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There are several different chemicals in this class. "CTX" is often used as an abbreviation.
- CID 5311333 from PubChem - Ciguatoxin 1
- CID 6441260 from PubChem - Ciguatoxin 2
- CID 6444399 from PubChem - Ciguatoxin 3
- CID 6450530 from PubChem - Ciguatoxin 4B (Gambiertoxin 4b)
Some ciguatoxins lower the threshold for opening voltage-gated sodium channels in synapses of the nervous system. Opening a sodium channel causes depolarization, which could sequentially cause paralysis, heart contraction, and changing the senses of heat and cold. Such poisoning from ciguatoxins is known as ciguatera.
Ciguatoxins are lipophillic, able to cross the blood brain barrier, and can cause both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms.
The major symptoms will develop within 1-3 hours of toxin ingestion: vomiting, diarrhea, numbness of extremities, mouth and lips, reversal of hot and cold sensation, muscle and joint aches. The symptoms may last from days to weeks or even months depending on each individual situation. There is no known antidote, though several therapeutic targets have been identified.
Ciguatoxin is produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a type of dinoflagellate. The toxin usually accumulates in the skin, head, viscera, and roe of big reef fish like grouper, wrasse, triggerfish, lionfish, and amberjack.
Ciguatoxin cannot be destroyed by cooking. Rapid testing for this toxin in food is not standard.
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- Swift AE, Swift TR (2008). "Ciguatera". Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology. 31 (1): 1–29. doi:10.3109/15563659309000371. PMID 8433404.