Chou was born in Taipei, Taiwan. In 1980s and 1990s, Go environment in Taiwan was not integrate and prosperous. However, unlike other Taiwanese Go players went to Japan to get better environment, he stayed and became a professional in Taiwan. Chou became a professional in 1993. He would later advance to 7 dan in 1997, then finally 9 dan in 1998. He was the first 9 dan professional player whose professional career was all in Taiwan. He is widely credited as the best player at the Taiwan Qiyuan, although with increasing popularity of becoming a professional in Taiwan, he has been challenged by opponents. He won his first international title, LG Cup, in 2007 beating Hu Yaoyu 2 to 1. He is the only player from Taiwan Qiyuan who won an international title up to now.
In the west his name is often rendered as "Chun-Hsun Chou".