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Chongqing gang trials

The Chongqing gang trials (or dahei campaign) were a series of triad-busting trials in the city of Chongqing that began in October 2009 and concluded in 2011. Carried out under the auspices of municipal Communist Party chief Bo Xilai and police chief Wang Lijun, a total of 4,781 suspects were arrested, including 19 suspected crime bosses, hundreds of triad members, and a number of allegedly corrupt police, government and Communist party officials, including six district police chiefs and the city's former deputy police commissioner, Wen Qiang.[1] Time described it as "China's trial of the 21st century".[2] The crackdown is believed to be the largest of its kind in the history of the People's Republic of China. Concerns over due process surfaced following the trial, including allegations of torture, forced confessions, and intimidation.[3]

Chongqing gang trials
China Chongqing.svg
Chongqing is a large municipality in China's interior.
Traditional Chinese重慶打黑除惡專項行動
Simplified Chinese重庆打黑除恶专项行动
Literal meaningTargeted actions against dark and evil forces in Chongqing

The trials earned significant media attention for local party chief Bo Xilai, and its implications partially contributed to Bo's downfall in March 2012. Police chief Wang Lijun was also later convicted of abuse of power and went to prison.


Chongqing had been a center for gang activities prior to the advent of Communism in China. When the Communist Party came to power in 1949, it cracked down on organized crime, almost eliminating it.[4] After liberalization under Deng Xiaoping, gangs made a comeback in the city, this time with associates within the Communist Party.[4]

Politburo member Bo Xilai, the head of the Communist Party in Chongqing since November 2007, made "cleaning up the city" a priority,[5] bringing in trusted outside aides such as Wang Lijun to lead the crackdown on gangs and corruption.[6]

Impact and responseEdit

Over 9,000 suspects were investigated, including 50 public officials.[7] Fourteen of these have been high-ranking officials,[8] including members of the Chongqing Higher People's Court.[9] Several members of the police force have also been detained, including Wen Qiang, the former director of the Chongqing Municipal Bureau of Justice and the bureau's party chief, as well as former deputy police commissioner.[1] By 6 November 2009, over 800 people had warrants issued for their arrest and 327 were prosecuted.[10]

The first 31 defendants were brought to trial on 12 October 2009, nine in Chongqing's First Intermediate People's Court and another 22 at the Third Intermediate People's Court. Charges included murder, assault, and operating illegal coal mines.[11] On 21 October, three of the defendants in the first round of trials (Yang Tianqing, Liu Chenghu, and Liu Zhongyong) were sentenced to death, and another three were given suspended death sentences.[12] The other 25 defendants were sentenced to jail terms ranging from one year to life.[13]

Bo Xilai, party chief of Chongqing, led the crackdown

The highest-profile defendant has been deputy police commissioner Wen Qiang’s sister-in-law, Xie Caiping (Chinese: 谢才萍), reputedly the ringleader of the syndicate and dubbed the "Godmother of Chongqing".[14] Xie, 46, reputedly kept 16 young men as lovers.[15] She and 22 accomplices were brought to trial on 14 October. During the trial, a judge rebuked her for profanity in her testimony. This, combined with the rumours of her lovers, have increased the public's interest in her case.[16] On 3 November she was sentenced to 18 years in prison for running a crime syndicate that operated illegal gambling dens, illegally locked people up, harboured drug users, ran protection rackets, and bribed police.[15] Though she won a five-year decrease in her original sentence by confessing to her crimes, she intends to appeal the court ruling.[17]

On 19 October the 23-year-old twin brothers Zhang Bo and Zhang Tao were arraigned in the Chongqing Municipal Intermediate People's Court with 21 accomplices. On 6 November, each of the brothers was sentenced to serve 17 years in prison, with members of the syndicate receiving jail sentences of between 6 months and 13 and a half years.[18]

In March 2010, Chongqing's police bureau saw an upheaval in jobs. On 8 March, the reform was publicized in a plenary conference and circulated on the police's internal website. Many, if not all, of the leadership positions have been opened to competition.[19] Three new deputy directors were named in September 2009 and January and March 2010. Additionally, there are plans to hire over 7700 new policemen in 2010.[20]

The trial of Wen Qiang concluded on 14 April 2010, with the Fifth Intermediate People's Court of Chongqing announcing that Wen would be given the death penalty for his crimes, which include accepting bribes, rape, and failure to account for his assets.[21][22] Previously, the Court had recovered over 30 million yuan ($4.38 million) of Wen's assets, some of which was found hidden in a vault.[23][24] Other assets recovered included a mansion in the Xiannu Mountain district of Chongqing.[23] The announcement of Wen's death sentence was met with cheers and exuberance outside the courtroom by victims and other Chongqing citizens.[25] Wen's wife, Zhou Xiaoya, confessed to accepting bribes of some 4.5 million yuan, and was sentenced to eight years in prison.[25] Several of Wen's cohorts were also sentenced. Wen Qiang, along with his wife and three others, appealed the decision. Wen lost the appeal in May, when the court announced the clear evidence against him, and he was executed in July 2010.[26]

Concerns about due processEdit

Some liberal Chinese media sources, including Southern Weekend, Caixin and Sanlian Life Week, have complained that in a rush to secure convictions, authorities are not fully heeding the legal requirements of due process.[27] In December 2009 defence lawyer, Li Zhuang was arrested and accused of "coaching his client (Gong Gangmo) to make false claims of torture". Li was sentenced to 18 months in prison and barred for life from practising law.[27] On 27 July 2010, another lawyer, Zhu Mingyong, released videotapes of his client Fan Qihang accusing authorities of torturing him almost every day for six months. Fan, 39 years old and accused of running a crime syndicate, had already been convicted and sentenced to death following his arrest in June 2009.[28] Fan said he was beaten, deprived of sleep and placed in stress positions for long periods of time. He said that after he tried to kill himself and bite off his own tongue, guards delayed his medical treatment for two days. His lawyer Zhu hoped to use the video evidence to persuade the Supreme People's Court, which reviewed the case in mid-2010, to reverse the death sentence on his client.[28] Fan was subsequently executed.

In the ten months after the fall of Bo and Wang in March 2012, 1235 police officers who had been charged with offences lodged appeals and 70% were declared innocent.[29]


The removal of large numbers of gangsters created a noticeable improvement in public safety but experts and locals think the results are unlikely to be permanent, as new crime bosses are expected to emerge.[27]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Police held in China gang probe". BBC News. UK: BBC. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  2. ^ Elegant, Simon (21 October 2009). "China's Underworld on Trial in Chongqing". Time. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  3. ^ LaFraniere, Sharon (27 March 2012). "Crime Crackdown Adds to Scandal Surrounding Former Chinese Official". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  4. ^ a b "China's other face: The red and the black". The Economist. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
  5. ^ Beck, Lindsay (31 December 1969). "New party boss brings hope to Chongqing". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
  6. ^ FlorCruz, Jaime (22 October 2009). "China cracks down on Chongqing's gangsters". CNN Asia. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  7. ^ Jacobs, Andrew (3 November 2009). "Chinese Trial Reveals Vast Web of Corruption". The New York Times. Chongqing, China. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  8. ^ "Chinese gangsters get death penalty in Chongqing trials". The Daily Telegraph. London. 22 October 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  9. ^ 重庆涉黑案 (in Chinese). Sohu News. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  10. ^ Guanqun, Wang (5 November 2009). "Gang leader in SW China gets 20-year jail term". Window of China. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  11. ^ "Chinese city begins gang trials". BBC News. 12 October 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  12. ^ Watts, Jonathan (21 October 2009). "A city fights back: Chinese gangsters get death penalty". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
  13. ^ Wang, Huazhong; Hu Yinan (22 October 2009). "Gang Bosses Get Death Terms". China Daily. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  14. ^ Macartney, Jane (4 November 2009). "'Godmother' of Chinese gangsters, Xie Caiping, jailed for 18 years". The Times. London. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  15. ^ a b "Chinese crime 'Godmother' jailed". BBC News. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  16. ^ Sanderson, Henry (21 October 2009). "Gang crackdown, lurid mob trials transfix China". Associated Press. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
  17. ^ "谢才萍一审被判18年 庭审后表示要上诉" [Xie sentenced to 18 years in prison, intends to appeal]. Southern Metropolis Daily. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
  18. ^ Tang, Anne (6 November 2009). "Twin brothers jailed for 17 years for organizing crime gang". Xinhua. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
  19. ^ Stanway, David (16 March 2010). "Chongqing police forced to reapply for jobs in crime crackdown". Reuters India. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  20. ^ Huazhong, Wang; Ma Wei (17 March 2010). "Chongqing revamps police bureau". China Daily. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  21. ^ Wang, Peng (2013). "The rise of the Red Mafia in China: a case study of organised crime and corruption in Chongqing". Trends in Organized Crime. 16 (1): 49–73. doi:10.1007/s12117-012-9179-8.
  22. ^ "China ex-police boss Wen Qiang sentenced to death". BBC News. 14 April 2010.
  23. ^ a b 文强拥有近亿财产?财宝堆积成小型博物馆 (in Chinese). Xinhua. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  24. ^ "重庆市司法局原局长文强及"三大金刚"涉黑案一审宣判 文强被判死刑". Xinhua. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  25. ^ a b "文强一审死刑,妻子痛哭瘫软在地". MorningHunan. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  26. ^ "China executes top Chongqing official for corruption". British Broadcasting Corporation. 7 July 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  27. ^ a b c Ramzy, Austin (15 March 2010). "China's Dark City: Behind Chongqing's Crime Crackdown". Time. Chongqing. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  28. ^ a b Lawyer reveals grim details of client's torture, Ng Tze-wei, South China Morning Post, 29 Jul 2010
  29. ^ Appeals flood Chongqing Global Times 1 December 2013

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