Christian terrorism, a form of religious terrorism, comprises terrorist acts which are committed by groups or individuals who profess Christian motivations or goals. Christian terrorists justify their violent tactics through their interpretation of the Bible and Christianity, in accordance with their own objectives and worldview.
Christian terrorism can be committed against members of other Christian denominations, adherents of other religions, secular governments, groups, individuals or society as a whole. Christianity can also be cynically used as a rhetorical device to achieve political or military goals by terrorists.
Christian terrorist groups include paramilitary organizations, cults, and loose groups of people that might come together in order to attempt to terrorize other groups. Some groups also encourage unaffiliated individuals to commit terrorist acts. The paramilitary groups are typically tied to ethnic and political goals as well as religious goals and many of these groups have religious beliefs which are at odds with the religious beliefs of conventional Christianity.
Religion can be cited as the motivation for terrorism in conflicts that have a variety of ethnic, economic and political causes, such as the one in Bosnia. In cases such as the Lord's Resistance Army or the Taiping Rebellion the beliefs of the founders differ significantly from what is recognizably Christian. In such cases the term Christian terrorism is problematic despite the claim that they are motivated by their religious beliefs.
The intimidation of minority communities along with sporadic acts of violence do not typically get referred to as terrorism. However, in 2015 a majority of Americans from the Democratic and Republican political parties thought that "attacks on abortion providers [should] be considered domestic terrorism".
Christianity came to prominence in the Roman Empire during and directly after the rule of Constantine the Great (324-337 AD). By this time it had spread throughout western Asia as a minority belief and it became the state religion of Armenia. In early Christianity there were many rival sects, which were collectively persecuted by some rulers. There is, however, no record of these early Christian groups attempting to use acts of terrorism or indiscriminate acts of violence as religious weapons.
Gaining state backing by a particular Christian sect or creed led to an increase in religious violence. This violence took the form of persecution of adherents of rival Christian beliefs and persecution of adherents of other religions. In Europe during the Middle Ages Christian antisemitism increased and both the Reformation and Counter-Reformation led to an increase in interdenominational violence. As with modern examples it is debated as to what extent these acts were religious as opposed to ethnic or political in nature.
Gunpowder Plot edit
The early modern period in Britain saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the recusancy that emerged in opposition to it. The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of English Catholics to assassinate the Protestant King James I, and to blow up the Palace of Westminster, the English seat of government. Although the modern concept of religious terrorism, or indeed terrorism at all, had not yet come into use in the seventeenth century, David C. Rapoport and Lindsay Clutterbuck point out that the Plot, with its use of explosives, was an early precursor of nineteenth century anarchist terrorism. Sue Mahan and Pamala L. Griset classify the plot as an act of religious terrorism, writing that "Fawkes and his colleagues justified their actions in terms of religion." Peter Steinfels also characterizes this plot as a notable case of religious terrorism.
Eastern Orthodox Christian-influenced movements in Romania, such as the Iron Guard and Lăncieri, which have been characterized by Yad Vashem and Stanley G. Payne as antisemitic and fascist, respectively, were involved in the Bucharest pogrom and committed numerous politically motivated murders during the 1930s.
Ku Klux Klan edit
After the American Civil War of 1861–1865, former Confederate soldiers founded the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) organization. Originally, the Ku Klux Klan was a social club, but a year after it was founded, it was taken over by "night rider" elements. It then began to commit acts of violence which included arson, beatings, the destruction of property, lynchings, murder, rape, tarring and feathering, whipping, and voter intimidation. The Klan targeted newly freed slaves, carpetbaggers, scalawags, and the occupying Union Army. That iteration of the Klan disappeared by the 1870s, but in 1915 a new Protestant-led iteration of the Klan was formed in Georgia, during a period when racism, xenophobia, nativism and anti-Catholicism were all widespread. This version of the Klan vastly expanded its geographical reach and its list of targets over those of the original Klan.
Vehemently anti-Catholic, the 1915 Klan espoused an explicitly Protestant Christian terrorist ideology, partially basing its beliefs on a "religious foundation" in Protestant Christianity and targeting Jews, Catholics, and other social, ethnic and religious minorities, as well as people who engaged in "immoral" practices such as adulterers, bad debtors, gamblers, and alcohol abusers. From an early time onward, the goals of the KKK included an intent to "reestablish Protestant Christian values in America by any means possible", and it believed that "Jesus was the first Klansman". Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality, virtually every Christian denomination has officially denounced the KKK.
From 1915 onward, "second era" Klansmen initiated cross burnings (adapted from scenes in the 1915 film The Birth of a Nation), not only to intimidate targets, but also to demonstrate their respect and reverence for Jesus Christ. The ritual of lighting crosses was steeped in Christian symbolism, including prayer and hymn singing. Modern Klan organizations remain associated with acts of domestic terrorism in the United States.
Start of modern terrorism edit
Mark Juergensmeyer, a former president of the American Academy of Religion, has argued that there has been a global rise in religious nationalism after the Cold War due to the post-colonial collapse of confidence in Western models of nationalism and the rise of globalization. Juergensmeyer categorizes contemporary Christian terrorists as being a part of "religious activists from Algeria to Idaho, who have come to hate secular governments with an almost transcendent passion and dream of revolutionary changes that will establish a godly social order in the rubble of what the citizens of most secular societies regard as modern, egalitarian democracies".
According to terrorism expert David C. Rapoport, a "religious wave", or a cycle, of terrorism, dates from approximately 1979 to the present. According to Rapoport, this wave most prominently features Islamic terrorism, but it also includes terrorism by Christians and other religious groups that may have been influenced by Islamic terrorism.
Reason for claiming a Christian motivation edit
Numerous individuals and groups have cited their Christianity or Christian beliefs as the motivation for their terrorist acts. This can mean that they see Christianity as their identity and the main reason for their existence, partially in contrast to the identities and existence of other groups which they consider threatening and non-Christian. Terrorists can also cite their interpretation of the Bible or Christian beliefs as their motivation. All types of terrorism have a complex interrelationship with psychology and mental health, however only a minority of terrorists have diagnosable medical illnesses. Christianity can also be claimed as a motive to inspire followers or curry political favor or protection. All these motivations are not independent and often complexly interwoven.
Christianity as an identity edit
Religion is often closely tied to ethnic identity, economic standing and self image. Should a group of Christians feel threatened, religion is a verifiable, culturally important label to use in creating a "them-and-us" mentality. This is particularly the case where both groups share membership in a broadly similar cultural group, for example the breakup of Yugoslavia and the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda. In situations where the opposing ethnicities are more diverse, different skin colors and/or cultural practices are sometimes used as identifiers of the other. In these cases terrorists may call themselves Christians, but they may not be motivated by any particular interpretation of Christian beliefs. In such cases Christianity is a label which reflects cultural, rather than directly ideological, influences.
This cultural Christian identity is often reinforced in the mind of the terrorist by media and governmental sources that vilify the other group or amplify its threat. This politicizing of ethno-religious tensions is a key contributor to the violence in the Central African Republic. The targets of this kind of terrorist motivation include other religions or denominations, but they can also include those who the perpetrator believes are threatening to him or her in any way, such as LGBT people or members of any group which does not conform to the perpetrator's view of who they are.
When the opposing group is also Christian but belongs to a different denomination, it is often denounced as non-Christian or anti-Christian. For example, the leader of the Orange Volunteers, who described themselves as Protestant fundamentalists, defended their attacks on Catholic churches on the basis that they were "bastions of the Antichrist".
Interpretations of Christian morality or theology edit
Perpetrators have frequently cited Christianity as both a justification and a motivation for their actions. Typically, as with attacks on abortion clinics as well as with attacks on LGBT people, the perpetrators use doctrine from an established Church as a justification for unsanctioned acts of violence. However, they may also have a wholly individual theology that deviates from established Christian dogma.
On 12 December 2022, a fundamentalist Christian terror attack that resulted in the deaths of six people occurred in Wieambilla, Australia. Premillennialism was cited by police as the terrorists' motivation.
Mental health edit
There are a wide variety of mental health conditions and illness, and it is quite rare for them to lead to violence. Objectively determining the mental health of a terrorist is often complicated by a number of factors. There is minimal statistically robust information specifically on terrorists who claim Christian motivation. However, Gill says that about 30% of right wing, 52% of single issue, and 8% of those in a terrorist group have a mental illness. Another study found that about 53% of individual terrorists could have been characterized as socially isolated before their attacks. People in some terrorist groups are less likely to have a mental illness than the general population, due to the selection criteria of such groups. Mental illness does not seem to unduly prevent terrorists from performing successful complex attacks.
Tactics of terrorists edit
Terrorists who claim to have a Christian motivation can act alone or in groups. It is often difficult to determine if the perpetrator acted completely alone or was inspired by a religious or political group. The same problem exists with Islamic terrorism or any allegedly religiously or politically motivated act of terror.
Anti-abortion violence edit
On 16 July 2001, Peter James Knight walked into the East Melbourne Fertility Clinic, a private abortion provider, carrying a rifle and other weapons including 16 litres of kerosene, three lighters, torches, 30 gags, and a handwritten note that read "We regret to advise that as a result of a fatal accident involving some members of staff, we have been forced to cancel all appointments today". Knight later stated that he intended to massacre everyone in the clinic, and attack all Melbourne abortion clinics. He developed homemade mouth gags and door jambs to restrain all patients and staff inside a clinic while he doused them with the kerosene. He shot 44-year-old Stephen Gordon Rogers, a security guard, in the chest, killing him. Staff and clients overpowered him soon after. He intended to massacre the 15 staff and 26 patients at the clinic by burning them alive.
According to psychiatrist Don Sendipathy, Knight interpreted the Bible in his own unique way and he also believed in his own brand of Christianity. He believed that he needed to wage an anti-abortion Crusade.
Eric Robert Rudolph (the perpetrator of the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in 1996) carried out bombing attacks on two abortion clinics and he also bombed a lesbian nightclub. Michael Barkun, a professor at Syracuse University, believes that Rudolph likely fits the definition of a Christian terrorist; however, James A. Aho, a professor at Idaho State University, is reluctant to use the phrase Christian terrorist, so he calls Rudolph "a religiously inspired terrorist".
Dr. George Tiller, one of the few doctors in the United States who performed abortions late in pregnancies, was a frequent target of anti-abortion violence and in 2009, he was killed by Scott Roeder as he stood in the foyer of his church. A witness who was serving as an usher alongside Tiller at the church that day told the court that Roeder entered the foyer, put a gun to the doctor's head and pulled the trigger. At trial, Roeder admitted to killing Tiller and he said that he did it in order to protect the lives of unborn babies. He was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to life in prison. At his sentencing, he told the court that God “will avenge every drop of innocent blood, ” and he also stated that God’s judgment against the United States would “sweep over this land like a prairie wind.”
Tiller was shot once before, in 1993, by Shelley Shannon, an anti-abortion activist who compared abortion providers to Hitler and said that she believed that "justifiable force" was necessary to stop abortions. Shannon was sentenced to 10 years in prison for the shooting of Tiller and she later confessed to vandalizing and burning a string of abortion clinics in California, Nevada and Oregon.
James Kopp was convicted of the murder of Dr. Barnett Slepian, an obstetrician who provided abortion services in the Buffalo area, and he has also been named as a suspect in the shooting of several abortion providers in Canada. Kopp hid in the woods behind Slepian's home in October 1998 and shot him through the window with a high-powered rifle, killing him as he stood in his kitchen with his family. Slepian had just returned from a memorial service for his father when he was killed. Kopp spent almost two and a half years on the run in Mexico, Ireland and France before he was captured and extradited to the United States in 2001. He was convicted on a state charge of second-degree murder in 2003 and sentenced to serve 25 years in prison. In 2007, he was convicted on a separate federal charge and sentenced to life in prison. The Canadian authorities also consider Kopp a suspect in several nonlethal attacks on Canadian abortion service providers because they believe that he shot through the windows of their homes. He was charged with the 1995 attempted murder of Dr. Hugh Short, an abortion service provider in Ontario, but the charges were dropped after he was convicted in New York. The police in Canada also named him as a suspect in the 1997 shooting of Dr. Jack Fainman in Winnipeg and they also named him as a suspect in the 1994 shooting of Dr. Garson Romalis in Vancouver, which was the first attack on an abortion provider in Canada.
The November 2015 Colorado Springs Planned Parenthood shooting, in which three people were killed and nine people were injured, was described as "a form of terrorism" by Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper. The gunman, Robert Lewis Dear, was described as a "delusional" man because on a cannabis internet forum, he had written that "sinners" would "burn in hell" during the end times, and he had also written about smoking marijuana and propositioning women for sex. He had praised the Army of God, stating that attacks on abortion clinics are "God's work". Dear's ex-wife said that he had put glue on a lock of a Planned Parenthood clinic, and in court documents which pertained to their divorce, she said "He claims to be a Christian and is extremely evangelistic, but does not follow the Bible in his actions. He says that as long as he believes he will be saved, he can do whatever he pleases. He is obsessed with the world coming to an end." Authorities said that he spoke of "no more baby parts" in a rambling interview after his arrest.
Anti-minority violence edit
Gary Matson and Winfield Mowder were a gay couple from Redding, California, who were murdered by Benjamin Matthew Williams and James Tyler Williams in 1999. Neighbors said that the family of the Williams Brothers was known for its fundamentalist Christian beliefs, and they also said that recordings of sermons and religious music were frequently heard from their house. The two perpetrators of the murder are believed to have had ties to the Christian Identity movement. They were also suspected of playing a role in 18 arson attacks on three synagogues.
In 1996, three men who claimed to be Phineas priests—Charles Barbee, Robert Berry and Jay Merelle—were charged with two bank robberies and bombings at the banks, the bombing of a Spokane newspaper, and the bombing of a Planned Parenthood clinic in Washington state. The men were antisemitic Christian Identity theorists who believed that God wanted them to carry out violent attacks and they also believed that such attacks would hasten the ascendancy of the Aryan race.
In 2015, Robert Doggart, a 63-year-old mechanical engineer, was indicted for solicitation to commit a civil rights violation by intending to damage or destroy religious property after he stated that he intended to amass weapons and attack Islamberg, an Islamic hamlet and religious community in Delaware County, New York. Doggart, a member of several private militia groups, spoke to an FBI source during a phone call and stated that he had an M4 carbine with "500 rounds of ammunition" that he intended to take to the Delaware County enclave, along with a handgun, Molotov cocktails and a machete. The FBI source recorded him saying "if it gets down to the machete, we will cut them to shreds". Doggart had previously travelled to a site in Dover, Tennessee, which had been described as a "jihadist training camp", in chain emails and found that the claims were wrong. In April, Doggart accepted a plea bargain and stated that he had "willfully and knowingly sent a message in interstate commerce containing a true threat" to injure someone. The plea bargain was struck down by a judge because it did not contain enough facts to constitute a true threat. Doggart describes himself as a Christian minister in the "Christian National (Congregational) Church" (apparently, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches). None of the charges against him are terrorism related, however, some groups have described his actions as such.
According to University of Auckland Professor Douglas Pratt, who is an international expert on religious terrorism, the Christchurch mosque shootings by Australian Brenton Harrison Tarrant, which killed 51 people and injured 50 more people (primarily Muslims) at the Al Noor Mosque and the Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand, were a form of "Christian terrorism" and white supremacy. Tarrant's manifesto The Great Replacement, which is named after the French far-right conspiracy theory bearing the same name, quoted Pope Urban II (who ordered the First Crusade) and demanded the retaking of Jerusalem, cited the death of 11-year-old Swedish girl Ebba Akerlund, cited NATO's involvement in Kosovo, stated Tarrant's wish that Istanbul (aka Constantinople) should be taken from Turkey so it will be back in Christian hands and he finally stated that Tarrant's main motive for the attacks was revenge against Islam. The shooter's rifles were covered with white supremacist symbols and the names of various historical non-Muslim figures who waged battles against Muslims, such as Charles Martel, Skanderbeg and Bajo Pivljanin as well as the Battle of Tours in 732 and the Battle of Vienna in 1683.
The perpetrator of the Pittsburgh Tree of Life synagogue shooting Robert Bowers cited a Bible passage about Jesus Christ on the bio of his now defunct Gab account. Similarly, the Poway synagogue shooting suspect John T. Earnest also cited Bible quotes to justify his attack and in March 2019, he burned down a mosque in Escondido, California.
See also edit
- Violence related to Christianity
- The Bible and violence
- Christian eschatology
- Christian fascism
- Christian fundamentalism
- Christian Identity
- Christianity and violence
- Christian nationalism
- Christian Patriot movement
- Christian reconstructionism
- Criticism of Christianity
- Dominion theology
- European wars of religion
- History of Christianity
- History of Christian thought on persecution and tolerance
- Just war theory
- Mormon fundamentalism
- Mormonism and violence
- Persecution of Christians
- General violence
- Clerical fascism
- Definitions of fascism
- Definition of terrorism
- Ethnic nationalism
- Ethnic violence
- Far-left politics
- Far-right politics
- Far-right subcultures
- Fascism and ideology
- Hate crime
- Hate crime laws in the United States
- Hate group
- History of terrorism
- Left-wing nationalism
- Left-wing politics
- Left-wing populism
- Left-wing terrorism
- Misogynist terrorism
- Nationalist terrorism
- Political violence
- Racial nationalism
- Right-wing politics
- Right-wing populism
- Right-wing terrorism
- Terrorism in other religions
- General religion related
- Criticism of religion
- History of religion
- Religious discrimination
- Religious fanaticism
- Religious intolerance
- Religious nationalism
- Religious persecution
- Religious segregation
- Religious terrorism
- Religious violence
- Religious war
- Right-wing terrorism
- Sectarian violence
- Violent extremism
- Bruce Hoffman (1998). Inside terrorism. Internet Archive. Columbia University Press. pp. 105–120. ISBN 978-0-231-11468-4.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and Terrorism: An Interfaith Perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 29. ISBN 9780275969233.
- Hoffman, Bruce (January 1995). "'Holy terror': The implications of terrorism motivated by a religious imperative". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 18 (4): 271–284. doi:10.1080/10576109508435985.
- Pratt, Douglas (15 June 2010). "Religion and Terrorism: Christian Fundamentalism and Extremism". Terrorism and Political Violence. 22 (3): 438–456. doi:10.1080/09546551003689399. S2CID 143804453.
- "What is the Lord's Resistance Army?". Christian Science Monitor. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Bruce Hoffman (1998). Inside Terrorism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11468-4.
- Flynn, Daniel (29 July 2014). "Insight - Gold, diamonds feed Central African religious violence". Reuters. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- Mark Juergensmeyer (1 September 2003). Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-93061-2.
- Barkun, Michael (1996). "preface". Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. University of North Carolina Press. pp. x. ISBN 978-0-8078-4638-4.
- Horgan, John; Braddock, Kurt (2012). Terrorism Studies: A Reader. Routledge. ISBN 9780415455046.
- Camacho, Daniel José (23 March 2018). "Why Mark Anthony Conditt – a white Christian – isn't called a terrorist". The Guardian.
- "Pope tells U.S. summit "No people is criminal, no religion is terrorist"". Crux. 17 February 2017. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Rapoport, David C. (2006). Terrorism: The fourth or religious wave. Taylor & Francis. p. 17. ISBN 9780415316545.
- Judah, Tim (2000). The Serbs: History, Myth, and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08507-5.[page needed]
- Thompson, John B. (16 May 2013). "The World's Bloodiest Civil War". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Murder charge for gay-bar gunman". BBC News. 25 September 2000. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- "Ekklesia | Evangelical leader criticises failure to condemn violence against gays". www.ekklesia.co.uk. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Crockett, Emily (2 December 2015). "Poll: Most Americans think attacks on abortion clinics are "domestic terrorism"". Vox. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Wendy Doniger (ed.), "Constantine I", in Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006), p. 262.
- van Lint, Theo Maarten (2009). "The Formation of Armenian Identity in the First Millenium". Church History and Religious Culture. 89 (1): 251–278. doi:10.1163/187124109X407925.
- Jenkins, John Philip (28 October 2008). The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia--and How It Died. Harper Collins. ISBN 9780061472800.
the lost history of christianity.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195182491.
- R. MacMullen, "Christianizing The Roman Empire A.D.100-400, Yale University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-300-03642-6
- Anti-Semitism. Jerusalem: Keter Books. 1974. ISBN 9780706513271.
- hermesauto (31 October 2017). "Catholics, Lutherans 'beg forgiveness' for violence on 500th anniversary of Protestant Reformation". The Straits Times. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Holmes, Peter; McCoog, Thomas M.; Crosignani, Ginevra; Questier, Michael C. (2010). Recusancy and Conformity in Early Modern England: Manuscript and Printed Sources in Translation. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 978-0-88844-170-6.[page needed]
- Rapoport, David C. (2006). Terrorism: The first or anarchist wave. Routledge. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-415-31651-4.
- Mahan, Sue; Griset, Pamala L. (2013). "Religious Terrorism: Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot". Terrorism in Perspective (3rd ed.). Sage Publications. pp. 42–44. ISBN 9781452225456.
Like many terrorists throughout history, Fawkes and his colleagues justified their actions in terms of religion. Like other instances of 'holy terror', the Gunpowder Plot was deeply rooted in events that had occurred long before.
- Steinfels, Peter (5 November 2005). "A Day to Think About a Case of Faith-Based Terrorism". The New York Times.
- Paul Tinichigiu (January 2004). "Sami Fiul (interview)". The Central Europe Center for Research and Documentation. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Ioanid, Radu (January 2004). "The sacralised politics of the Romanian Iron Guard". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 5 (3): 419–453. doi:10.1080/1469076042000312203. S2CID 145585057.
- Leon Volovici (1991). Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism. Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-08-041024-1.
citing N. Cainic, Ortodoxie şi etnocraţie, pp. 162–4
- "Roots of Romanian Antisemitism: The League of National Christian Defense and Iron Guard Antisemitism" (PDF). Background and Precursors to the Holocaust. Wayback Machine: 37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
- Payne, Stanley G. (1995). A History of Fascism 1914–1945. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press (pp. 277–289) ISBN 0-299-14874-2
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 21, 30, 55, 91.
- Michael, Robert, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of antisemitism from the earliest times to the present. Lanham, Maryland, US: Scarecrow Press, 1997 p. 267.
- Perlmutter, Philip (1 January 1999). Legacy of Hate: A Short History of Ethnic, Religious, and Racial Prejudice in America. M.E. Sharpe. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7656-0406-4.
Kenneth T. Jackson, in his The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915-1930, reminds us that "virtually every" Protestant denomination denounced the KKK, but most KKK members were not "innately depraved or anxious enough to subvert American institutions," rather, they believed that their membership was in keeping with "one-hundred percent Americanism" and Christian morality.
- Wade, Wyn Craig (1998). The fiery cross: the Ku Klux Klan in America. US: Oxford University Press. pp. 146, 185. ISBN 978-0-19-512357-9.
- "About the Ku Klux Klan". ADL. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
- Mark Juergensmeyer; Margo Kitts; Michael Jerryson (14 February 2013). The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence. OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-975999-6.
- Mark Juergensmeyer (10 May 1993). The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-91501-5.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark (1998). "Christian Violence in America". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 558: 88–100. doi:10.1177/0002716298558001008. S2CID 143966054.
- Rapoport, David C. The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism (PDF). p. 47. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and Terrorism: An Interfaith Perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275969233.
- Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige (March 2014). "Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone‐Actor Terrorists". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 59 (2): 425–435. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12312. PMC 4217375. PMID 24313297.
- Sharpe, Tanya Telfair (March 2000). "The Identity Christian Movement: Ideology of Domestic Terrorism". Journal of Black Studies. 30 (4): 604–623. doi:10.1177/002193470003000407. S2CID 146343390.
- Kozlowska, Iga; Béland, Daniel; Lecours, André (October 2016). "Nationalism, religion, and abortion policy in four Catholic societies: Nationalism, religion, and abortion policy". Nations and Nationalism. 22 (4): 824–844. doi:10.1111/nana.12157.
- Chatlani, Hema (2007). "Uganda: A Nation in Crisis". California Western International Law Journal. 37 (2).
- Sajid, Abduljalil (December 2005). "Islamophobia: A New Word for an Old Fear". Palestine. 12 (2–3): 31–40. ProQuest 235699136.
- Zapata-Barrero, Ricard; Díez-Nicolás, Juan (2013). "Islamophobia in Spain? Political rhetoric rather than a social fact". In Helbling, Marc (ed.). Islamophobia in the West. pp. 97–112. doi:10.4324/9780203841730-14. ISBN 978-0-203-84173-0. S2CID 159204252.
- Debos, Marielle (11 June 2014). "'Hate' and 'Security Vacuum': How Not to Ask the Right Questions about a Confusing Crisis". Society for Cultural Anthropology.
- Claire Mitchell (2006). Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7546-4155-1.
- "Self-styled loyalist pastor jailed". BBC News. 8 March 2001.
- "BBC - Religions - Christianity: Abortion". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The fifth commandment". www.vatican.va. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 6 September 2002. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
- Hoffman, Bruce (6 June 2006). Inside Terrorism. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231510462.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark; Juergensmeyer, Professor of Global and International Studies Sociology and Religious Studies Mark (2003). Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520240117.
- Hinchliffe, Joe (16 February 2023). "Wieambilla shootings labelled Australia's first Christian terrorist attack". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 February 2023.
- Ciara Jones (16 February 2023). "Queensland police say the Wieambilla shooting is a terrorist attack motivated by premillennialism. Here's what that means". ABC News (Australia). Archived from the original on 16 February 2023. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
- Anna Houlahan (16 February 2023). "What is premillennialism? Wieambilla shooters religion revealed". Canberra Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2023. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
- Varshney, Mohit; Mahapatra, Ananya; Krishnan, Vijay; Gupta, Rishab; Deb, Koushik Sinha (March 2016). "Violence and mental illness: what is the true story?". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 70 (3): 223–225. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-205546. PMC 4789812. PMID 26320232.
- Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard G. (February 2014). "Mental Illness and Violence: Lessons From the Evidence". American Journal of Public Health. 104 (2): e5–e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301710. PMC 3935671. PMID 24328636.
- Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul; Mason, Oliver (2 June 2016). "Mental Health Disorders and the Terrorist: A Research Note Probing Selection Effects and Disorder Prevalence". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 39 (6): 560–568. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2015.1120099.
- Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul (February 2015). "A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism". Law and Human Behavior. 39 (1): 23–34. doi:10.1037/lhb0000102. PMID 25133916.
- Fein, Robert A.; Vossekuil, Bryan (1 March 1999). "Assassination in the United States: An Operational Study of Recent Assassins, Attackers, and Near-Lethal Approachers". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 44 (2): 321–333. doi:10.1520/JFS14457J. PMID 10097356.
- Callimachi, Rukmini (4 February 2017). "Not 'Lone Wolves' After All: How ISIS Guides World's Terror Plots From Afar". The New York Times.
- Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed; Barr, Nathaniel (26 July 2016). "The Myth of Lone-Wolf Terrorism". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Abortion clinic guard killer jailed for life" (transcript). The World Today. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 November 2002. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Anderson, Paul (11 March 2014). "Deluded pro-life crusader Peter James Knight kills guard, but wanted more dead after he brought his gun and hatred to an abortion clinic in Melbourne". Herald Sun. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Berry, Jamie; Munro, Ian (19 November 2002). "'Remorseless' recluse gets life". The Age. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- Cooperman, Alan (2 June 2003). "Is Terrorism Tied To Christian Sect?". Washington Post.
'Based on what we know of Rudolph so far, and admittedly it's fragmentary, there seems to be a fairly high likelihood that he can legitimately be called a Christian terrorist,' said Michael Barkun, a professor of political science at Syracuse University who has been a consultant to the FBI on Christian extremist groups.
- "Kansas: Doctor's Killer Says God Will Judge U.S." New York Times. 1 April 2010.
- "Colorado Springs shootings: Calls to cool abortion debate". BBC. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Psychologists Call Suspect in Colorado Clinic Shooting Delusional". NBC News.
- Silverstein, Jason (29 November 2015). "Robert Dear appeared to solicit sex, rant about Bible online". New York Daily News. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 2 December 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
- Cleary, Tom (29 November 2015). "Robert Lewis Dear's Online Dating Profile & Cannabis.com Rants".
- "For Robert Dear, Religion and Rage Before Planned Parenthood Attack". The New York Times. 2 December 2015.
- "Terrorist Organization Profile: Army of God". National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- Stanton, Sam; Gary Delsohn (9 October 1999). "Poster boys for the summer of hate". Salon.Com. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- "Charges Filed in Slaying of Gay Couple". Los Angeles Times. 20 July 1999. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- Martin, Gus (2003). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. SAGE Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-0761926153.[page needed]
- "Signal Mountain man pleads not guilty in alleged plot to kill New York Muslims". timesfreepress.com. 14 July 2015.
- "Plotter of attack on Muslim town ruled out possible 'threat' in Tennessee". timesfreepress.com. 20 May 2015.
- Sainz, Adrian (6 September 2015). "Trial of Tennessee man Robert Doggart accused of planning mosque attack delayed". commercialappeal.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
- "Judge delays trial of man accused of plotting attack on Muslim community". The Guardian.
- "Robert Doggart". ballotpedia.org.
- Raya Jalabi in New York (7 July 2015). "Release of man who threatened Islamberg hamlet prompts outcry". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Ex-Tennessee congressional hopeful Robert Doggart indicted in alleged plot against Muslims in upstate New York". CBS News. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Protesters outside Chattanooga federal building blast handling of Robert Doggart case". Times Free Press. 13 July 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Christchurch attacks were a form of 'Christian terrorism', as well as racial hatred, says religion expert". Television New Zealand. 19 March 2019. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
- "Warning signs of terror attack in New Zealand have been apparent, experts say". Stuff.co.nz. 15 March 2019.
- "Brenton Tarrant Manifesto: The 'Great Replacement' Rant". Heavy.com. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "New Zealand shooting gunman's rifles covered in white supremacist symbols popular online". CBS News.com. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Robert Bowers, Shooter Who Killed 11 at Synagogue, Quoted the Bible, Talked About Jesus Christ". www.christianpost.com. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
- Cleary, Tom (27 April 2019). "John Earnest: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". Heavy.com. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- Mason, Carol. 2002. Killing for Life: The Apocalyptic Narrative of Pro-Life Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
- Zeskind, Leonard. 1987. The 'Christian Identity' Movement, [booklet]. Atlanta, Georgia: Center for Democratic Renewal/Division of Church and Society, National Council of Churches.
- Al-Khattar, Aref M. Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Greenwood. January 2003. ISBN 978-0-275-96923-3
- "The Armies of God: A Study in Militant Christianity" by Iain Buchanan, Publisher: Citizens International (2010), ISBN 978-9833046096
- Introduction: The Enduring Relationship of Religion and Violence – Oxford Handbooks Online