Cinema of Azerbaijan

Cinema of Azerbaijan dates back to the 19th century. Azerbaijan is one of the first countries in the world involved in cinematography.[4] The first Azerbaijani film was a thirty second long silent film called The Oil Gush Fire in Bibiheybat, which was recorded using the cinematograph.

Cinema of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan film clapperboard.svg
No. of screens17 (2011)[1]
 • Per capita0.2 per 100,000 (2011)[1]
Produced feature films (2010)[2]
Fictional9 (45.0%)
Animated2 (10.0%)
Documentary9 (45.0%)
Number of admissions (2011)[3]
National films6,600 (8.6%)
Gross box office (2011)[3]
TotalAZN 364,800
National filmsAZN 6,000 (1.6%)

Early historyEdit

The first film studio in Baku established in the 1920s. The location of the studio was behind the Government Building in Baku. The building no longer exists.
Movie "Sevil" in 1932.
Movie "Game of Love" in 1935.
Movie "Fatali Khan" in 1947.

The film industry in Azerbaijan dates back to 1898. When the Lumière brothers of France premiered their first motion picture footage in Paris on December 28, 1895, they did not know how rapidly it would ignite a new age of photographic documentation. The brothers invented an apparatus, patented in February 1895, which they called the "Cinématographe" (from which the word "cinematography" is derived).[4]

A Frenchman by the name of Alexandre Michon was among the first entrepreneurs who came and settled in Baku. A photographer and cameraman by profession, he is believed to have lived in Baku for more than 25 years where he set up a photo studio. Mishon became active in forming a scientific photo circle in Baku and became its secretary. From 1879 to 1905, he documented landscapes, episodes from oil extraction, the refining process, as well as the oil gushers and terrifying fires that broke out in the oil fields. In 1898, Mishon began shooting motion pictures that depicted everyday life in Baku. It was his intention to exhibit them in Paris.

Michon's footages still exist up to date in the archives of the Union of Cinematographers of Azerbaijan. The Folk Dance of Caucasus was later used in a documentary, and the scenes from The Oil Gush Fire in Bibiheybat were shown in France in 1995, in a film commemorating the 100th anniversary of world cinema.

The Newspaper Announcement about Michon's films:

"On Sunday, August 2, 1898, A. Michon, will show some motion pictures that he has taken with a Lumière movie camera and which has been improved by the engineer Jules Carpentier. These films of the Caucasus and Central Asia have been prepared for the forthcoming International Paris Exhibition and will be presented only once in Baku at the V. I. Vasilyev-Vyatski Circus Theater.

"The following films will be shown: Fire resulting from an oil gusher at Bibi-Heybat oil field, Farewell Ceremony for His Majesty Emir of Bukhara on "Velikiy Kniaz Alexei" Steamboat, a folk dance of the Caucasus, and scenes from the comedy, 'So, You Got Caught,' which was performed recently in one of Baku's parks. For more detailed information, see the posters. The event starts at 21:00 (9 p.m.)."

The event was an enormous success and Michon repeated it on August 5, replacing the final two works with those showing life in Balakhani outside of Baku.

Michon's footage still exists. "Folk Dance of the Caucasus" was later used in a documentary and scenes from "Oil Gush Fire in Bibi-Heybat" were shown in France in 1995, in a film commemorating the 100th anniversary of world cinema. On November 27, 1899 writer, scientist and social activist Hasan Zardabi in the "Kaspi" entitled an article in which he wrote, "Now we have in our hands a toy machine-called "kinemato-graphe." This wonderful machine was produced only a short time ago and gives the impression of being just a toy. You can find this machine which is called 'stroboscope' in many optician shops."

Early 20th centuryEdit

In 1915 the Pirone brothers of Belgium set up a film production laboratory in Baku. They invited film director Boris Svetlov from St. Petersburg (Russia) to work for them and produce The Woman, An Hour before His Death and An Old Story in a New Manner. It was Svetlov who also directed the film entitled In the Kingdom of Oil and Millions which later became so well known.[5] The famous Azerbaijani actor Huseyn Arablinski played Lutfali, the main role in this film.[4]

In 1916 The first version of the operetta "Arshin Mal Alan" was directed by Svetlov. During this era of "silent" film the musical selections were performed by in-house musicians. Two of the women's roles in the film were played by men. Gulchohra was played by Ahmad Aghdamski and Aunt Jahan was played by Y. Narimanov.

In 1919, during the short-lived Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, a documentary called The Celebration of the Anniversary of Azerbaijani Independence was filmed on Azerbaijan's independence day, May 28, and premiered in June 1919 at several theatres in Baku.[6]

Soviet periodEdit

First Azerbaijani Soviet film Legend of the Maiden Tower (1924)

After the Soviet power was established in 1920, Nariman Narimanov, Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan, signed a decree nationalizing Azerbaijan's cinema. The People's Education Commissariat, which functioned somewhat like a Ministry, created an art department which included a film section headed by Hanafi Teregulov and Muslim Magomayev, a notable composer and opera singer. In 1922 the government of Azerbaijan decided to create the first cinema factory which became the forerunner of today's film studio Azerbaijanfilm.[4]

In 1923 the Azerbaijan Photo Film Institution (APFI) was established by a special decree of the Council of People's Commissars. The Institution controlled all the movie houses and distribution bureaus. Thus, a new epoch in the history of Azerbaijani cinema began – a period when Soviet ideology, not individual entrepreneurship, dominated the film industry.

APFI shot its first film Legend of the Maiden Tower in 1924.[7] This film was the first Azerbaijani Soviet and was based on the legend about the Maiden Tower.

In the 1930s, Russian director Boris Barnet filmed By the Bluest of Seas in Azerbaijan. The film, which is set on one of the country's islands in the Caspian Sea, has received renown from modern film critics.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Post-independence cinemaEdit

In 1991, after Azerbaijan gained its independence from the Soviet Union, first Baku International Film Festival East-West was held in Baku. In December 2000, the former President of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev, signed a decree proclaiming August 2 professional holiday of filmmakers of Azerbaijan.[15]

Now that the USSR does not exist anymore, Azerbaijani filmmakers are again dealing with issues similar to those faced by cinematographers prior to the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1920. Once again, both choice of content and sponsorship of films are largely left up to the initiative of the filmmaker.

In 1995, the director Rustam Ibrahimbeyov won an Academy Award for Burnt by the Sun as Best Foreign Film. This moment is described as one of the proudest event in Azerbaijan cinema history.[16]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Table 8: Cinema Infrastructure - Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  2. ^ "Table 1: Feature Film Production - Genre/Method of Shooting". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Table 11: Exhibition - Admissions & Gross Box Office (GBO)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d Celebrating 100 Years in Film, not 80 by Aydin Kazimzade. Azerbaijan International, Autumn 1997.
  5. ^ In the Kingdom of Oil and Millions at IMDb, 1916.
  6. ^ "Azerbaijani cinema in 1920-1935: Silent films".
  7. ^ Qiz qalasi at IMDb, 1924.
  8. ^ Anthony Nield (February 6, 2012). "By the Bluest of Seas". The Digital Fix. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  9. ^ Jonathan Rosenbaum (February 6, 2004). "Glimpse of a Rare Bird [on Boris Barnet] (upgraded)". Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  10. ^ "Boris Barnet". National Film and Sound Archive. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  11. ^ Ben Nicholson. "DVD Review: Barnet's 'Outskirts' & 'Bluest of Seas'". Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  12. ^ Dennis Schwartz (January 21, 2015). "BY THE BLUEST OF SEAS (U SAMOGO SINEGO MORYA)". Ozus' World Movie Reviews. Archived from the original on December 11, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  13. ^ Friel, Patrick. "Home Movies: By the Bluest of Seas". Film Comment (January/February 2013). Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  14. ^ Prof. Nicole Brenez (November 19, 2008). Nicole Brenez on By the Bluest of Seas (video) (in French). Also Like Life. Event occurs at 0:30. Archived from the original on 2021-12-15. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  15. ^ (in Russian) Azerbaijan Cinematographers Union Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine Confederation of Cinematographers Unions
  16. ^ Presentation of the Azerbaijan cinema on Eurochannel website


  • Michael G. Smith, "Cinema for the Soviet East: National Fact and Revolutionary Fiction in Early Azerbaijani Film", Slavic Review Vol. 56 No. 4 (Winter 1997), pp. 645–678.

External linksEdit