Circumferential Road 5

Circumferential Road 5, more commonly known as C-5 Road or C-5, is a network of roads and bridges that altogether forms a major route that transverses in Metro Manila, in the National Capital Region of the Philippines.[2] It is also known officially as Carlos P. Garcia Avenue, and as National Route 11 (N11), National Route 128 (N128) and National Route 129 (N129) in the National Route Numbering System implemented in 2014. Expressway portions, part of the North Luzon Expressway Mindanao Avenue and Karuhatan Link, are numbered Expressway 5 (E5).

N11 (Philippines).svg N129 (Philippines).svg N128 (Philippines).svg E5 (Philippines).svg
C-5

Circumferential Road 5
Carlos P. Garcia Avenue
C-5 Road corner Kalayaan Avenue, looking towards Pasig.
Route information
Maintained by Department of Public Works and Highways and Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
Component
highways
  • N11 (Philippines).svg N11 (Carlos P. Garcia Avenue from SLEX to Bonny Serrano Avenue, and Katipunan Avenue from Bonny Serrano Avenue to C. P. Garcia Avenue in UP Diliman)
  • N129 (Philippines).svg N129 (Katipunan Avenue from C.P. Garcia Avenue to Tandang Sora Avenue, Tandang Sora Avenue until Luzon flyover, Luzon Avenue, and Congressional Avenue from Luzon Avenue to Mindanao Avenue)
  • N128 (Philippines).svg N128 (Mindanao Avenue from Congressional Avenue to NLEX Mindanao Avenue Link)
  • E5 (Philippines).svg (NLEX Mindanao Avenue Link and Karuhatan Link)
Major junctions
Beltway around Metro Manila
C-5 Road (main route)
Length32.5 km[1] (20.2 mi)
North end N1 (MacArthur Highway)
Major
junctions
South endEast Service Road
C-5 Extension
Length9.8 km (6.1 mi)
East endWest Service Road
Major
junctions
West endE3 (Philippines).svg Manila-Cavite Expressway
Location
Major citiesValenzuela, Quezon City, Pasig, Makati, Marikina, Taguig, Parañaque, and Las Piñas
Highway system
Roads in the Philippines

The road serves as a beltway around Metro Manila, spanning some 32.5 kilometres (20.2 mi) as it transverses through the cities of Parañaque, Taguig, Makati, Pasig, Marikina, Quezon City and Valenzuela. It runs parallel to the four other beltways around Metro Manila, and is also known for being the second most important transportation corridor, after Circumferential Road 4, better known as EDSA.[3]

The road is not yet complete to date, because of certain controversies regarding right of way, but portions of the road are already open for public use.[4] The two segments of the road will be connected together with the completion of the CAVITEX - C-5 Link Expressway, through a flyover over the Skyway and SLEX in the Pasay - Taguig boundary, by 2020.

Route descriptionEdit

The C-5 road lies parallel to Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, passing through the cities of Valenzuela, Quezon City, Marikina, Pasig, Makati, Taguig and Parañaque. The road is divided into segments.

NLEX-Karuhatan connector linkEdit

Also known as the NLEX Segment 9, the NLEX-MacArthur Highway connector is a 2.42 kilometres (1.50 mi) tollway starting from Smart Connect Interchange, a cloverleaf interchange between NLEX-Mindanao Avenue link, NLEX-Karuhatan link and the North Luzon Expressway. The western end of the road is located at MacArthur Highway in Karuhatan, Valenzuela and also a part of C-5 Road.

NLEX-Mindanao Avenue connector linkEdit

Also known as the NLEX Segment 8, the NLEX-Mindanao Avenue connector is a 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi) tollway starting from the Smart Connect Interchange, a cloverleaf interchange between the NLEX-Mindanao Avenue link, NLEX-Karuhatan link and the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) and ending in a 3-way signalized junction with the Mindanao Avenue. The entire 2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi) tollway is designated as part of a C-5 Road.

Mindanao AvenueEdit

 

Mindanao Avenue
LocationQuezon City to Valenzuela
Length6.7 km (4.2 mi)
 
Mindanao Avenue in barangay Tandang Sora, Quezon City

Mindanao Avenue is a 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi), 10-lane divided carriageway that serves as the main transportation corridor of the Talipapa and Tandang Sora districts of Quezon City. The northern terminus of the road is a dead end 1.1 kilometres (0.68 mi) north of the NLEX-Mindanao Avenue Connector Road and the southern terminus of the road is the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue. The 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) portion of the road from the NLEX-Mindanao Avenue Connector Road junction to Congressional Avenue is designated as a portion of the C-5 Road.

Congressional AvenueEdit

 

Congressional Avenue
LocationQuezon City
Length6.0 km (3.7 mi)

Congressional Avenue is a 6 kilometres (3.7 mi), 6-lane divided carriageway that serves as the main east to west transportation corridor of Muñoz, Culiat and Tandang Sora districts in Quezon City. The western terminus of the road is Epifanio de los Santos Avenue and the eastern terminus of the road is a junction with Luzon Avenue. The 3.9 kilometres (2.4 mi) portion of the road from Mindanao Avenue to Luzon Avenue is designated as a portion of C-5 Road. The whole segment of Congressional Avenue is designated as part of N129.

Luzon AvenueEdit

Luzon Avenue is a 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi), 4-lane divided/undivided city road that serves as the main thoroughfare of the Holy Spirit district of Quezon City. The northern terminus of the road is a junction with Holy Spirit Drive and the southern terminus is a junction with Commonwealth Avenue. The 850 metres (2,790 ft) portion of the road from Congressional Avenue to Commonwealth Avenue is designated as a portion of C-5 Road. Before crossing ending in Commonwealth Avenue, a 6-lane flyover starts 850 metres (2,790 ft) north of the junction and heads towards Tandang Sora Avenue on the other side of Commonwealth Avenue.

Tandang Sora AvenueEdit

Tandang Sora Avenue is a 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi), 2-lane undivided municipal road that serves as the main thoroughfare of the Talipapa, Culiat and Tandang Sora districts of Quezon City. The western terminus of the road is the Tullahan Road, while the eastern terminus is the junction with Magsaysay Avenue inside the University of the Philippines campus. The original planned route of C-5 included the entire road, however, due to the incapacity of the road to carry a large amount of vehicular traffic, only the 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) portion of the road from the Luzon Avenue flyover to Magsaysay Avenue was designated as a portion of C-5 Road. Furthermore, Tandang Sora Avenue becomes a 6-lane divided carriageway shortly after crossing Capitol Hills Drive, 350 meters south of the flyover. After crossing Magsaysay Avenue, Tandang Sora Avenue becomes Katipunan Avenue.

Katipunan AvenueEdit

   

Katipunan Avenue
LocationQuezon City
Length7.3 km (4.5 mi)
 
Katipunan Avenue

Katipunan Avenue is a 7.3 kilometres (4.5 mi), 10-lane divided carriageway that serves as the main transportation corridor of the Balara and Project 4 districts of Quezon City. The northern terminus of the road is Tandang Sora Avenue and the southern terminus is the intersection of White Plains Avenue and Temple Drive. The 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) portion of the road from its northern terminus to the intersection with Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue is designated as a portion of C-5 Road. Shortly before crossing Bonny Serrano Avenue, a 4-lane divided underpass descends from Katipunan Avenue and traverses underneath Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue and ascends into a flyover that immediately connects to E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue.

Bonny Serrano AvenueEdit

 
Bonny Serrano Underpass

Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue is a 2.2 kilometres (1.4 mi), 4-lane undivided avenue that serves as the main thoroughfare between Epifanio de los Santos Avenue and Eastwood City. The 500 metres (1,600 ft) portion of the road from Katipunan Avenue to Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue is designated as a portion of the C-5 Road. A 4-lane divided underpass descends from Katipunan Avenue and traverses underneath Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue and ascends into a flyover that immediately connects to E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue.

Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. AvenueEdit

 

Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue
LocationPasig to Quezon City
Length6.7 km (4.2 mi)
 
Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue
 
Pedestrians cross Circumferential Road 5 beneath the C5 Bagong Ilog Bridge in Pasig City, with AG Saño's "Ang Mamatay Ng Dahil Sayo" mural series in the background.

Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue is a 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi), 10-lane divided road that serves as the main thoroughfare between Quezon City and Pasig. The entire road, from Katipunan Avenue to Pasig Boulevard is designated as a portion of C-5 Road. The road ends in a junction with Pasig Boulevard and continues onto F. Manalo Bridge that crosses the Pasig River and eventually becomes C.P. Garcia Avenue shortly afterwards.

Carlos P. Garcia AvenueEdit

 

Carlos P. Garcia Avenue
LocationTaguig to Makati-Pasig boundary
Length7.5 km (4.7 mi)
 
Carlos P. Garcia Avenue on the C-5-Kalayaan Interchange in barangay West Rembo, Makati

Carlos P. Garcia Avenue is a 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi), 14-lane divided road that serves as the main thoroughfare between Pasig and Parañaque, passing a small portion in Makati and continuously passing Taguig. The entire road, from the F. Manalo Bridge to South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) is designated as a portion of C-5 Road. The road ends in a junction with South Luzon Expressway.

Location on the West Valley FaultEdit

Studies by the PHIVOLCS reveal that a large portion of the C-5 road is built on top of the West Valley Fault. A map of the fault line released in May 18, 2015 shows the C-5 road in Taguig beside the fault line.[5] The C-5 road is prone to liquefaction.[6]

HistoryEdit

 
The unfinished northern section of the C-5 Kalayaan elevated U-turn slot in March 2009, about two months before its completion.

The proposal for the Metro Manila Arterial Road System was done in the late 1960s.[7] The proposal states of building 10 Radial Roads and 6 Circumferential Roads to support the growing vehicular population of the Metropolitan Manila.

The 5th Circumferential Road began construction in 1986.[2][7] Under the power of Republic Act 8224, which was passed in November 6, 1996, the C-5 road was legally known as President Carlos P. Garcia Avenue, honoring the eighth president of the Republic of the Philippines, Carlos P. Garcia.[8]

ExtensionsEdit

On July 23, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo announced on her State of the Nation Address that C-5 Road will be extended to the north of Metro Manila, from North Luzon Expressway in Quezon City to Navotas and will be extended in the south from South Luzon Expressway in Taguig-Parañaque boundary to Coastal Road in Las Piñas in the southern part of Ninoy Aquino International Airport.[9]

As of June 2010, the NLEx-Mindanao Avenue Link or NLEx Segment 8.1 which is located in Valenzuela City and Congressional Avenue Extension from Tandang Sora to Luzon Avenue which is located in Quezon City has been opened to all motorists in the North Extension and also the SLEx-Sucat Link or Carlos Garcia Avenue Extension in the South Extension located in Parañaque was also opened.

As of March 2015, the NLEX-Karuhatan Link (Segment 9) has been opened to all motorists. The opening of the Segment 9 from NLEx to MacArthur Highway in Karuhatan, Valenzuela serves as a preparation for the Holy Week season.

At present, the New Commonwealth Avenue Flyover connecting Katipunan and Luzon Avenue is opened to all motorists. Before the opening of the flyover, the Congressional Avenue Extension from Visayas to Luzon Avenue opened in 2010 to decongest heavy traffic in Visayas-Tandang Sora Avenue Intersection.

FutureEdit

C-5 South Link ExpresswayEdit

C-5 South Link Expressway
CAVITEX - C-5 Link Expressway
Route information
Length7.737 km[10] (4.808 mi)
Major junctions
East end  N11 (C-5 Road) at Taguig
 
  N63 (Dr. A. Santos Avenue/Sucat Road) at Parañaque
West end  E3 (CAVITEX) in Las Piñas
Highway system
Roads in the Philippines

The C-5 South Link Expressway, or the CAVITEX - C-5 Link Expressway, is a 7.737-kilometer (4.808 mi) toll expressway that will connect Manila-Cavite Expressway (CAVITEX) with the main route of C-5 in Taguig. The project costs at ₱12 billion (US$253 million), and is a joint project of the Philippine Reclamation Authority, Toll Regulatory Board, and CAVITEX Infrastructure, Inc. The expressway is built in two phases, with the first phase that will fill the gap between the C-5 main route and the C-5 Extension in Merville by constructing a flyover over the SLEX and Skyway, and the second phase involving construction of the Merville-CAVITEX segment. Construction of the new expressway started in May 8, 2016.[11] Completion is expected at 2019, and start of operation is due on the first quarter of 2020.[10]

C-5 ExpresswayEdit

NLEX Corporation (formerly Manila North Tollways Corporation) and CAVITEX Infrastructure Inc., submitted a proposal for C-5 Expressway, a 19 kilometres (12 mi) fully elevated expressway that will further decongest the existing C-5 and provide a fully controlled-access route between CAVITEX-C5 South Link and NLEX Segment 8.2.[12] The proposed expressway will utilize portions of the existing C-5 right of way between SLEX and Pasig Boulevard, and run above Marikina River from Pasig Boulevard to Luzon Avenue.

ControversyEdit

The Senate of the Philippines investigated the South Extension where it passes many of Sen. Manny Villar's properties such as Camella. The original C5 South Extension was called MCTEP, and was already approved by the Senate. MCTEP was a road that would be made as a toll expressway and resurrected as CAVITEX-C5 Link.[4][13]

LandmarksEdit

Business Districts and Commercial AreasEdit

Educational InstitutionsEdit

These schools are located in Quezon City.

These schools are located in Bonifacio Global City, Taguig City

Cemeteries/Memorial ParksEdit

Ecclesiastical LandmarksEdit

OthersEdit

Exits and IntersectionsEdit

 
C-5 Bagong Ilog Flyover
 
C-5 Road at the intersection with Diego Silang Street in Taguig.
ProvinceCity/Municipality[14][15][16]km[17][18][19]miDestinationsNotes
Taguig14.12668.7779East Service RoadSouthern end.
Cavitex-C5 Link FlyoverSix lane tolled flyover to C-5 Extension, Parañaque City. Also known as C5 South Link Expressway Segment 3A1 [20]
   E2 / AH26 (SLEX) – AlabangHalf-Y interchange. C-5 Exit of SLEX. South end.
15.1851–
15.2237
9.4356–
9.4596
Bayani Road, Marichu R. Tinga AvenueHalf-diamond and half-partial cloverleaf interchange. Access to Libingan ng mga Bayani.Future Southeast Metro Manila Expressway (SEMME) exit.
Diego Silang StreetAt-grade intersection. No southbound access. Future Southeast Metro Manila Expressway (SEMME) exit.
17.00010.563Scorpio StreetNo northbound entrance. Northbound access via Diego Silang Street
MakatiAlligator StreetNo Southbound access. Access to Brgy. Rizal, Makati
Blue Voz StreetNo southbound access. Access to Brgy. Rizal and Brgy. Pembo, Makati
TaguigUpper McKinley RoadTraffic light intersection. Former half-diamond interchange with no northbound access. Access to McKinley Hill
26th Street, Sampaguita Street, Target Street (Makati)Diamond interchange. Access to Market! Market! and Bonifacio Global City
32nd StreetDirectional T interchange. No northbound exit. Access to Bonifacio Global City
Makati  N190 (Kalayaan Avenue)C-5-Kalayaan Interchange. Former traffic light intersection. Access to Kalayaan Avenue westbound from C-5 northbound via elevated U-turn slot. Access to Kalayaan Avenue eastbound from C-5 southbound via elevated U-turn slot.
Pasig River20.41812.687Bagong Ilog Bridge
PasigSouth end of Bagong Ilog Flyover. South end of E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue segment
  N141 (Pasig Boulevard)
Maximo Flores Street
Intersection with traffic light for southbound only. No left turn and U-turn from C-5 southbound
Pasig BoulevardTraffic light intersection.
Canley RoadSouthbound at-grade intersection. No northbound access
14.12858.7790North end of Bagong Ilog Flyover.
R. Lanuza AvenueTraffic light intersection. Access to Philsports Arena
Kaginhawaan BridgeNorthbound only. Access to Dr. Sixto Antonio Avenue via P. Conducto Street.
Julia Vargas AvenueTraffic light intersection. Access to SM Center Pasig, Tiendesitas, and Ortigas Center
Eagle DriveNorthbound entry only
South end of Ortigas Flyover.
  N60 (Ortigas Avenue)C-5-Ortigas Interchange. Traffic light intersection at grade. No left turns from northbound. Access to C-5 southbound either through flyover ramp or traffic light intersection.
Quezon City16.986–
12.612
10.555–
7.837
North end of Ortigas Flyover.
Greenmeadows AvenueTraffic light intersection.
Calle IndustriaTraffic light intersection.
Eastwood DriveTraffic light intersection. Access to Eastwood City
South end of Bonny Serrano Flyover
14.2348.845C-5 Access RoadExit only for C-5 northbound. Entrance to C-5 southbound and northbound. North end of E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue segment. East end of Bonny Serrano Avenue segment
West end of Bonny Serrano Flyover
East end of Libis Tunnel
11.9757.441  N185 (Bonny Serrano Avenue)
Katipunan Avenue
Traffic light intersection. West end of Bonny Serrano Avenue segment. South end of Katipunan Avenue segment.
North end of Libis Tunnel
P. Tuazon Boulevard, Major S. Dizon StreetNo left turns. Right-in/right-out for northbound intersection.
South end of Katipunan Flyover
  N59 (Aurora Boulevard/Marcos Highway)Left turn and right turn from southbound service road. Right turn only from northbound service road.
Xavierville AvenueAccessible from Katipunan Flyover southbound service road only.
North end of Katipunan Flyover
13.944–
15.1060
8.664–
9.3864
Carlos P. Garcia AvenueTraffic light intersection. Route number change from N11 to N129.
Magsaysay AvenueGated access to University of the Philippines. No left turns to Katipunan Avenue northbound.
Mactan StreetRoundabout
Capitol Drive
15.7439.782Tandang Sora AvenueSouthbound access only. North end of Katipunan Avenue segment.
South end of Luzon Avenue Flyover
  N170 (Commonwealth Avenue)Ramps with U-turns.
North end of Luzon Avenue Flyover
Luzon AvenueNorth end of Luzon Avenue segment. West end of Congressional Avenue segment.
Tandang Sora AvenueAccess via U-turn slots from opposite directions
Visayas AvenueTraffic light intersection
   N129 (Congressional Avenue) / N128 (Mindanao Avenue)Traffic light intersection. West end of Congressional Avenue segment. South end of Mindanao Avenue segment. Route number change from N129 to N128
Road 20, Road 20 ExtensionAccessible via U-turn slot from opposite directions.
Tandang Sora AvenueAccessible via U-turn slot from opposite directions. Access to St. James College of Quezon City
South end of Mindanao Avenue Underpass
  N127 (Quirino Highway)Traffic light intersection.
North end of Mindanao Avenue Underpass
Mindanao AvenueNorth end of Mindanao Avenue section. Route number change from N128 to E5.
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

NLEX ConnectEdit

ProvinceCity/MunicipalitykmmiExitNameDestinationsNotes
Quezon City  N128 (Mindanao Avenue)East end of expressway. Link with the future NLEX Segment 8.2. Route number change from N128 to E5.
Mindanao Avenue toll plaza (Easytrip, cash payments. Westbound only)
ValenzuelaSmart Connect Interchange  E1 (NLEX) – Manila, BaguioCloverleaf interchange with collector lanes
Karuhatan toll plaza (Easytrip, cash payments. Eastbound only)
Karuhatan  N1 (MacArthur Highway)Exit towards Karuhatan, Valenzuela
CaloocanC-3 Road  N130 (Circumferential Road 3)West end of expressway. Link with the future NLEX Segments 10.1 and 11
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
  •       Tolled
  •       Route transition

C-5 ExtensionEdit


ProvinceCity/MunicipalitykmmiDestinationsNotes
Las Piñas  E3 (CAVITEX) – ManilaRight-in/right-out interchange. Entry to CAVITEx only. Western end.
  N62 (P. Diego Cera Avenue)At-grade intersection
Fruto Santos AvenueAt-grade intersection
Sipag Center
Naga RoadAt-grade intersection
Parañaque  N63 (Sucat Road)Eastbound exit and westbound entrance. Access to SM City Sucat
Flyover over Sucat Road
Old Sucat RoadWestbound exit and eastbound entrance. Access to Amvel City
  N62 (P. Diego Cera Avenue)At-grade intersection
Amvel City, Ninoy Aquino Avenue.Partial cloverleaf interchange.
Multinational AvenueTraffic light intersection. Serves Multinational Village. This is known for infamously causing severe heavy traffic during rush hours.
E. Rodriguez AvenueAt-grade intersection. Future interchange with CAVITEX-C5 South Link Expressway
Moonwalk Access RoadAt-grade intersection, and right-in/right out interchange.
Cavitex-C5 Link FlyoverSix lane tolled flyover to C-5, Taguig City. Also known as C5 South Link Expressway Segment 3A1 [20]
PasayWest Service RoadAt-grade intersection. Future interchange upon completion of flyover for the ongoing CAVITEX- C-5 Link Expressway over South Luzon Expressway and Skyway.
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Google (January 5, 2013). "Circumferential Road 5" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  2. ^ a b "The Circumferential Road 5". scribd.com. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  3. ^ Flores, Asti (February 7, 2013). "MMDA, DPWH name C5 Road as alternate route for EDSA overhaul". GMA News. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  4. ^ a b "Controversies regarding the C-5 Road". slideshare.net. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  5. ^ Ranada, Pia (May 18, 2015). "High resolution West Valley Fault maps launched". Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  6. ^ See, Aie (March 25, 2011). "C-5 Road, 3 Taguig barangays prone to liquefaction". Philstar. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  7. ^ a b "Overview of the Metro Manila Arterial Road System". Department of Public Works and Highways (Philippines). Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  8. ^ Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. "REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8224-THE ACT OF CHANGING THE NAME OF THE C-5 ROAD TO CARLOS P. GARCIA AVENUE, TO HONOR CARLOS P. GARCIA, THE 8TH PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES". Retrieved January 5, 2013.
  9. ^ Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. "State of the Nation Address, July 23, 2007". Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  10. ^ "C-5 Expressway". DPWH PPP Portal. Department of Public Works and Highways. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
  11. ^ Legaspi, Amita (January 25, 2012). "'Villar intervened in C-5 project for his own benefit'". GMA News. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
  12. ^ Department of Public Works and Highways (2016). "Atlas 2016 Road Surface Type and Condition: Metro Manila 1st" (Map). 2016 Road Data. 1:70000. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  13. ^ Department of Public Works and Highways (2016). "Atlas 2016 Road Surface Type and Condition: Metro Manila 2nd" (Map). 2016 Road Data. 1:45000. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  14. ^ Department of Public Works and Highways (2016). "Atlas 2016 Road Surface Type and Condition: Quezon City 2nd" (Map). 2016 Road Data. 1:45000. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  15. ^ "Metro Manila 1st". 2016 Road Data. Department of Public Works and Highways. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  16. ^ "Metro Manila 2nd". 2016 Road Data. Department of Public Works and Highways. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  17. ^ "Quezon City 2nd". 2016 Road Data. Department of Public Works and Highways. Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  18. ^ a b "Taguig-Parañaque section of C5 South Link Expressway opens to motorists July 23". GMA News Online. Retrieved August 18, 2019.

External linksEdit