The Cichorioideae are a subfamily of the family Asteraceae of flowering plants. Familiar members of Cichorioideae include lettuce, dandelions, chicory and Gazania species. The subfamily comprises about 240 genera and about 2900 species. It is heterogeneous and hard to characterize except with molecular characters.

Cichorium intybus-alvesgaspar1.jpg
Cichorium intybus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Cichorioideae

See text


The subfamily as understood in 1998 turned out to be paraphyletic, based on studies of DNA sequences,[1] so a number of tribes were moved to new subfamilies. Names for the new subfamilies were published in 2002.[2] In 2004, 2007, and 2008, molecular phylogenetic studies further clarified relationships within Cichorioideae.[3][4][5]

Major works on Asteraceae were published in 2007 and 2009. These were the only comprehensive treatments of the family since 1994.[6] In the 2007 book, Gundelia and Warionia were segregated from the tribe Cichorieae to form the tribe Gundelieae. Eremothamnus, Hoplophyllum, Heterolepis, and Platycarpha were placed incertae sedis in tribe Arctotideae, while Distephanus, Trichospira, Moquinia, and Pseudostifftia were placed in the tribe Vernonieae.[7] Some of this classification was not supported by phylogenetic studies that came out later.[8][5] For example, the tribe Arctotideae was only weakly supported as monophyletic, but its two subtribes, Arctotidinae and Gorteriinae, were strongly supported.

In the 2009 book, the Gundelieae were sunk into the Cichorieae. The new tribe Platycarpheae was recognized, as well as the tribes Eremothamneae and Moquinieae. Heterolepis was placed in the Arctotideae, at least provisionally. Distephanus was not placed in the Moquinieae or the Vernonieae, but is closely related to them.[9] Trichospira was placed in the Vernonieae, but its inclusion there is in doubt.


The following phylogeny is from Systematics, Evolution and Biogeography of the Compositae, except the tribe Gundelieae is recognized and the genus Trichospira is now included in Vernonieae.















  1. ^ Bayer, Randall J.; Starr, Julian R. (1998). "Tribal Phylogeny of the Asteraceae Based on Two Non-Coding Chloroplast Sequences, the trnL Intron and trnL/trnF Intergenic Spacer". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 85 (2): 242–256. doi:10.2307/2992008. JSTOR 2992008.
  2. ^ Jose L. Panero; Vicki A. Funk (2002-12-30). "Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Biological Society of Washington. 115 (4): 909–922. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
  3. ^ Funk, Vicki A.; Chan, Raymund; Keeley, Sterling C. (2004). "Insights into the Evolution of the Tribe Arctoteae (Compositae: Subfamily Cichorioideae s.s.) Using trnL-F, ndhF, and ITS". Taxon. 53 (3): 637–655. doi:10.2307/4135440. JSTOR 4135440.
  4. ^ Sterling C. Keeley, Zac H. Forsman, and Raymund Chan. 2007. "A phylogeny of the "evil tribe" (Vernonieae: Compositae) reveals Old/New World long distance dispersal: Support from separate and combined congruent datasets (trnL-F, ndhF, ITS)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44(1):89-103.
  5. ^ a b Jose L. Panero and Vicki A. Funk. 2008. "The value of sampling anomalous taxa in phylogenetic studies: Major clades of the Asteraceae revealed". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47(2):757–782.
  6. ^ Kåre Bremer (with the assistance of Arne A. Anderberg, Per Ola Karis, Bertil Nordenstam, Johannes Lundberg, and Olof Ryding). 1994. Asteraceae: cladistics and classification. Timber Press: Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-275-2.
  7. ^ Klaus Kubitzki (series editor); Joachim W. Kadereit and Charles Jeffrey (volume editors). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume VIII. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-31050-1
  8. ^ Vicki A. Funk; Raymund Chan; Stirling C. Keeley (2004). "Insights into the evolution of the tribe Arctoteae (Compositae: subfamily Cichorioideae s.s.) using trnL-F, ndhF, and ITS" (PDF). Taxon. 53 (3): 637–655. doi:10.2307/4135440. JSTOR 4135440.
  9. ^ Vicki A. Funk, Alfonso Susanna, Tod F. Stuessy, and Randall J. Bayer. 2009. Systematics, Evolution and Biogeography of the Compositae. IAPT (International Association for Plant Taxonomy). ISBN 978-3-9501754-3-1 (see External links below).

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