literary field, such as Elena Poniatowska and the program has the cooperation of several governmental and private institutions. 
The most popular sport in Obregon is baseball. The city's professional baseball team is the Yaquis of the Mexican Pacific League, who play at Tomás Oroz Gaytán Stadium. Ciudad Obregón has multiple infrastructure works dedicated to sport, among which stand out: the Municipal Gymnasium "Manuel Lira García", with a capacity of 3000 spectators. The [Arena ITSON], with capacity for 7,500 people and the [New Yaquis Stadium], can accommodate 16,500 people. As well as small basketball and baseball stadiums scattered throughout the city, these two sports are the most popular of the company.
Ciudad Obregón has the following sports teams:
- Ofew City Yaquis: Baseball team of the Mexican Pacific League.
- Obregón City Hawks: Basketball team of CIBACOPA.
- Guerreros de Obregón FC: Football team of the [Mexico's Third Division]].
Football also has acceptance, the stadium "Manuel 'Piri' Sagasta", is the most important venue for its practice with a capacity of approximately 4000 spectators, although the sport is not as popular in the city, it remains a recreational practice by the ease of game development. Next to the football stadium is the sports car "Náinari 2000", an area for the practice of different sports.
The most popular martial discipline in Ciudad Obregón is the TaeKwonDo which is practiced by many young people in the municipality of Cajeme, which has multiple medalists in official competitions, nationally and internationally. The ITSON Potros have won 3 national university championships in [[Mexico]. 
The region has a wide variety of typical dishes, such as:
- The Yaqui ethnic group, one of the most numerous in Mexico, in use of natural elements, inherited the wakabaki, a broth that constitutes a traditional dish that is prepared in its most important festivities. Its ingredients are: chickpea, beef rib, pumpkin, potato, cabbage, carrot and jote. Its preparation begins with the cutting of the firewood and the sacrifice of the res.
- Large flour tortillas
- The flour tortillas arrived in Sonora brought by the Spaniards, who during the Arab domination learned many ways to take advantage of wheat, these tortillas are also known as "Sobaqueras" because of the way in which they were made.
- Ptypical late made from manta rays and shrimp, it is usually prepared as a broth in which the manta meat, shrimp and vegetables are added. The broth is served on a plate or you can prepare caguamanta tacos, when the broth is served it is only called "vichy", in some places that same broth with shrimp is known as chucki. Its name derives from the word caguama and manta ray, originally this dish was prepared with caguama but from the prohibition of the fishing of this marine species, it was decided to replace the caguama with manta meat. This dish was created in the late nineteenth century in Ciudad Obregón'Citation needed.
- Traditional cookies from the state of Sonora. These are made with wheat flour and stuffed with piloncillo. Coyotas are similar to Argentine alphajor, only they are thinner and larger in diameter. In Obregón you can find in addition to the traditional ones made with piloncillo; coyotas of cajeta, milk with walnut, guava, chocolate, bavaria, strawberry, pineapple, chabacano, blackberry, mango and apple.
Also known as dry meat, it is a type of dehydrated meat that is made of beef cutting and during venison season can be made of this animal as well.
- Bacanora, like Jalisco tequila, is a spirit drink made in Sonora, Mexico. It is a mezcal made 100% of the juice of the roasted maguey head, fermented and distilled. However, the development of the formal market in El Bacanora was truncated in 1915, when the manufacture and marketing of this alcoholic beverage was banned. It was until the 1990s that this activity ceased to be persecuted and sanctioned by custom and its authorization was contemplated in the Law on Alcohols of the State of Sonora.
- This agave drink from Sonora is protected by appellation of origin, published in the Official Journal of the Federation on 6 November 2000. In this publication it is officially stated that the State of Sonora, is exclusively the entity, which is recognized as producer of this drink. Agustifolia Haw is the only maguey species admitted by this Law for the production of El Bacanora. The territorial area of this denomination area is: 57,923.92 km2 and is composed of 35 municipalities of the mountainous area of Sonora. 
- Some restaurants recognized for offering some of the dishes mentioned above, and characteristic of the region are:
- The little trees of Cajeme. It opened 25 years ago, and currently has 13 branches throughout the Mexican republic.
- The bows. Located inside the Valle Grande hotel, it has typical dishes of the region, specifically cuts of meat to the Sonoran style. The menu also includes a variety of breakfasts.
- The bronco. Restaurant opened in 1968 , specialized in cuts of meat and Mexican recipes. It features live music and country-style facilities.
Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit
Ciudad Obregón is twinned with:
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