Chitrāngadā

Chitrāngadā (Sanskrit: चित्रांगदा, Citrāṅgadā), in the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, was the warrior princess of Manipura and the only heir of king Chitravahana. She was one of Arjuna's 4 wives. She had a son named Babhruvahana with him.[1] Story of Chitrangada is adapted by Indian writer, Rabindranath Tagore in his play, Chitra.

Chitrāngadā
Chitrangada
Arjuna asks for Chitrāngadā to be his wife
Information
FamilyChitravahana (father), Vasundhara (mother)
SpouseArjuna
ChildrenBabhruvahana
HomeManipura

Early lifeEdit

Manipura was a kingdom in India during Mahabaratha period. It was ruled by a king named Chitravahana. He had a daughter named Chitrangada, whom he named after Madhulika flower. For multiple generations, the dynasty did not have more than one heir. Since Chitravahana did not have any other heir, he trained Chitrangada in warfare and rule. Chitrangada was well-versed in warfare and acquired the skills to protect the people of her land.[2]

Her marriage with ArjunaEdit

It is not described in Mahabharatha as to how Arjuna, the Pandava prince met Chitrangada. The account is described in Rabindranath Tagore's play Chitra,[3] where Tagore depicts Chitrangada as a warrior dressed in male clothes.[4] Arjuna fell in love with her on account of her honesty and courage.[2] Arjuna's wanderings, during his period of exile, also took him to the ancient kingdom of Manipura. Visiting king Chitravahana, the ruler of Manipura, he beheld his beautiful daughter Chitrangada and fell in love with her. When he approached the king to seek her hand in marriage, the king told him the story of his ancestor Prabhanjana who was childless and undertook severe austerities to obtain offspring. Finally, Mahadeva appeared to Prabhanjana, granting him the boon that each successive descendant of his race should have one child. As Chitravahana, unlike his ancestors, had not a son, but a daughter, he made her a “Putrika” according to the customs of his people. This meant that a child, born of her, would be his successor, and no one else. Arjuna readily agreed to this condition. Marrying Chitrangada, he stayed with her for three years. When Chitrangada had given birth to a son, Arjuna embraced her affectionately and took leave of her and her father to resume his wanderings.[5] She had a maid called Sujata.

Later lifeEdit

Arjuna left her and returned to Hastinapura, promising her that he would take her back to his kingdom. Chitrangada started bringing up her son Babruvahana. Mahabharata loses mention about Chitrangada and her kingdom for several chapters. On the other side, the Pandavas went through various ordeals and finally winning the war against the Kauravas. Yudhishthira became the king of Hastinapura. His mind was restless since he always felt bad of killing his own kith and kin during the war. On the advice of sages, he conducted Ashvamedha yagna, where a decorated horse would be sent across the kingdom and wherever it goes unopposed, the land would be acquired by the king who sent it. Arjuna was tasked to take care of the horse. While the horse moved towards the North-east, a young man opposed Arjuna. While Arjuna asked about the identity of the young man, he said he was the prince of the land and that was enough introduction to start a fight.

A fierce fight started and Arjuna was shocked to see the dexterity with which arrows were pouring at him. He was finally hit by one of the arrows and before he fell unconscious, he realised that the young man was the son of Chitrangada. Chitrangada came crying to the spot hearing the incident and he met Arjuna at his death bed. Ulupi, the other wife of Arjuna came to the spot with mrityusanjivi, a mythical medical herb capable of bringing back dead men to life. She told Chitrangada and Babruvahana that Arjuna had a curse that he would be killed by his own son and that with the incident, he was relieved of his curse. Arjuna was woken up with the stone and he was happy to see both his wives and his son. Arjuna took Ulupi, Chitrangada and her son Babhruvahana to Hastinapura, where Chitrangada readily became the servant of Gandhari, the aunt of Arjuna. She spent her life in her service to Gandhari.[2]

Upon the onset of the Kali Yuga, the Pandavas along with Draupadi retired and left the throne to their only heir Arjuna's grandson, Parikshit. Giving up all their belongings and ties, they made their final journey of pilgrimage to the Himalayas, accompanied by a dog. Chitrangada went back to her kingdom, Manipur.[6]

LiteratureEdit

  • Citrāngadā in: M.M.S. Shastri Chitrao, Bharatavarshiya Prachin Charitrakosha (Dictionary of Ancient Indian Biography, in Hindi), Pune 1964, p. 213
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa, trl. from the original Sanskrit by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Calcutta 1883-1896
  • Chitrangada in: Wilfried Huchzermeyer, Studies in the Mahabharata, edition sawitri 2018, p. 17-19. ISBN 978-3-931172-32-9 (also as E-Book)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Shastri Chitrao (1964), p. 213
  2. ^ a b c Bhanu, Sharada (1997). Myths and Legends from India - Great Women. Chennai: Macmillan India Limited. pp. 7–9. ISBN 0-333-93076-2.
  3. ^ Tagore, Rabindranath (2015). Chitra - A Play in One Act. Read Books Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 9781473374263.
  4. ^ J. E. Luebering (ed.). The 100 Most Influential Writers of All Time. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 242. ISBN 9781615300051.
  5. ^ Ganguli (1883), Book I, Section 218
  6. ^ Ganguli, Kisari Mohan (1883–1896). "SECTION 1". The Mahabharata: Book 17: Mahaprasthanika Parva. Internet Sacred Text Archive. Retrieved 3 April 2016.