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Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) or Toyomycin is an anthraquinone antibiotic glycoside produced by the fermentation of a certain strain of Streptomyces griseus (No. 7).[1]

Chromomycin A3
Chromomycin A3.png
IUPAC name
Other names
ECHA InfoCard 100.027.589
Molar mass 1183.257 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Fluorescence propertiesEdit

In the presence of Mg2+ ions, Chromomycin A3 binds reversibly to DNA, preferentially to contiguous G/C base pairs.[2][3]

When bound to DNA, Chromomycin A3 has a maximum excitation wavelength of 445 nm (blue), and a maximum emission wavelength of 575 nm (yellow).[4]


  1. ^ a b Kamiyama, M.; Kaziro, Y. (January 1966). "Mechanism of action of chromomycin A3. 1. Inhibition of nucleic acid metabolism in Bacillus subtilis cells". Journal of Biochemistry. 59 (1): 49–56. ISSN 0021-924X. PMID 4957278.
  2. ^ Kamiyama, M. (May 1968). "Mechanism of action of chromomycin A3. 3. On the binding of chromomycin A3 with DNA and physiochemical properties of the complex". Journal of Biochemistry. 63 (5): 566–572. ISSN 0021-924X. PMID 4972707.
  3. ^ a b Van Dyke, M. W.; Dervan, P. B. (1983-05-10). "Chromomycin, mithramycin, and olivomycin binding sites on heterogeneous deoxyribonucleic acid. Footprinting with (methidiumpropyl-EDTA)iron(II)". Biochemistry. 22 (10): 2373–2377. ISSN 0006-2960. PMID 6222762.
  4. ^
  5. ^ Kajiro, Y.; Kamiyama, M. (October 1967). "Mechanism of action of chromomycin A3. II. Inhibition of RNA polymerase reaction". Journal of Biochemistry. 62 (4): 424–429. ISSN 0021-924X. PMID 5587590.
  6. ^ Iranpour, Farhad Golshan; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Al-Taraihi, Taki Mohammad Taki (2000-01-01). "Chromomycin A3 Staining as a Useful Tool for Evaluation of Male Fertility". Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. 17 (1): 60–66. doi:10.1023/a:1009406231811. ISSN 1058-0468. PMC 3455193. PMID 10754785.
  7. ^ Nijs, Martine; Creemers, Eva; Cox, Annemie; Franssen, Kim; Janssen, Mia; Vanheusden, Elke; Jonge, Christopher De; Ombelet, Willem (November 2009). "Chromomycin A3 staining, sperm chromatin structure assay and hyaluronic acid binding assay as predictors for assisted reproductive outcome". Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 19 (5): 671–684. doi:10.1016/j.rbmo.2009.07.002.