Chloralose (also known as α-chloralose) is an avicide, and a rodenticide used to kill mice in temperatures below 15 °C. It is also widely used in neuroscience and veterinary medicine as an anesthetic and sedative. Either alone or in combination, such as with urethane, it is used for long-lasting, but light anesthesia.
|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||309.52 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||176 to 182 °C (349 to 360 °F; 449 to 455 K)|
|Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):|
|Harmful if swallowed|
Harmful if inhaled
|H301, H332, H336, H410|
|P261, P264, P270, P271, P273, P301+P310, P304+P312, P304+P340, P312, P321, P330, P391, P403+P233, P405, P501|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Chemically, it is a chlorinated acetal derivative of glucose.
It is listed in Annex I of Directive 67/548/EEC with the classification Harmful (Xn)
Chloralose exerts barbiturate-like actions on synaptic transmission in the brain, including potent effects at inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). A structural isomer of chloralose, β-chloralose (also called parachloralose in older literature), is inactive as a GABAAR modulator and also as a general anesthetic.
Chloralose is often abused for its avicide properties. In the United Kingdom, protected birds of prey have been killed using the chemical. Legal using for bird control also often causes raptor mortalities from secondary poisoning, as well as primary poisoning of non-target species from eating bait, for example, kererū pigeon in New Zealand.
- ^ Silverman J, Muir WW (Jun 1993). "A review of laboratory animal anesthesia with chloral hydrate and chloralose". Lab Anim Sci. 43 (3): 210–6. PMID 8355479.
- ^ Vogler, George A. (2006-01-01), Suckow, Mark A.; Weisbroth, Steven H.; Franklin, Craig L. (eds.), "Chapter 19 - Anesthesia and Analgesia", The Laboratory Rat (Second Edition), American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, Burlington: Academic Press, pp. 627–664, ISBN 978-0-12-074903-4, retrieved 2021-03-21
- ^ R. A. Nicoll & J. M. Wojtowicz (1980). "The effects of pentobarbital and related compounds on frog motoneurons". Brain Research. 191 (1): 225–237. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(80)90325-x. PMID 6247012. S2CID 21777453.
- ^ K. M. Garrett & J. Gan (1998). "Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor activity by alpha-chloralose". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 285 (2): 680–686. PMID 9580613.
- ^ M. D. Krasowski & N. L. Harrison (2000). "The actions of ether, alcohol and alkane general anaesthetics on GABAA and glycine receptors and the effects of TM2 and TM3 mutations". British Journal of Pharmacology. 129 (4): 731–743. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0703087. PMC 1571881. PMID 10683198.
- ^ "Poisoned bird had enough toxin to 'kill a child'". BBC News. 2020-07-26. Retrieved 2020-07-26.