Child abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting guardianship over them. Typically the phrase is used to describe the physical abandoning of a child, but it can also include severe cases of neglect and emotional abandonment, such as in the case of a parent who fails to offer financial and emotional support for his or her child over a long period of time. An abandoned child is referred to as a foundling (as opposed to a runaway or an orphan). Baby dumping refers to parents leaving a child younger than 12 months in a public or private place with the intent of terminating their care for the child. It is also known as rehoming, in cases where adoptive parents use illegal means, such as the internet, to find a new home for their child. In most cases, child abandonment is classified under a subsection of child abuse statutes and is punishable with a felony. Following felonious charges, one or both guardians give up their parental rights over the child thus severing their relationship with the child. Some states allow for a reinstatement of parental rights, in which case the parent or parents can have a relationship with the child again. However, it is unlikely that the parents can ever regain custody.[unreliable source?] The perpetrator can additionally be charged with reckless abandonment if the victim dies as a result of his or her actions or neglect.[unreliable source?]
- Poverty and homelessness are often causes of child abandonment. People living in countries with poor social welfare systems and who are not financially capable of taking care of a child are more likely to abandon their children because of a lack of resources. In some cases the parents already have a child or children, but are unable to take care of another child at that time.
- In societies where women are looked down upon for being teenage or single mothers, child abandonment is more common.
- Children born out of the confines of marriage may be abandoned in a family's attempt to prevent being shamed by their community.
- Physical disability, mental illness, and substance abuse problems that parents are facing can also cause them to abandon their children.
- Children who are born with congenital disorders or other health complications may be abandoned if their parents feel unequipped to provide them with the level of care that their condition requires.
- In cultures where the sex of the child is of utmost importance, parents are more likely to abandon a baby of the undesired sex. Similarly, people may choose to pursue the, often controversial, option of sex-selective abortion.
- Political conditions, such as war and displacement of a family, are also cause for parents to abandon their children.
- Additionally, a parent being incarcerated or deported can result in the involuntary abandonment of a child, even if the parent(s) did not voluntarily relinquish their parental role.
- Disownment of a child is a form of abandonment which entails ending contact with, and support for, one's dependent. Disownment tends to occur later in a child's life, generally due to a conflict between the parent(s) and the child, but can also occur when children are still young. Reasons include: divorce of parents, discovering the true paternity of a child, and a child's actions bringing shame to a family; most commonly, breaking the law, teenage pregnancy, major religious or ideological differences, and identifying as LGBTQ+.
Effects on survivorsEdit
- Possibility of experiencing abuse and neglect in institutionalized care
- Low self-esteem stemming from feelings of guilt about being at fault for being abandoned
- Separation anxiety: feelings of anxiety about being separated from parents or caregivers
- Attachment issues: difficulty becoming emotionally attached to and trusting other people, especially caregivers
- Abandonment issues, characteristic of abandoned child syndrome, including:
- Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), referred to as posttraumatic stress disorder of abandonment.
- Depending upon the severity of their symptoms, children who have developed certain maladjusted tendencies in social interaction may be diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder or disinhibited social engagement disorder.
- For children who are abandoned in dangerous places, such as dumpsters, doorsteps, and other public areas, exposure to the elements and physical injury are distinct possibilities.
Child abandonment lawsEdit
Child abandonment is illegal in the United States, but some states consider it to be a felony offense, while others categorize it as a misdemeanor, so punishments range from a $2,000 fine to up to five years in prison and a $125,000 penalty.
- Providing access to sex education and to family planning resources, like contraception, and abortion can help prevent people who cannot take care of, or do not want to raise, children from becoming pregnant in the first place.
- Evidence has shown that, when bans on abortion are lifted, the number of abandoned, abused, and neglected children goes down in response. However, access is an issue. In the United States, 87% of all counties, and 97% of all rural counties, do not have any access to abortion services.
- Governmental assistance can be provided in the form of parental counseling, post-natal services, mental health services, and other community support services for parents who are at a higher risk of abandoning their children because of age, support, physical ability, mental illness, or poverty.
Historically, many cultures practiced abandonment of infants, often called "infant exposure." Children were left on hillsides, in the wilderness, near churches, and in other public places. If taken up by others, the children might join another family either as slaves or as free family members. Roman societies in particular chose slaves to raise their children rather than family members, who were often indifferent towards their children. Although being found by others would allow children who were abandoned to often survive, exposure is sometimes compared to infanticide—as described by Tertullian in his Apology: "it is certainly the more cruel way to kill... by exposure to cold and hunger and dogs." Despite the comparison, other sources report that infanticide and exposure were viewed as morally different in ancient times.
In the Early Middle Ages parents who did not want to raise their children gave them to monasteries along with a small fee, an act known as oblation. In times of social stress monasteries often received large numbers of children. By the high Middle Ages oblation was less common and something that was more often arranged privately between the monastery and the parents of the child. Sometimes medieval hospitals took care of abandoned children at the community's expense, but some refused to do so on the grounds that being willing to accept abandoned children would increase abandonment rates. Medieval laws in Europe governing child abandonment, as for example the Visigothic Code, often prescribed that the person who had taken up the child was entitled to the child's service as a slave. Conscripting or enslaving children into armies and labor pools often occurred as a consequence of war or pestilence when many children were left parentless. Abandoned children then became the ward of the state, military organization, or religious group. When this practice happened en masse, it had the advantage of ensuring the strength and continuity of cultural and religious practices in medieval society.
Early Modern Europe saw the rise of foundling homes and increased abandonment of children to these homes. These numbers continued to rise and peaked when 5% of all births resulted in abandonment in France around 1830. The national reaction to this was to limit the resources provided by foundling homes and switch to foster homes instead such that fewer children would die within overcrowded foundling homes during infancy. As access to contraception increased and economic conditions improved in Europe towards the end of the 19th century the numbers of children being abandoned declined.
Abandonment increased towards the end of the 19th century, particularly in the United States. The largest migration of abandoned children in history took place in the United States between 1853 and 1929. Over one hundred and twenty thousand orphans (not all of whom were intentionally abandoned) were shipped west on railroad cars, where families agreed to foster the children in exchange for their use as farmhands, household workers, etc. Orphan trains were highly popular as a source of free labor. The sheer size of the displacement as well as complications and exploitation that occurred gave rise to new agencies and a series of laws that promoted adoption rather than indenture. By 1945, adoption was formulated as a legal act with consideration of the child’s best interests. The origin of the move toward secrecy and the sealing of all adoption and birth records began when Charles Loring Brace introduced the concept to prevent children from the orphan trains from returning to or being reclaimed by their parents.
Notable contemporary instances of child abandonment include homicidal neglect by confinement of infants or children such as in the affair of the Osaka child abandonment case or the affair of two abandoned children in Calgary, Alberta, Canada by their mother Rie Fujii.
Today, abandonment of a child is considered to be a serious crime in many jurisdictions because it can be considered malum in se (wrong in itself) due to the direct harm to the child, and because of welfare concerns (in that the child often becomes a ward of the state and in turn, a burden upon the public fisc). For example, in the U.S. state of Georgia, it is a misdemeanor to willfully and voluntarily abandon a child, and a felony to abandon one's child and leave the state. In 1981, Georgia's treatment of abandonment as a felony when the defendant leaves the state was upheld as constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. 'Rehoming' is still legal in Arkansas where, in 2015, state legislator Justin Harris made national headlines by rehoming two young adopted children.
Abandonment is rife in Malaysia, where between 2005 and 2011, 517 babies were dumped. Of those 517 children, 287 were found dead. In 2012, there were 31 cases, including at least one instance of a child being tossed from a window of a high rise apartment.
Persons in cultures with poor social welfare systems who are not financially capable of taking care of a child are more likely to abandon them. Several American states are moving towards passing legislation to prevent rehoming of children post adoption. However, national legislation may be needed to protect children from being rehomed in all states.
State programs for facilitating anonymous child abandonmentEdit
- Anonymous Birthing allows pregnant mothers to give birth to their child without revealing their identity or claiming any ownership over or legal obligation to the child. Different countries wait varying lengths of time from 2–8 weeks before putting the child up for adoption to allow mothers to return to the hospital and reclaim the child. Anonymous birthing is most often implemented as measure to prevent neonaticide and has been successful in multiple countries. Police in Austria report a 57% drop in neonaticides after the country passed a law allowing for anonymous birthing and free delivery in 2001. Anonymous birthing provides the opportunity for mothers to disclose relevant health history to later be shared with the child and adoptive family, as well as access to hospital care to reduce risk during birth. In some states, France for example, mothers who choose anonymous birthing undergo counselling and are informed of available support structures to help them keep the child. Mothers who are seeking to anonymously abandon their child at birth may avoid anonymous birthing due to increased interaction with hospital staff and the possibility of undergoing counselling.
- Baby boxes provide a safe and anonymous way to abandon children, typically newborns, rather than resorting to infant exposure or neonaticide. Baby boxes can be found in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, and the United States. Advantages of baby boxes include a greater degree of anonymity for parents abandoning their children and a guarantee that the child will be found and attended to. However, children are sometimes placed in baby boxes with existing issue or injury and baby boxes are under-utilized and costly to operate. It is also debated if baby boxes are an accessible option for rural mothers who may not be willing to travel to abandon their children.
- Safe haven laws allow parents of a child, typically a newborn child but age can vary, to abandon the child at a place of local authority such as a hospital, fire station, or police station with no further question. Some states allow the parent to reclaim the child within a certain timeframe. Safe Haven Laws passed in the United States in 1999 and have since been adopted in Canada, Japan, France, and Slovakia. It is debated if safe haven laws prevent child abandonment or neonaticide. As with baby boxes, one study suggests that mothers in rural areas are not willing to travel to abandon their children and would not be willing to travel to a hospital to do so. As of 2017, 3,317 babies have been surrendered via safe haven laws in the United States.
National laws and effects on child abandonmentEdit
China’s One Child Policy: In 1979 China introduced its one-child policy which set up penalties for families that chose to have more than one child. Women were compelled to undergo a surgical implantation of an IUD following the birth of their first child and tubal ligation if they were to have another child. Families that disobeyed the law were levied a fine and lost their right to many government services, including access to health and educational services. Nevertheless, transgressions of the law most certainly occurred. Consequently, over the course of over three decades, hundreds of thousands of children, the majority of which were girls, were abandoned and required caretaking. Non-governmental organizations stepped in to assist with the re-housing of these girls, leading to the international adoption of over 120,000 Chinese children. Today, China's fertility rate has not quite returned to the rate of replacement. In fact, in the years since the relinquishing of the policy, China's fertility rate has only risen .04 per family.
Vietnam War: During and following the Vietnam War, initiated by aggressive American foreign policy under the Kennedy and Johnson administrations due to a fear of the spread of communism into southeastern Asia, it is estimated that roughly 50,000 babies were born of American fathers and Vietnamese mothers. A large contingent of these children were either unwanted to the circumstances of their conception or unable to be cared for due to the lack of available resources and assistance in the war-torn country. Locally, these children were known as "children of the dust." Non-governmental organizations attempted to alleviate the problem by setting up international adoptions and other rehoming methods but were largely ineffective. To this day, attempts are being made to link American veterans to children that they may have fathered during their time in Vietnam.
Romania under Nicolae Ceaușescu: During the rule of Communist politician Nicolae Ceaușescu, Romania underwent drastic changes to its populace. Ceaușescu, in an attempt to form a robust and young population, outlawed methods of contraception and encouraged the creation of large families with many children. Much like during the Fascist period of Italian history, incentives and cultural praise were offered to parents who produced many children. Ceaușescu established Decree 770 which outlawed abortion and contraception for all women, except those who were over 40, had already born 4–5 children, had life-threatening complications during pregnancy, or who became pregnant through rape or incest. In the following years, Romania’s birth rate nearly doubled. However, due to a lack of resources necessary to care for the abundance of children, thousands were abandoned or left to die. Other women resorted to unsafe forms of abortion carried out by people without medical training. The problem persisted until the coup that overthrew Ceaușescu in 1989. Following the coup, Romania's birthrate steadily declined for the following decades. Today, the birth rate has dropped to 1.52 births per woman, under the rate of replacement (the birth rate that will maintain population size under conditions of zero net immigration/emigration).
Foundlings, who may be orphans, can combine many advantages to a plot: mysterious antecedents, leading to plots to discover them; high birth and lowly upbringing. Foundlings have appeared in literature in some of the oldest known tales. The most common reasons for abandoning children in literature are oracles that the child will cause harm; the mother's desire to conceal her illegitimate child, often after rape by a god; or spite on the part of people other than the parents, such as sisters and mothers-in-law in such fairy tales as The Dancing Water, the Singing Apple, and the Speaking Bird. In some chivalric romances, such as Le Fresne and the Swan-Children, in the variant Beatrix, some children of a multiple birth are abandoned after the heroine has taunted another woman with a claim that such a birth is proof of adultery and then suffered such a birth of her own. Poverty usually features as a cause only with the case of older children, who can survive on their own. Indeed, most such individuals are of royal or noble birth; their abandonment means they grow up in ignorance of their true social status.
One of the earliest surviving examples of child abandonment in literature is that of Oedipus, who is left to die as a baby in the hills by a herdsman ordered to kill the baby, but is found and grows up to unwittingly marry his biological mother.
In a common variant on the abandonment and rediscovery of an infant, the biblical story of Moses describes how the Jewish infant is abandoned by his mother and set to float in the Nile in a reed basket, in hopes that he will be found and nurtured; as planned, the child is discovered and adopted by the queen of Egypt, thus gaining a higher social status and better education, as well as a more powerful position than his birth family could have given him. A similar story is told of other heroes who eventually learn about their true origins only as adults, when they find they are able to save their original parents or family by wielding power from their adoptive status, while making use of an education that sets them apart from their peers. The theme is also carried through in the case of many modern superheroes, most famously Superman (see Modern Media below). Mark Twain tweaks the traditional "upgrading" of the foundling's social status by having the child's twin, who is powerful by birth, experience the "downgrading " of his position in a switch planned by the two children, in "The Prince and the Pauper".
In many tales, such as Snow White, the child is actually abandoned by a servant who had been given orders to put the child to death.
Children are often abandoned with birth tokens, which act as plot devices to ensure that the child can be identified. This theme is a main element in Angelo F. Coniglio's historical fiction novella The Lady of the Wheel, in which the title refers to a "receiver of foundlings" who were placed in a device called a "foundling wheel", in the wall of a church or hospital.
In Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, a recognition scene in the final act reveals by these that Perdita is a king's daughter rather than a shepherdess, and so suitable for her prince lover. Similarly, when the heroine of Le Fresne reveals the brocade and the ring she was abandoned with, her mother and sister recognize her; this makes her a suitable bride for the man whose mistress she had been.
From Oedipus onward, Greek and Roman tales are filled with exposed children who escaped death to be reunited with their families—usually, as in Longus' Daphnis and Chloe, more happily than in Oedipus' case. Grown children, having been taken up by strangers, were usually recognized by tokens that had been left with the exposed baby: In Euripides's Ion, Creüsa is about to kill Ion, believing him to be her husband's illegitimate child, when a priestess reveals the birth-tokens that show that Ion is her own, abandoned infant.
This may reflect the widespread practice of child abandonment in their cultures. On the other hand, the motif is continued through literature where the practice is not widespread. William Shakespeare used the abandonment and discovery of Perdita in The Winter's Tale, as noted above, and Edmund Spenser reveals in the last Canto of Book 6 of The Faerie Queene that the character Pastorella, raised by shepherds, is in fact of noble birth. Henry Fielding, in one of the first novels recognized as such, recounted The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. In the case of Quasimodo, the eponymous character in Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, the disfigured child is abandoned at the cathedral's foundling's bed, made available for the leaving of unwanted infants. Ruth Benedict, in studying the Zuni, found that the practice of child abandonment was unknown, but featured heavily in their folktales.
Still, even cultures that do not practice it may reflect older customs; in medieval literature, such as Sir Degaré and Le Fresne, the child is abandoned immediately after birth, which may reflect pre-Christian practices, both Scandavian and Roman, that the newborn would not be raised without the father's decision to do so.
The strangers who take up the child are often shepherds or other herdsmen. This befell not only Oedipus, but also Cyrus II of Persia, Amphion and Zethus and several of the characters listed above. Romulus and Remus were suckled by a wolf in the wilderness, but afterward, again found by a shepherd. This ties this motif in with the genre of the pastoral. This can imply or outright state that the child benefits by this pure upbringing by unspoiled people, as opposed to the corruption that surrounded his birth family.
Often, the child is aided by animals before being found; Artemis sent a bear to nurse the abandoned Atalanta, and Paris was also nursed by a bear before being found. In some cases, the child is depicted as being raised by animals; however, in actuality, feral children have proven to be incapable of speech.
The pattern of a child remaining with its adoptive parents is less common than the reverse, but it occurs. In the Indian epic Mahabharata, Karna is never reconciled with his mother, and dies in battle with her legitimate son. In the Grimm fairy tale Foundling-Bird, Foundling Bird never learns of, least of all reunites with, his parents. George Eliot depicted the abandonment of the character Eppie in Silas Marner; despite learning her true father at the end of the book, she refuses to leave Silas Marner, who had actually reared her.
When the cause of the abandonment is a prophecy, the abandonment is usually instrumental in causing the prophecy to be fulfilled. Besides Oedipus, Greek legends also included Telephus, who was prophesied to kill his uncle; his ignorance of his parentage, stemming from his abandonment, caused his uncle to jeer at him and him to kill the uncle in anger.
When older children are abandoned in fairy tales, while poverty may be cited as a cause, as in Hop o' My Thumb, also called Thumbelina, the most common effect is when poverty is combined with a stepmother's malice, as in Hansel and Gretel (or sometimes, a mother's malice). The stepmother's wishes may be the sole cause, as in Father Frost. In these stories, the children seldom find adoptive parents, but malicious monsters, such as ogres and witches; outwitting them, they find treasure enough to solve their poverty. The stepmother may die coincidentally, or be driven out by the father when he hears, so that the reunited family can live happily in her absence.
In a grimmer variation, the tale Babes in the Wood features a wicked uncle in the role of the wicked stepmother, who gives an order for the children to be killed. However, although the servants scruple to obey him, and the children are abandoned in the woods, the tale ends tragically: the children die, and their bodies are covered with leaves by robins.
In modern mediaEdit
Foundlings still appear in modern literature; this is a partial list of examples:
- In George Bernard Shaw's stage play Major Barbara, industrialist Andrew Undershaft, a foundling himself, intently searches for a foundling to assume the family business.
- Superman may be seen as a continuation of the foundling tradition, the lone survivor of an advanced (but almost-completely extinct) civilization who is found and raised by Kansas farmers in a pastoral setting, and later discovers his alien origins and uses his powers for good.
- Charlie Chaplin's movie The Kid revolves about the Tramp's efforts to raise an abandoned child.
- In the graphic novel Aqua Leung, the main protagonist is a prince who is whisked out of a castle under attack in a basket-like device and then found by a couple and raised on land so that his father's enemies do not find him. He returns to the seas to fulfill the prophecy thought to be his father's but that was actually his.
- Elora Danan, in the film Willow, and Lir, in the novel The Last Unicorn, both continue the tradition of foundlings abandoned because of prophecies, and who fulfil the prophecies because of their abandonment.
- In the last book of The Chronicles of Prydain, Dallben reveals to the hero Taran that he is a foundling; in a story set in the same world, "The Foundling," Dallben himself proves to be a foundling as well.
- The character Leela from Futurama was a foundling, given to the Ophanarium and a note in an alien language to make people believe that she was an alien rather than a mutant; she would have been forced, in the latter case, to live in the sewers with the other mutants.
- Several foundlings appear in Terry Pratchett's Discworld: most notably Captain Carrot Ironfoundersson, who was found, as a toddler, among the ruins of a caravan party that had been attacked by bandits, and was then surrounded by the bodies of the adults.
- The character of Mozzie, from White Collar, is a foundling, left in a basket with only a bear.
- In some cartoons, wily characters may disguise themselves as foundlings. This may be accomplished by the character dressing as a baby and lying in a bassinet or basket on a doorstep, perhaps with a note adding to the ruse. This was parodied in the 2006 movie Little Man.
- In The Flintstones, Bamm-Bamm was abandoned on the Rubbles's doorstep and eventually adopted by them.
- "Child Abandonment". Findlaw. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "Reuters Investigates – The Child Exchange". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "What is Rehoming and What Can Be Done to Stop it". 29 December 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "What is Adoption Rehoming, Disruption, Dissolution?". 20 May 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- Chung, Cindy. "Parental Rights Terminated Due to Child Abandonment". Legal Zoom.
- Schweder, Richard (2009). The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion. University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0226475394.
- Child abandonment and its prevention in Europe. Institute of Work, Health and Organisations. Nottingham: University of Nottingham. 2012. ISBN 978-0853582861. OCLC 935864111.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Delaunay, Valérie (30 December 2011). "Improving knowledge on child abandonment and care in Africa: A demographic contribution to the achievement of child protection". African Population Studies. 25 (1). doi:10.11564/25-1-268. ISSN 2308-7854.
- Bailey, Heather; Semenenko, Igor; Pilipenko, Tatyana; Malyuta, Ruslan; Thorne, Claire (December 2010). "Factors associated with abandonment of infants born to HIV positive women: results from a Ukrainian birth cohort". AIDS Care. 22 (12): 1439–1448. doi:10.1080/09540121.2010.482127. ISSN 0954-0121. PMC 3428901. PMID 20824547.
- "The tragic tale of China's orphanages: 98% of abandoned children have disabilities". Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- Miller-Loessi, Karen; Kilic, Zeynep (2001). "A Unique Diaspora?: The Case of Adopted Girls from the People's Republic of China". Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies. 10 (2): 243–260. doi:10.1353/dsp.2011.0057. ISSN 1911-1568.
- Citro, Brian; Gilson, Je ; Kalantry, Sital; Stricker, Kelsey; University of Chicago Law School. International Human Rights Clinic; National Asian Paci c American Women's Forum (U.S.); and Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (Organization), "Replacing Myths with Facts: Sex-Selective Abortion Laws in the United States" (2014). Cornell Law Faculty Publications. Paper 1399. http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/facpub/1399
- "How can abandonment of children by noncustodial parents be prevented?". www.custodyzen.com. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "Disrupting young lives: How detention and deportation affect US-born children of immigrants". Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- Hall, Macer (11 February 2001). "False DNA test led father to reject daughter". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "Family functioning in families with alcohol and other drug addiction". www.msd.govt.nz. Ministry of Social Development (MSD). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- Abuheweila, Iyad; Kershner, Isabel (2018). "ISIS Declares War on Hamas, and Gaza Families Disown Sons in Sinai". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- Seaton, Jaimie. "Homeless rates for LGBT teens are alarming, but parents can make a difference". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "America's Shame: 40% of Homeless Youth Are LGBT Kids". Williams Institute. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "Serving Our Youth: Findings from a National Survey of Service Providers Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Who Are Homeless or At Risk of Becoming Homeless". Williams Institute. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
- Hobbs, G. F.; Hobbs, C. J.; Wynne, J. M. (December 1999). "Abuse of children in foster and residential care". Child Abuse & Neglect. 23 (12): 1239–1252. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(99)00096-4. ISSN 0145-2134. PMID 10626608.
- Thorne, Roger. "Child Abandonment Laws in Pennslyvania". Livestrong.com. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "Child Attachment Disorder | Health". patient.info. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "Abandonment Issues – Are They Holding You Back In Life?". Harley Therapy™ Blog. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- "Understanding Clinginess". Evolution Counseling. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
- Levy, Michael S. (1998). "A Helpful Way to Conceptualize and Understand Reenactments". The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research. 7 (3): 227–235. ISSN 1055-050X. PMC 3330499. PMID 9631344.
- "Traumatic Reenactment". www.bernsteininstitute.com. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
- "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder of Abandonment, Part I: An Overview". Abandonment.net. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- AACAP. "Attachment Disorders". www.aacap.org. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
- Ripley, Will. "Meet China's abandoned children". CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- Child Welfare Information Gateway. “Foster care statistics 2015”. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.
- "Physical and Emotional Child Abandonment Laws and Penalties". resources.lawinfo.com. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- Mitrut, Andreea; Wolff, François-Charles (December 2011). "The impact of legalized abortion on child health outcomes and abandonment. Evidence from Romania". Journal of Health Economics. 30 (6): 1219–1231. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.08.004. ISSN 1879-1646. PMID 21889810.
- Bitler, Marianne, and Madeline Zavodny. 2002. "Child Abuse and Abortion Availability ." American Economic Review, 92(2): 363–367.
- "Unequal Access to Abortion". prochoice.org. National Abortion Federation. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
- "Preventing Child Neglect". Prevent Child Abuse America. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
- "About Teen Pregnancy | Teen Pregnancy | Reproductive Health". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
- Boswell, John Eastburn (1984). "Expositio and Oblatio: The Abandonment of Children and the Ancient and Medieval Family". The American Historical Review. 89 (1): 10–33. doi:10.2307/1855916. JSTOR 1855916. PMID 11611460.
- E., Lester, Anne (2007). "Lost but not yet Found: Medieval Foundlings and their Care in Northern France, 1200–1500". Proceedings of the Western Society for French History. 35. ISSN 2573-5012.
- The Visigothic Code: (Forum judicum), Book IV: Concerning Natural Lineage Title IV: Concerning Foundlings
- Judith and Martin Land, Adoption Detective: Memoir of an Adopted Child, Wheatmark Publishing, 2011, p. ix
- "The Orphan Train Movement". www.childrensaidnyc.org. Children's Aid. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- "Washingtonpost.com: Horizon Section". www.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
- Philanthropy in America : a comprehensive historical encyclopedia. Burlingame, Dwight. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. 2004. ISBN 978-1576078600. OCLC 56747800.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Jones v. Helms, 452 U.S. 412 (1981).
- Benjamin Hardy, "Foster Family Disputes Key Statements from Justin Harris", The Arkansas Times,
- "What happens to abandoned babies?". Magazine. BBC. 8 December 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- Barro, Josh (28 September 2012). "Malaysia's 'Baby-Dumping' Epidemic". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- Montanari, Stefano (15 April 2015). "As Arkansas Outlaws Re-homing, Other States Might Follow Suit". Social Work Helper. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- "Newborn killings drop after anonymous delivery law". Reuters. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- "Save Abandoned Babies". saveabandonedbabies.org. Save Abandoned Babies Foundation. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- Ripley, Will. "'They don't deserve this kind of life:' Meet China's Abandoned Children". CNN.com. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "Abandoned children". The Encyclopedia of World Problems & Human Potential. UIA. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- Johnson, Kay Ann (2016). China's Hidden Children: Abandonment, Adoption, and the Human Costs of the One-child Policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
- "Public Data".
- Watts, Jonathan (May 2005). "GIs return to end 30 years of pain for Vietnam's children of the dust". The Guardian.
- "Decree 770 of Ceaucescu". Searching in History. Searching in History. 19 January 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- Breslau, Karen. "Overplanned Parenthood: Ceausescu's Cruel Law". Ceausescu. ceausescu.org. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- "Romania – Birth Rate". Index Mundi.
- Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism, p. 198. ISBN 0-691-01298-9.
- Laura A. Hibbard (1963). Medieval Romance in England, p. 242. New York: Burt Franklin[ISBN missing]
- Josepha Sherman, Once upon a Galaxy, pp. 55–56. ISBN 0-87483-387-6.
- Cipolla, Gaetano. "The Lady of the Wheel (La Ruotaia)". Legas.
- Northrop Frye, "Recognition in The Winter's Tale," pp. 108–109 of Fables of Identity: Studies in Poetic Mythology. ISBN 0-15-629730-2.
- Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v. 2, p. 68. Dover Publications, New York, 1965.
- Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 60. ISBN 0-691-06722-8.
- Barbara A. Hanawalt, The Ties That Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England, p. 172. ISBN 0-19-504564-5.
- Jane Yolen, Touch Magic, p. 73. ISBN 0-87483-591-7.
- Jane Yolen, Touch Magic, p. 74. ISBN 0-87483-591-7.
- Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 474. ISBN 0-393-97636-X.
- Josepha Sherman, Once upon a Galaxy, p. 55. ISBN 0-87483-387-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Foundlings.|