Chlamyphoridae is a family of cingulate mammals. While glyptodonts have traditionally been considered stem-group cingulates outside the group that contains modern armadillos, there had been speculation that the extant family Dasypodidae could be paraphyletic based on morphological evidence.[1][2][3][4] In 2016, an analysis of Doedicurus mtDNA found it was, in fact, nested within the modern armadillos as the sister group of a clade consisting of Chlamyphorinae and Tolypeutinae.[5][6] For this reason, all extant armadillos but Dasypus were relocated to a new family.

Temporal range: Middle Eocene to present
Southern three-banded armadillo (Tolypeutes matacus)
Illustration of a skeleton of Doedicurus clavicaudatus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Cingulata
Family: Chlamyphoridae
Bonaparte, 1850
Type genus
Harlan, 1825
Taxidermied pink fairy armadillo (Chlamyphorus truncatus)


Below is a taxonomy of the extant species of armadillos in this family.

Family Chlamyphoridae


Chlamyphoridae, like Dasypodidae, is a basal clade within Cingulata, as shown below.




Euphractus sexcinctus

Zaedyus pichiy

Chaetophractus villosus

Chaetophractus nationi

C. vellerosus

Glyptodontinae (Doedicurus)


Chlamyphorus truncatus

Calyptophractus retusus


Priodontes maximus


T. tricinctus

T. matacus


C. tatouay

C. chacoensis

C. centralis

C. unicinctus


  1. ^ Simpson, G. G. (1945). The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull. Amer. Museum Nat. History., 85.
  2. ^ Grassé, P. P. (1955). "Ordre des édentés". Traité de zoologie. 17 (2): 1182–1246.
  3. ^ Engelmann, G. F. (1985). The phylogeny of the Xenarthra. The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths, and vermilinguas. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 51-64.
  4. ^ Wible, J. R. (2006). 6 The Phylogeny of Living and Extinct Armadillos (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Cingulata): A Craniodental Analysis. Amniote Paleobiology: Perspectives on the Evolution of Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles: University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 153-198.
  5. ^ a b Delsuc, F.; Gibb, G. C.; Kuch, M.; Billet, G.; Hautier, L.; Southon, J.; Rouillard, J.-M.; Fernicola, J. C.; Vizcaíno, S. F.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; Poinar, H. N. (2016-02-22). "The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct glyptodonts". Current Biology. 26 (4): R155–R156. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.039. PMID 26906483.
  6. ^ Gillian C. Gibb; Fabien L. Condamine; Melanie Kuch; Jacob Enk; Nadia Moraes-Barros; Mariella Superina; Hendrik N. Poinar; Frédéric Delsuc (2016). "Shotgun Mitogenomics Provides a Reference Phylogenetic Framework and Timescale for Living Xenarthrans". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 33 (3): 621–642. doi:10.1093/molbev/msv250. PMC 4760074. PMID 26556496.
  7. ^ Upham, Nathan S.; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Jetz, Walter (2019). "Inferring the mammal tree: Species-level sets of phylogenies for questions in ecology, evolution and conservation". PLOS Biol. 17 (12): e3000494. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000494. PMC 6892540. PMID 31800571.
  8. ^ Gibb, Gillian C.; Condamine, Fabien L.; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Superina, Mariella; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Delsuc, Frédéric (2015). "Shotgun Mitogenomics Provides a Reference PhyloGenetic Framework and Timescale for Living Xenarthrans". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 33 (3): 621–642. doi:10.1093/molbev/msv250. PMC 4760074. PMID 26556496.