Cistus salviifolius

Cistus salviifolius, common names sage-leaved rock-rose,[1] salvia cistus[2] or Gallipoli rose, is a shrub of the family Cistaceae.

Cistus salviifolius
Cistus April 2008-1.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Cistaceae
Genus: Cistus
Species:
C. salviifolius
Binomial name
Cistus salviifolius

EtymologyEdit

The genus name Cistus derives from the Ancient Greek words κίσθος (kisthos) meaning basket, while the species name salviifolius refers the wrinkled leaves similar to those of the sage.[3]

DescriptionEdit

Cistus salviifolius has spreading stems covered by clumpy hairs. This bushy shrub reaches on average 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) in height, with a maximum of 100 centimetres (39 in). The oval-shaped green leaves are 1 to 4 centimeters long, opposite, reticulate, tomentose on both sides, with a short petiole (2–4 mm).[4]

The inflorescence holds one or more round flowers, long-stalked, arranged at the leaf axils. The five white petals have a yellow spot at the base, forming a corolla 4–6 cm in diameter. The stamens are also yellow and the anthers shed abundant yellow pollen. This plant is pollinated by insects (entomophily), especially by bees. The flowering period extends from April through May. The fruit is a pentagonal capsule, 5–7 mm long.[4]

PhylogenyEdit

Cistus salviifolius belongs to the white and whitish pink flowered clade of Cistus species.

Species-level cladogram of Cistus species.

  Halimium spp.  

     
PPC  
     

  Cistus crispus  

     
     

  Cistus asper  

  Cistus chinamadensis  

  Cistus horrens  

  Cistus ocreatus  

  Cistus osbeckiifolius  

  Cistus palmensis  

  Cistus symphytifolius  

     

  Cistus heterophyllus  

     

  Cistus albidus  

  Cistus creticus  

  Halimium spp.  

  WWPC  
     
     

  Cistus clusii  

  Cistus munbyi  

     

  Cistus inflatus  

  Cistus ladanifer  

  Cistus laurifolius  

  Cistus libanotis  

  Cistus monspeliensis  

  Cistus parviflorus  

  Cistus populifolius  

  Cistus pouzolzii  

  Cistus salviifolius  

  Cistus sintenisii  

  Purple
  Pink
  Clade
  White
  Whitish Pink
  Clade
Species-level cladogram of Cistus species, based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences.[5][6][7][8]

GalleryEdit

CultivationEdit

Cistus salviifolius cultivated in the nursery industry, and grown in gardens and public landscapes, often for its drought-tolerant and pollinator habitat attributes.

DistributionEdit

This showy wildflower is native to the Mediterranean region, in southern Europe[4] and parts of Western Asia and North Africa.

HabitatEdit

This plant prefers dry hills, scrubland and open woodlands, at an altitude of 0–1,200 metres (0–3,937 ft) above sea level.[4] It regrows very quickly following a fire.

SynonymsEdit

  • Cistus macrocalyx Sennen & Pau
  • Cistus paui Sennen
  • Cistus salomonis Sennen & Malag.
  • Cistus salviifolius [β] macrocalyx Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [1] brevipedunculatus Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [2] longipedunculatus Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [alfa] vulgaris Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [delta] biflorus Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [epsilon] cymosus Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius [gamma] grandifolius Willk.
  • Cistus salviifolius var. fissipetalus Sennen
  • Cistus salviifolius var. occidentalis Rouy & Foucaud
  • Cistus salviifolius var. rierae Sennen
  • Cistus salviifolius var. schizocalyx Sennen
  • Cistus salviifolius L.
  • Ledonia peduncularis var. salviifolia (L.) Spach
  • Ledonia peduncularis Spach[9]

Other synonyms reported by The Plant List include:

  • Cistus apricus Timb.-Lagr.
  • Cistus arrigens Timb.-Lagr.
  • Cistus elegans Timb.-Lagr.[10]
  • Cistus fruticans Timb.-Lagr.
  • Cistus humilis Timb.-Lagr.
  • Cistus microphyllus Timb.-Lagr.
  • Cistus platyphyllus Timb.-Lagr.
  • Cistus rhodanensis Timb.-Lagr.
  • Cistus sideritis C.Presl
  • Cistus velutinus Timb.-Lagr.

ChemistryEdit

Cistus salviifolius contains flavan-3ols, oligomeric proanthocyanidins[11] and prodelphinidins such as epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-hydroxybenzoate), epigallocatechin-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin -3-O-gallate-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-(4β→6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-β-d -(6′-O-galloyl)-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene, epigallocatechin-(4β→8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-β-d- glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene and rhododendrin (betuloside).[12] It also contains ellagitannins of the punicalagin type.[13]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  2. ^ "Cistus salviifolius". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  3. ^ Acta Plantarum
  4. ^ a b c d Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982. Vol. II, pag. 122.
  5. ^ Guzmán, B. & Vargas, P. (2005). "Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Cistus L. (Cistaceae) based on ITS, trnL-trnF, and matK sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (3): 644–660. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.04.026. PMID 16055353.
  6. ^ Guzmán, B. & Vargas, P. (2009). "Historical biogeography and character evolution of Cistaceae (Malvales) based on analysis of plastid rbcL and trnL-trnF sequences". Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 9 (2): 83–99. doi:10.1016/j.ode.2009.01.001.
  7. ^ Guzman, B.; Lledo, M.D. & Vargas, P. (2009). "Adaptive Radiation in Mediterranean Cistus (Cistaceae)". PLOS ONE. 4 (7): e6362. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.6362G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006362. PMC 2719431. PMID 19668338.
  8. ^ Civeyrel, Laure; Leclercq, Julie; Demoly, Jean-Pierre; Agnan, Yannick; Quèbre, Nicolas; Pélissier, Céline & Otto, Thierry (2011). "Molecular systematics, character evolution, and pollen morphology of Cistus and Halimium (Cistaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 295 (1–4): 23–54. doi:10.1007/s00606-011-0458-7. S2CID 21995828.
  9. ^ Synonyms in Anthos
  10. ^ Timb.-Lagr. Rev. Bot. Bull. Mens. 10: 70 1892
  11. ^ Antioxidant oligomeric proanthocyanidins from Cistus salvifolius. Fadi Qa’dan, Frank Petereit, Kenza Mansoor and Adolf Nahrstedt, Natural Product Research, Volume 20, Issue 13, 2006, pages 1216-1224, doi:10.1080/14786410600899225
  12. ^ Flavan-3-ols, prodelphinidins and further polyphenols from Cistus salvifolius. Andreas Danne, Frank Petereit and Adolf Nahrstedt, Phytochemistry, 37, (2), 1994, Pages 533–538, doi:10.1016/0031-9422(94)85094-1
  13. ^ Simultaneous LC-DAD and LC-MS Determination of Ellagitannins, Flavonoid Glycosides, and Acyl-Glycosyl Flavonoids in Cistus salvifolius L. Leaves. E. Saracini, M. Tattini, M. L. Traversi, F. F. Vincieri and P. Pinelli, Chromatographia, Volume 62, Numbers 5-6, pages 245-249, doi:10.1365/s10337-005-0623-7

External linksEdit