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The City of Glasgow Bank is now largely known for its spectacular collapse in October 1878, ruining all but 254 of its 1,200 shareholders, whose liability was not limited.

Contents

GeneralEdit

 
A cleared cheque from 1877

The Bank was founded in 1839,[1] with an initial capital of £656,250 (about £46m at 2005 prices). It aimed to cater particularly for small investors, with its branches opening in the evenings to receive deposits; its name is said to have been designed to allude to that of the City Bank of New York.

The principal office was established in Virginia Street, Glasgow in 1842, and moved to Glassford Street in 1851. During a banking crisis in 1857 the City of Glasgow Bank had to suspend operation but was then able to reopen and continue trading.[2] For a long time before closure dividends were paid at 9%-12%.

The CollapseEdit

On discovery of a £7,000 deficit (= £½ million at 2005 prices) the Bank's operations were suspended in November and December 1877, until by agreement with the other Scottish banks the New York agency was closed.[citation needed] All seemed well, and in June 1878 the bank announced that there were now 133 branches and deposits of £8m (= £600 million at 2005 prices), and declared a 12% dividend.[1]

On 2 October, however, the directors announced the bank's closure.[3] An examination after the closure showed net liabilities of over £6m (= £500 million at 2005 prices), together with extensive loans on poor security, and speculative investments in Australasian farming, mining stocks and American railway shares.[4] In addition, false reports of gold holdings were made to the authorities, balance sheets and profit and loss statements falsified, and the share price held up by secret purchases of the Bank's own stock.[5] So successful was the deception that on the Bank's last business day its £100 shares were selling at £236.[5]

The directors were arrested and tried at the High Court in Edinburgh in January 1879. All were found guilty and sentenced to terms of imprisonment between eight and eighteen months.[5]

Scores of Glasgow businesses failed as a result of the bankruptcy and shareholders were called to make good the bank's losses. The case of one shareholder who sought to mitigate the consequence by arguing that he had become a shareholder through the fraud of the bank's agents was appealed unsuccessfully to the House of Lords ("Houldsworth's case", 1880, 7 R. (H.L.) 53).[6]

Wider effects of the collapse have been seen in the growth of limited liability and a temporary banking liquidity problem,[7] and a longer-term reduced trend in bank deposits across the UK.[8]

The legalities of the collapse and liquidation were overseen by Alexander Bennett McGrigor.[9]

ArchivesEdit

The Bank's archives are now held by the University of Glasgow[10][11][12]

In LiteratureEdit

The Bank's collapse was vividly represented in the 1948 trilogy The Wax Fruit by Guy McCrone (dramatised by BBC Radio 4 in 2010). It also features in Mrs George de Horne Vaizey's 1910 novel A Question of Marriage.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "City of Glasgow Bank". British Banking History Society. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  2. ^ Grossman, Richard (2010). Unsettled Account: The Evolution of Banking in the Industrialized World since 1800. Princeton University Press. p. 96.
  3. ^ "Bank must restore confidence". The Scotsman. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  4. ^ Lloyd Pritchard, Muriel F. (1970). An Economic History of New Zealand to 1939. Auckland: Collins. p. 155.
  5. ^ a b c Rosenblum, Leo (December 1933). "The Failure of the City of Glasgow Bank". The Accounting Review (subscription required). 8 (4): 285–291. JSTOR 238146.
  6. ^ Nehme, Marina; Hyland, Margaret (2008). "Houldsworth: An Obsolete Piece in the Legislative Puzzle". University of Western Sydney Law Review. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  7. ^ Manfred Pohl, Sabine Freitag, ed. (1994). Handbook on the History of European Banks. European Association for Banking History. p. 1145.
  8. ^ Cottrell, P. J. (2004). Roderick Floud, Paul A. Johnson (ed.). Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain. 2. p. 274.
  9. ^ http://www.theglasgowstory.com/image/?inum=TGSA00218
  10. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1878/10/04/archives/recent-heavy-failures-the-breaking-of-the-city-of-glasgow-bank-its.html
  11. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20081205063706/http://www.hbosplc.com/abouthbos/History/bos_history.asp. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2008. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ Scotland’s ghost of banking meltdown pastwww.sundayherald.com, retrieved 2008-12-23 Archived 24 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine

External linksEdit