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Chocolate chip cookie

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A chocolate chip cookie is a drop cookie that originated in the United States and features chocolate chips (small morsels of sweetened chocolate) as its distinguishing ingredient. Circa 1938, Ruth Graves Wakefield added chopped up bits from a Nestlé semi-sweet chocolate bar into a cookie.

Chocolate chip cookie
Chocolate Chip Cookies - kimberlykv.jpg
Chocolate chip cookies
Course Dessert or snack
Place of origin United States
Region or state Whitman, Massachusetts
Created by Ruth Graves Wakefield, Toll House Inn
Invented circa 1938
Main ingredients Flour, sugar, brown sugar, butter or margarine, chocolate chips, eggs, vanilla, baking soda, salt
Variations Multiple, including adding nuts, oatmeal, peanut butter
Cookbook: Chocolate chip cookie  Media: Chocolate chip cookie
A close-up view showing the texture of a chocolate chip cookie
A chocolate chip cookie prepared with chocolate dough
A chocolate chip cookie with chocolate dough, sprinkled with powdered sugar and paired with milk.

The traditional recipe combines a dough composed of butter and both brown and white sugar, semi-sweet chocolate chips and vanilla. Variations include recipes with other types of chocolate as well as additional ingredients such as nuts or oatmeal. There are also vegan versions with ingredient substitutions such as vegan chocolate chips, vegan margarine, and so forth.

Contents

Invention

The chocolate chip cookie was invented by the American chef Ruth Graves Wakefield and chef Sue Brides in 1938.[1] She invented the recipe during the period when she owned the Toll House Inn, in Whitman, Massachusetts. In this era, the Toll House Inn was a popular restaurant that featured home cooking. It is often incorrectly reported that she accidentally developed the cookie, and that she expected the chocolate chunks would melt, making chocolate cookies. In fact, she stated that she deliberately invented the cookie. She said, "We had been serving a thin butterscotch nut cookie with ice cream. Everybody seemed to love it, but I was trying to give them something different. So I came up with Toll House cookie."[2] She added chopped up bits from a Nestlé semi-sweet chocolate bar into a cookie.[3] The original recipe in Toll House Tried and True Recipes [4] is called "Toll House Chocolate Crunch Cookies."

Later history

Wakefield's cookbook, Toll House Tried and True Recipes, was first published in 1936 by M. Barrows & Company, New York. The 1938 edition of the cookbook was the first to include the recipe "Toll House Chocolate Crunch Cookie" which rapidly became a favorite cookie in American homes.[2]

During WWII, soldiers from Massachusetts who were stationed overseas shared the cookies they received in care packages from back home with soldiers from other parts of the United States. Soon, hundreds of soldiers were writing home asking their families to send them some Toll House cookies, and Wakefield was soon inundated with letters from around the world requesting her recipe. Thus began the nationwide craze for the chocolate chip cookie.[5][6] The recipe for chocolate chip cookies was brought to the UK in 1956, with Maryland Cookies one of the UK's best selling chocolate chip cookies.[7]

Nestlé marketing

Every bag of Nestlé chocolate chips sold in North America has a variation (butter vs. margarine is now a stated option) of her original recipe printed on the back.[citation needed]

The original recipe was passed down to Sue Brides' daughter, Peg. In a 2017 interview, she shared the original recipe[8]:

  • 1 1/2 cups (350 mL) shortening
  • 1 1/8 cups (265 mL) sugar
  • 1 1/8 cups (265 mL) brown sugar
  • 3 eggs
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon (7.5 g) salt
  • 3 1/8 cups (750 mL) of flour
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon (7.5 g) hot water
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon (7.5 g) baking soda
  • 1 1/2 teaspoon (7.5 g) vanilla
  • chocolate chips

[The Tried and True Recipes cook book specifies "2 bars (7 oz.) Nestlé's yellow label chocolate, semi-sweet, which has been cut in pieces the size of a pea."]

 
Chocolate chip cookies are often paired with a glass of milk. The fat particles of the milk enhance the tasting sensation of the sugar from the cookies, giving a smoother mouthfeel.

Present day

Although the Nestlé's Toll House recipe is widely known, every brand of chocolate chips, or "semi-sweet chocolate morsels" in Nestlé parlance, sold in the U.S. and Canada bears a variant of the chocolate chip cookie recipe on its packaging. Almost all baking-oriented cookbooks will contain at least one type of recipe.

Practically all commercial bakeries offer their own version of the cookie in packaged baked or ready-to-bake forms. There are at least three national (U.S./North America) chains that sell freshly baked chocolate chip cookies in shopping malls and standalone retail locations. Several businesses—including Doubletree hotels, Citibank, Aloha, and Midwest Airlines—offer freshly baked cookies to their patrons to differentiate themselves from their competition.

There is an urban legend about Neiman Marcus' chocolate chip cookie recipe that has gathered a great deal of popularity over the years. The legend claims Newman Marcus charged a customer $250 for the recipe, rather than the $2.50 she had expected.[9]

To honor the cookie's creation in the state, on July 9, 1997, Massachusetts designated the chocolate chip cookie as the Official State Cookie, after it was proposed by a third-grade class from Somerset, Massachusetts.

Composition and variants

 
Standard chocolate chip cookie ingredients
Preparing chocolate chip cookies

Chocolate chip cookies are commonly made with white sugar; brown sugar; flour; a small portion of salt; eggs; a leavening agent such as baking powder; a fat, typically butter or shortening; vanilla extract; and semi-sweet chocolate pieces. Some recipes also include milk or nuts (such as chopped walnuts) in the dough.

Depending on the ratio of ingredients and mixing and cooking times, some recipes are optimized to produce a softer, chewy style cookie while others will produce a crunchy/crispy style.[10] Regardless of ingredients, the procedure for making the cookie is fairly consistent in all recipes: First, the sugars and fat are creamed, usually with a wooden spoon or electric mixer. Next, the eggs and vanilla extract are added followed by the flour and leavening agent. Depending on the additional flavoring, its addition to the mix will be determined by the type used: peanut butter will be added with the wet ingredients while cocoa powder would be added with the dry ingredients. The titular ingredient, chocolate chips, as well as nuts are typically mixed in towards the end of the process to minimize breakage, just before the cookies are scooped and positioned on a cookie sheet. Most cookie dough is baked, although some eat the dough as is, or use it as an addition to vanilla ice cream to make chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream.

The texture of a chocolate chip cookie is largely dependent on its fat composition and the type of fat used. A study done by Kansas State University showed that carbohydrate based fat-replacers were more likely to bind more water, leaving less water available to aid in the spread of the cookie while baking. This resulted in softer, more cake-like cookies with less spread.[11]

Common variants

 
Chocolate chip bar cookies
  • The M&M cookie, or party cookie, replaces the chocolate chips with M&M's. This recipe originally used shortening as the fat, but has been updated to use butter.[12]
  • The chocolate chocolate chip cookie uses a dough that is chocolate flavored by the addition of cocoa or melted chocolate.[13] Variations on this cookie include replacing chocolate chips with white chocolate or peanut butter chips.[14][15]
  • The macadamia chip cookie has macadamia nuts and white chocolate chips.[16] It is a signature cookie of Mrs. Fields bakeries.[citation needed]
  • The chocolate chip peanut butter cookie replaces the vanilla flavored dough with a peanut butter flavored one.
  • Chocolate chip cookie dough baked in a baking dish instead of a cookie sheet results in a chocolate chip bar cookie.
  • Other variations include different sizes and shapes of chocolate chips, as well as dark or milk chocolate chips. These changes lead to differences in both flavor and texture.

Popular brands

See also

References

  1. ^ Stephanos, Maria (2017-06-21). "Secret's out! Here's the ‘real recipe’ for Toll House chocolate chip cookies". WCVB. Retrieved 2017-06-22. 
  2. ^ a b Carolyn Wyman (2013). The Great American Chocolate Chip Cookie Book: Scrumptious Recipes & Fabled History From Toll House to Cookie Cake Pie. Countryman Press. p. 23. Retrieved Mar 21, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Chocolate Chip Cookie Day and the accidental origin of this American staple". CNN. 20 October 2017. 
  4. ^ Wakefield, Ruth Graves (1942). Ruth Wakefield's Toll House Tried and True Recipes. M. Barrows & Company, Inc. 
  5. ^ Jones, Charlotte Foltz (1991). Mistakes That Worked. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-26246-9. 
  6. ^ "History of Nestlé Toll House". Archived from the original on 2009-02-23. 
  7. ^ Burton's Biscuit Company. "Maryland cookies". Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  8. ^ Stephanos, Maria (2017-06-21). "Secret's out! Here's the ‘real recipe’ for Toll House chocolate chip cookies". WCVB. Retrieved 2017-06-22. 
  9. ^ "Neiman Marcus cookie legend". 
  10. ^ Levitt, Jonathan. "They're Not As Easy To Make As To Eat", The Boston Globe, 7 June 2006, C2. Available through ProQuest eLibrary.
  11. ^ Armbrister, W.L.; Setser, C.S. (1994). "Sensory and Physical Properties of Chocolate Chip Cookies Made with Vegetable Shortening or Fat Replacers at 50 and 75% Levels". Cereal Chemistry. 71 (4): 344–351. 
  12. ^ The M&M Party Cookie recipe Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. on m-m.com
  13. ^ Chocolate Chocolate Chip cookie recipe on FoodTV.com
  14. ^ White Chip Chocolate Cookie recipe on AllFood.com
  15. ^ Chocolate Peanut Butter Chip Cookie recipe on AllFood.com
  16. ^ Macadamia Nut Chocolate Chip Cookies recipe on AllFoods.com

External links