Chittoor district

Chittoor district (pronunciation ) is one of the eight districts in the Rayalaseema region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The district headquarters is located at Chittoor. It has a population of 4,170,468 according to 2011 census of India.[4] It lies in the Poini River Valley of southernmost Andhra Pradesh along the ChennaiBangalore section of Chennai-Mumbai highway. Chittoor district is a major market centre for mangoes, grains, sugarcane, and peanuts.

Chittoor district
Galipgopuram of Kanipakam temple (May 2019) 8.jpg
Dravidian University, Kuppam.png
Road to Kanipakam at Putalapattu, Chittoor District.jpg
Buruzu.jpg
Andhra Pradesh - Landscapes from Andhra Pradesh, views from Indias South Central Railway (77).JPG
Clockwise from top-left: Galigopuram of Vinayaka Temple, Kanipakam, Dravidian University in Kuppam, Road near Puthalapattu, Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary, Buruzu near Sodam
Location of Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.467°N 78.817°E / 14.467; 78.817Coordinates: 14°28′N 78°49′E / 14.467°N 78.817°E / 14.467; 78.817
CountryIndia
StateAndhra Pradesh
Formed1 April 1911
Founded byBritish Raj
HeadquartersChittoor
Largest CityChittoor
Government
 • District collectorM. Harinarayan, Collector and District Magistrate
 • Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha list
 • Assembly
Area
 • Total6,855 km2 (2,647 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total1,872,951
 • Sex ratio
985 (females per 1,000 males)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu demographics_type2 = Literacy
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Postal Index Number
517xxx
Area codes+91–8572
ISO 3166 codeIN-AP
Vehicle registrationAP-03 (former) AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[3]
Websitehttps://chittoor.ap.gov.in/
Road to Kanipakam

EtymologyEdit

The district derived its name from its headquarters Chittoor.[5]

HistoryEdit

After the Indian independence in 1947, Chittoor became a part of the erstwhile Madras state. The modern Chittoor District was formerly Arcot District, which was established by the British in the 19th century had Chittoor as its headquarters. On 1 April 1911, district was split into Chittoor District and North Arcot Districts.

Chittoor District was formed on 1 April 1911,[6] taking Chittoor, Palamaneru, Tirupati, Chandragiri from the then North Arcot District of Madras State and Madanapalle, Vayalpadu from Kadapa and Pileru, Punganur, Sri Kalahasti, Karvetinagar from Zamindari tahsils of the Chittoor district to form united Chittoor district. In 1960, 319 villages in Chittoor district were added into Chingleput District now Kanchipuram district and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu and subsequently Sathyavedu and Kuppam of Chingleput District was transferred to Chittoor district on linguistic basis based on the Act called The Andhra Pradesh And Madras (Alteration Of Boundaries) Act, 1959.[7]

From 4th April 2022, Chittoor District is divided into 3 districts. The districts are Tirupati District, Annamayya District and Chittoor District.

GeographyEdit

Chittoor is a part of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.[8] The district occupies an area of 15,359 square kilometres (5,930 sq mi).[9][10] The district is bounded by Anantapur District to the northwest, Annamayya district to the north, Nellore District to the northeast, Krishnagiri District and Vellore District of Tamil Nadu state to the south, Tirupati District to the east, Chikballapur District and Kolar District of Karnataka state to the west. Chittoor District lies extreme south of the Andhra Pradesh state approximately between 12°37′ - 14°8′ north latitudes and 78°3′ - 79°55′ east longitudes. Thirty percent of the total land area is covered by forests in the district.[11] Mango and tamarind groves surround the city of Chittoor, and cattle are raised in the district. The soils in the district constitute red loamy 57%, red sandy 34% and the remaining 9% is covered by black clay black loamy, black sandy and red clay[11] Chittoor is 160 km from Chennai, 180 km from Bangalore and 590 km from Hyderabad.

Hydrology and climateEdit

The important rivers in the district are Ponnai and Swarnamukhi rivers which originate in the Eastern Ghats. Other rivers include Kusasthali, Beema, Bahuda, Pincha, Kalyani, Araniyar and Pedderu. None of the rivers are perennial. Main rivers include Swarnamukhi, Kalangi, Papaghni, Koundinya, Pileru, Arani, Pinchcha, Cheyyeru, Neeva and Kusasthali. The district has a very short coastline, bordered by the Bay of Bengal. The temperature in the western parts of the district like Punganur, Madanapalle, Horsley Hills are relatively lower than the eastern parts of the Chittoor District. This is because of the higher altitude of the western parts compared to the eastern parts. The summer temperatures touches 44 °C in the eastern parts whereas in the western parts it ranges around 36° to 38 °C. Similarly the winter temperatures of the western parts are relatively low ranging around 12 °C to 14 °C and in eastern parts it is 16 °C to 18 °C. Most of a district has a Tropical wet and dry climate, with some north-western parts having Hot semi-arid climate.[12]

Chittoor district receives an annual rainfall of 918.1 mm. The South West Monsoon and North East Monsoon are the major sources of rainfall for the district. On average the district receives 438.0 mm of rainfall through the South West Monsoon (From June to September) and 396.0 mm from North East Monsoon (From October to December). The rainfall received by the district in the years 2002 and 2003 are 984.2 mm and 934 mm respectively.[13]

DemographicsEdit

According to the 2011 census Chittoor district has a population of 4,174,064.[14][15][16] This gives it a ranking of 47th in India (out of a total of 640) and 6th in its state.[14] The district has a population density of 275 inhabitants per square kilometre (710/sq mi).[14] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 11.33%.[14] Chittoor has a sex ratio of 1002 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 72.36%.[14] After bifurcation, the district had a population of 18,72,951. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes made up 3,94,327 (21.05%) and 51,574 (2.75%) of the population respectively.[2]: 82–87 

In 2007–2008 the International Institute for Population Sciences interviewed 1010 households in 38 villages across the district.[17] They found that 92.7% had access to electricity, 99.6% had drinking water, 33.3% toilet facilities, and 53.8% lived in a pucca (permanent) home.[17] 29.3% of girls wed before the legal age of 18[18] and 88.2% of interviewees carried a BPL card.[17]

Religions in Chittoor district (2011)[19]
Religion Percent
Hindus
90.13%
Muslims
9.02%
Christians
0.50%
Other or not stated
0.35%
Distribution of religions

At the time of the 2011 census, 73.23% of the population spoke Telugu, 16.75% Tamil and 8.72% Urdu as their first language.[20]

Telugu is the primary official language of the district along with English. Tamil is widely spoken in the border areas, especially in Kuppam.[21]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19011,118,706—    
19111,171,614+0.46%
19211,203,748+0.27%
19311,324,770+0.96%
19411,490,095+1.18%
19511,657,560+1.07%
19611,905,344+1.40%
19712,267,413+1.75%
19812,737,316+1.90%
19913,261,118+1.77%
20013,745,875+1.40%
20114,174,064+1.09%
source:[22]

Revenue DivisionsEdit

 
Chittoor District Revenue Divisions and Mandals

The district is divided into 4 revenue divisions which are Nagari, Chittoor, Palamaneru and Kuppam.[23][24]Each revenue division is divided into mandals. The district has 31 mandals under these 4 revenue divisions.[25] There are 1 Municipal Corporations of Chittoor and 3 municipalities of Punganur, Palamaner and Nagari in the district.[1]

No Chittoor Division Kuppam division Palamaner Division Nagari Division
1 Chittoor Kuppam Palamaner Nagari
2 Gudipala Santhipuram Gangavaram Srirangarajapuram
3 Gangadhara Nellore Gudupalle Peddapanjani Vedurukuppam
4 Yadamari Ramakuppam Somala Palasamudram
5 Irala Chowdepalle Karvetinagar
6 Puthalapattu Punganur Nindra
7 Penumuru Bangarupalyam Vijayapuram
8 Thavanampalle Sodam
9 Pulicherla Baireddipalle
10 Rompicherla Venkatagirikota

Before formation of Mandal System, Administration was done through Talukas System. Here are the Previous Talukas in the district.

S.No. Erstwhile Talukas New talukas formed in 1978 New Mandals formed in 1985
1 Chittoor Chittoor Chittoor, Yadamarri, Gudipala, Gangadhara Nellore, Penumuru, Puthalapattu
2 Bangarupalem Bangarupalem Bangarupalem, Thavanampalle, Irala
3 Palamaner Palamaner Palamaneru, Venkatagirikota, Baireddipalle, Gangavaram, Ramakuppam [part]
4 Kuppam Kuppam Kuppam, Santhipuram, Gudupalle, Ramakuppam [part]
5 Punganur Punganur Punganur, Peddapanjani, Ramasamudhram, Somala, Soddam, Chowdepalle,
6 Nimmanapalle, B.Kothakota, Kurabalakota
Thamballapalle [12] Thamballapalle, Pedda thippa Samudram, Mulakalacheruvu, Peddamandyam
7 Vayalpadu Vayalpadu [valmikipuram] Valmikipuram, Kalakada, Kalikiri
Chinagottigallu [13] Chinagottigallu, Pileru, Kambhamvaripalle, Rompicherla, Yerravaripalem
Thottambedu [14] Thottambedu [part], Buchinaidu kandriga, KVB Puram,
10 Satyavedu Satyavedu Satyavedu, Nagalapuram, Pichatur, Varadaiahpalem
11 kuppam Vadalampeta, Ramachandrapuram, Narayanavanam, Veduru Kuppam,

Karvetinagar, Sriranga Rajapuram, Pala Samudram

Nagari [15] Nagari, Nindra, Vijayapuram

Towns in districtEdit

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Chittoor District
As per the 2011 Census
Rank Division Pop.
 
Chittoor
1 Chittoor Chittoor Division 175,647
2 Nagari Nagari Division 96,152
3 Punganur Palamaner Division 57,468
4 Palamaneru Palamaner Division 54,035
5 Kuppam Kuppam Division 39,000
6 [[{{{city_6}}}]] [[{{{div_6}}}]] {{{pop_6}}}
7 [[{{{city_7}}}]] [[{{{div_7}}}]] {{{pop_7}}}
8 [[{{{city_8}}}]] [[{{{div_8}}}]] {{{pop_8}}}
9 [[{{{city_9}}}]] [[{{{div_9}}}]] {{{pop_9}}}
10 [[{{{city_10}}}]] [[{{{div_10}}}]] {{{pop_10}}}
Municipal Bodies in Chittor District
S.No. City / Town Civic Status of Town Municipality

Formation

Year

No. of

Wards

2011 Census

Population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1971 Census

Population

1961 Census

Population

1951 Census

Population

1 Chittoor Municipal Corporation 1917 50 175,647 152,654 133,462 86,230 63,035 47,876 38,894
2 Nagari Municipality Grade 3 2005 29 62,253 24,372 20,485 12,996 9,360 8,012 6,567
3 Punganur Municipality Grade 2 1985 31 57,468 44,314 33,882 25,562 18,207 13,806 11,280
4 Palamaneru Municipality Grade 3 2005 26 54,035 43,215 35,531 24,038 13,652 9,865 6,884
5 Kuppam Municipality Grade 3 2020 25 39,000 18,858 16,138 13,649 10,813 9,272 6,516
Census Towns In Chittoor District
S.No Town Civic Status of Town 2011 Census

Population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1971 Census

Population

1 Pileru Census Town 41,489 35,951 18,832 11,671 6,907
2 Narayanavanam Census Town 11,253 10,899
Erstwhile Taluka HQs in Chittoor District
S.No. Town Civic Status of Town 2011 Census
1 Vayalpadu Grama Panchayat 17,535
2 Satyavedu Grama Panchayat 11,474
3 Bangarupalem Grama Panchayat 9,452

Source for Above Population

https://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/2823_PART_A_DCHB_CHITTOOR.pdf

PoliticsEdit

There are 14 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly MLA constituencies in Chittoor district.[26]

EconomyEdit

 
Agriculture near Chittor

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the district is 34,742 crore (US$4.6 billion) and it contributes 6.6% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 64,671 (US$850). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 8,226 crore (US$1.1 billion), and 18,849 crore (US$2.5 billion) respectively.[27] The major products contributing to the GVA of the district from agriculture and allied services are, sugarcane, groundnut, tomato, mango, milk, meat and fisheries. The GVA to the industrial and service sector is contributed from construction, electricity, manufacturing, education and ownership of dwellings.[27]

In 2006 the Indian government named Chittoor one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[28] It is one of the thirteen districts in Andhra Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[28]

Notable peopleEdit

TransportEdit

The district has road connectivity by means of national and state highways. The main part of the National Highways runs through Chittoor City National Highway 69 and National Highway 40 that connects the main metro cities of South India from Bangalore to Chennai. National Highway 71 connecting Madanapalle and Nayudupeta Via Pileru and NH 716 connecting Chennai in Tamil Nadu passes through the district.[29] The total road length of state highways in the district is 1,103 km (685 mi).[30]

EducationEdit

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[31][32] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, there are a total of 6,100 schools. They include, 45 government, 4,507 mandal and zilla parishads, 2 residential, 1,268 private, 17 model, 20 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 158 municipal and 84 other types of schools.[33] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 562,504.[34] Chittoor district is home to the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL) of the Department of Space. The lab is involved in carrying out fundamental and applied research in Atmospheric and Space Sciences.

TemplesEdit

There are forty-three temples under the management of Endowments Department[35]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "District Census Handbook – Chittoor" (PDF). Census of India. p. 19,21,58. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  2. ^ a b "District Census Hand Book - Chittoor" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  3. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Census of India 2011" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in.
  5. ^ Biju, M.R., ed. (2009). Democratic political process. New Delhi, India: Mittal Publications. p. 235. ISBN 978-81-8324-237-0. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  6. ^ Umashanker, K. (2 April 2022). "Chittoor celebrates its last birthday in silence". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  7. ^ "The Andhra Pradesh And Madras (Alteration Of Boundaries) Act, 1959". indiankanoon.org. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  8. ^ "The District Of Seven Hills – Tirumala". Archived from the original on 21 June 2012.
  9. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti; et al., eds. (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
  10. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2011. Nordaustlandet 14,467
  11. ^ a b "National Informatics Center, Chittoor". Chittoor.nic.in. 28 June 2005. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  12. ^ "Chittoor district". Atmachittoor.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  13. ^ "Irrigation". Irrigation.cgg.gov.in. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  14. ^ a b c d e "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  15. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Lebanon 4,143,101 July 2011 est.
  16. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Kentucky 4,339,367
  17. ^ a b c "District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), 2007-08: India. Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). International Institute for Population Sciences and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  18. ^ "How Do I? : Obtain Marriage Certificate". National Portal Content Management Team, National Informatics Centre. 2005. Retrieved 3 October 2011. To be eligible for marriage, the minimum age limit is 21 for males and 18 for females.
  19. ^ "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011.
  20. ^ "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  21. ^ Dr. Chigicherla Thirupal Reddy. "Multilingualism in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh". International Research journal of Management Sociology & Humanities.
  22. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  23. ^ "Industrial Profile – Chittoor District" (PDF). Commissionerate of Industries – Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  24. ^ "New AP Map: Check Out Biggest and Smallest Districts in Andhra Pradesh". Sakshi Post. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  25. ^ "Mandals in Chittoor district". AP State Portal. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  26. ^ "District-wise Assembly-Constituencies in Andhra Pradesh". Ceoandhra.nic.in. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  27. ^ a b "Economy of Chittoor District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  28. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  29. ^ "List of National Highways passing through A.P. State". Roads and Buildings Department. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  30. ^ "Existing State Highways" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  31. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  32. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  33. ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  34. ^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  35. ^ "Trust Boards Abstract". AP Temples Portal, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 24 July 2018.

External linksEdit