Chicago bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics
The Chicago bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics was an unsuccessful bid, first recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on September 14, 2007. The IOC shortlisted four of the seven applicant cities—Madrid, Spain; Tokyo, Japan; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and Chicago, United States; over Baku, Azerbaijan; Doha, Qatar; and Prague, Czech Republic—on June 4, 2008, during a meeting in Athens, Greece. This was followed by an intensive bidding process which finished with the election of Rio de Janeiro at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 2, 2009.
|Games of the XXXI Olympiad
XV Paralympic Games
|Rio de Janeiro
Madrid · Tokyo · Chicago
|City||Chicago, United States|
|NOC||United States Olympic Committee|
|Previous Games hosted|
|None • Bid for 1952 and 1956
(It was elected to host the 1904 Summer Olympics, but they were transferred to St. Louis in a 14–2 vote of the IOC).
|Result||3rd runner-up (18 votes)|
In Chicago's bid, the games would have been held from July 22 to August 7, with the Paralympics held between August 12 and 28. The bid plan emphasized use of Chicago Park District parks to host the games, but other existing facilities such as Soldier Field and McCormick Place would have hosted events. The bid included a plan for North Side, Downtown Loop and South Side celebration locations that would have had high-definition LED screens for unticketed visitors. The bid noted that there was a very high concentration of event locations and training facilities close to each other and that the majority of event sites were clustered together. Thus, the vast majority of athletes would have been close to their competitions.
Chicago earned a general score of 7.0 during the Applicant phase, after a detailed study of the Applicant Files received by the IOC Working Group on January 14, 2008. Between April 4 and 7, 2009, the IOC Evaluation Commission, led by Nawal El Moutawakel, arrived in Chicago to assess the conditions of the city. The Commission attended technical presentations, participated in question-and-answer sessions about the Candidature File, and made inspections in all the existing venues across the city. Though considered a favorite entering the voting process, and despite personal appeals from such high-profile Chicagoans as U.S. President Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, and Oprah Winfrey, Chicago was eliminated on the first ballot in IOC voting on October 2, 2009, with 18 votes in a three-round exhaustive ballot of the IOC.
The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) selected Chicago over Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and San Francisco as its candidate city to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and 2016 Summer Paralympics on April 14, 2007. This is the city's third failure, after two failed attempts for the 1952 and the 1956 Summer Olympics (and fourth overall attempt, as Chicago won the 1904 Olympics, but they were moved to St Louis as the World's Fair was there and threatened to host a competing competition if the Olympics were not moved). Numerous Olympic Games in North America, including the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, hurt Chicago's bid. It would have been the ninth Olympics hosted in the United States, after the 1904, 1932, 1984 and 1996 Summer Olympics; and the 1932, 1960, 1980 and 2002 Winter Olympics.
USOC city selectionEdit
Initially, five American cities vied for the 2016 Olympics: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. The USOC's chairman at the time, Peter Ueberroth, visited all potential host cities during April and May 2006. He visited Chicago on May 10. On July 26, 2006, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) narrowed its list of American applicant cities to three: Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco. San Francisco withdrew its application on November 13, 2006 after the San Francisco 49ers pulled out of a deal for the construction of a new stadium that would be the centerpiece of the games.
The final stage of the USOC internal selection occurred on April 14, 2007, at Washington, D.C.'s Embassy Row Hotel, where the two remaining bid cities, Chicago and Los Angeles, made a last 40-minute presentation to the USOC board members. At about 21:00 UTC, Chicago was announced as the winner of the United States bid for the 2016 Olympic Games by Ueberroth.
Chicago has had prior experience with Olympic bids. In 1901, the city was unanimously chosen by the IOC to stage the 1904 Summer Olympics, but the Games were moved to St. Louis to coincide with the 1904 World's Fair. Chicago also bid for the 1952 and 1956 Summer Olympics, without success. Mayor of Chicago Richard M. Daley visited Beijing – host city of the 2008 Summer Olympics – on May 15, 2006, where he collected information on hosting. The bidding process for the 2016 Olympic Games was officially launched on May 16, 2007.
In June 2007, Olympic bid committee Chairman and CEO, Patrick G. Ryan announced that David P. Bolger was appointed chief operating officer and Rick Ludwig as chief financial officer.
The Chicago 2016 Olympic bid committee announced the details of the Olympic bid application on January 15, 2008. 22 of the 27 Olympic venues will be in four clusters within 15 km of the Olympic Village. Five new venues and eleven temporary venues would have been built for the games at a cost $49.3 million; these construction costs, and the costs of the games were to be borne by the private sector, with the government financing the infrastructure.
The bid committee filed a 600-page candidacy file with the IOC in Lausanne, Switzerland on February 12, 2009. The file responded to 227 questions given to each candidate city. On February 13, the candidacy file with the final version of Chicago's 2016 Olympic plan was publicly released.
Chicago's bid was supported by major preliminary corporate commitments, philanthropic efforts by wealthy Chicagoans, promised planning participation by a wide range of community and government leaders, and the enthusiasm of the citizenry. Local support for the bid on the South Side, particularly in the Washington Park and Woodlawn community areas, was divided. Ben Joravsky, a Chicago Reader columnist, was one of the strongest critics of the Chicago 2016 bid. However, 2007 opinion polls indicated 76 percent public support. In 2009, as the final selection approached, opponents of the bid became vocal even though organizers seemed to be pleased with the bid's progress and presentation. Peter Ueberroth stated, "Chicago is going in the right direction, and we are impressed by that."
Long-time Chicago resident and current President of the United States Barack Obama was a supporter of Chicago's bid since its inception and noted his support during his Presidential election victory speech in Grant Park. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama traveled to Denmark to support Chicago's bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics. Michael Jordan was an unofficial spokesman for Chicago's bid. Chicago media mogul Oprah Winfrey and Olympic champion Michael Phelps had been widely promoting the bid since the 2008 Summer Olympics.
The bid plan emphasized use of Chicago Park District parks (Washington Park, Burnham Park, Lincoln Park, Douglas Park and Grant Park). In addition, existing facilities such as Soldier Field and McCormick Place would have hosted events. In addition to the event sites, the bid included North side, downtown Loop and South Side celebration locations in Lincoln and Grant Parks as well as the Midway Plaisance respectively that would have had JumboTrons for unticketed visitors. The bid noted the high concentration of event locations; the majority of event sites would have been clustered together.
Ueberroth and members of the national committee met with Daley on May 10, 2006, for the initial assessment. Daley appointed business executive Patrick G. Ryan of Aon Corporation, part-owner of the Chicago Bears, to lead the city's bid process, especially in areas of corporate participation in fundraising.
Mayor Daley said on May 10, 2006 that the Olympics "cannot become a financial burden to the taxpayers of Chicago and Illinois." "The goal is to have the Olympics be totally privately funded and we have unparalleled support from the business community," a mayoral spokeswoman said in July 2006. Daley insisted that no tax money would be used to pay for the city to host the 2016 Summer Olympic Games and said funding from the private sector and federal dollars for security and infrastructure would cover the costs. "Tax money isn't paying for it," Daley said on February 7, 2009. "The federal government pays for security, which is the highest cost of the Olympics ... The other thing they pay for is infrastructure ... There's no city tax money whatsoever ... We are very strong in that position ... in the regard to having that be sponsored by the private sector and others." In previous years, Daley opposed possible bids for the 2008 and 2012 Olympic Games owing to former international committee financial-guarantee requirements. The 2016 financial guarantee requirements were not initially formalized.
Early cost estimates hovered at $5 billion, with $1.1 billion for the lakeside Olympic Village and an additional estimated $366 million for a temporary 80,000 seat Olympic Stadium to be built in Washington Park. Nonetheless, the proposed budget was small in comparison to the Beijing Olympics, which are estimated to have cost $40 billion. Further, the 2004 Olympic games in Athens, initially budgeted to cost $2.4 billion, in fact cost $9 billion. On April 11, 2007, former Governor of Illinois Rod Blagojevich proposed $150 million in state funding to help secure the bid to the USOC for Chicago. Current Governor Pat Quinn stated that he would be willing to support any funding necessary to secure the Olympics for Chicago. By April 14, over $35 million in cash and $13 million in goods had been pledged, including donations in excess of $100,000 from at least 225 individuals and corporations. Chicago had strong allies to pursue federal funds for security and transportation: U.S. Senator Dick Durbin was the second in command among Democratic Senators as the Whip, and former Senator Barack Obama had become the President of the United States. The city announced a $500 million insurance policy against cost overruns and revenue shortfalls.
Despite the current lack of an Olympic stadium, Chicago has dozens of existing sport venues: Soldier Field, United Center, U.S. Cellular Field, Wrigley Field, Allstate Arena in Rosemont, Sears Centre in Hoffman Estates, and Toyota Park in Bridgeview. Venues at Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago State University, Northern Illinois University, and the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, among others, were also available and had been mentioned in early news reports as possibilities. Northerly Island and the lakefront along Lake Michigan would have hosted all beach and water events. The McCormick Place convention center, the second largest in the world, was the planned venue for indoor events like judo and weightlifting, as well as hosting all press offices, while Archery and the medals podium were slated for Grant Park.
Preliminary soccer matches would have been played in several venues, of which a few were slated to have been temporarily renamed in line with the IOC prohibition against corporate naming rights sponsorships to be used for venue names. These venues included MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey (which would have been temporarily renamed "New York Field" for the Olympics); the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California; Lincoln Financial Field ("Philadelphia Field") in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Edward Jones Dome in St. Louis, Missouri ("St. Louis Dome"); FedExField in Landover, Maryland ("Landover Field"); and TCF Bank Stadium ("Minneapolis Stadium"), a new stadium which opened in September 2009 on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Swimming events were originally planned to be held in the West Side's Douglas Park, but in a December 2008 plan revision the swimming events would have moved to Washington Park and a velodrome for track and BMX cycling events would have moved from Northerly Island to Douglas Park. The Cycling hub would have been in Madison, Wisconsin.
While some venues might have changed at short notice, the Chicago 2016 Bid Book indicated that the following venues would have been permanently constructed: an Aquatic Center, the Olympic Stadium (to a limited long-term degree), a Canoe/Flatwater/Rowing area at Monroe Harbor, a Canoe/Kayak-Slalom Course, a velodrome in Douglas Park, and Field Hockey Fields in Jackson Park.
The Monroe Harbor would have been enlarged with a $60-million breakwater to accommodate an approximately 2-mile (3.2 km) course for rowing events. This would have enabled rowing competitions to take place on a course running from Northerly Island to about Randolph Street. This course would have featured a picturesque Chicago Loop skyline backdrop for television viewing, which by 2016 might have included the Chicago Spire, if it was completed. In order to accommodate the Olympics, all non-Olympic watercraft would have been required to vacate Monroe Harbor for a year. Canoeing events would have been held in the former location of Meigs Field on Northerly Island near the Adler Planetarium. Historically, this site staged some venues for the 1933 World's Fair.
The Olympic Stadium would have been built in Washington Park, a site listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the Washington Park community area of the same name on the city's south side. Chicago initially proposed building a temporary 80,000-seat track stadium adjacent to Soldier Field and having the two stadiums host dual Opening and Closing Ceremonies. However, the final proposal called for a $366 million temporary stadium to be built in Washington Park. The stadium would have been replaced by a 10,000 seat multi-use venue after the games. The smaller post-Olympic stadium would have been more in line with public interest in restoring the historic park after the games. The new stadium would have featured a high-tech reflective sheathing material to accommodate huge TV picture projections on its outside walls. The temporary stadium would not have had concessions inside the stadium, unlike permanent local venues, although concessions were planned outside the stadium. The stadium would have featured a basic oval shape, but it would also have adhered to Olympic design rules which dictate that there must be an overhanging lip at one end to cover dignitaries and the media. IOC president Jacques Rogge praised Chicago's design in November 2007 as a possible "blueprint for the future", reflecting the desire of the IOC to make the games both more affordable and to have a smaller ecological footprint on the host city.
The Olympic Village for housing athletes during the games would have been a $1.1-billion series of newly constructed lakefront buildings that would have been converted to rental and condominium units after the games. The village was to be located immediately south of McCormick Place, which was expected to host 11 event venues, on a current truck parking lot between South Lake Shore Drive and the Illinois Central Railroad tracks in the Near South Side and Douglas community areas. At the time, the parking lot was being used to stage events at McCormick Place. The village was slated to have pedways over Lake Shore Drive. This location was meant to enable 88% of the Olympic athletes to be within 15 minutes of their competition venue.
Initially, the Olympic Village was to be located entirely on the McCormick Place truck yards, but in November 2006, The Michael Reese Hospital site became listed for sale. Planners determined that the Hospital site would likely have been superior in terms of lower cost and more successful urban planning implementation. In November 2007, Mayor Daley announced a plan to acquire the 37-acre (150,000 m2) site, and the following June the hospital decided that it would cease operations. In July 2008 the city announced its official bid for the property: The city planned to borrow $85 million to buy the Michael Reese Hospital campus, near 31st and King Drive, from its current owner, Medline Industries. Medline would only get $65 million, because the company agreed to make a $20 million “charitable contribution” back to the city. The city would use that $20 million to pay up to five years of interest on its $85 million debt, demolish the hospital, and clean up the site. Then sometime in the next couple years it planned to sell the site for at least $85 million to a developer or developers, who in turn were expected to build a complex big enough to house about 15,000 Olympians. After the games the developer would sell or rent out the units.
In September 2008, the city realized it had underestimated demolition and environmental cleanup costs, which put the transaction at risk. Additionally in September the Associated Press reported a recalcitrant property owner may force the hospital site to be abandoned. These problems needed resolution by the bid committee by February 2009, the date which bid books were due. That month, the city requested a renegotiation of terms and within a week Michael Reese hospital filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy. In December 2008, new terms for the deal became public. Although original financing plans included no taxpayer funding, the late deal was only possible with $500 million of taxpayer participation via a guarantee by the city to cover possible revenue shortfall and $45 million for Chicago Police Department costs. In addition, in early 2008, records were uncovered that show the campus of Michael Reese Hospital to have been designed, in large part, by one of the twentieth century's most well-respected modernist architects, Walter Gropius. Thus, the plan for the Olympic Village battled the growing belief that preserving the old hospital campus would be better from an urban planning and historic preservation standpoint, and also rose questions about financing the village. In addition, the planned demolition of 28 buildings put the sustainability record the city was attempting to create in question.
Chicago benefited from a strong sports culture. On August 1, 2006, it was named Best Sports City in the US by Sporting News. Chicagoans are famous for their rabid support of their home teams: the Chicago Bears, Chicago Bulls, Chicago Cubs, Chicago White Sox, Chicago Blackhawks, Chicago Wolves, and more recently, Chicago Sky (WNBA), Chicago Fire, the Chicago Red Stars (the new women's soccer team), and the Chicago Machine. Other events such as the Chicago Marathon, one of the five World Marathon Majors, would also play a part in Chicago's Olympic-planning process.
Chicago has hosted major and historic world gatherings in the past, including the famous 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition and the 1959 Pan American Games, as well as matches for the 1994 FIFA World Cup soccer tournament. Chicago has also hosted the most United States presidential nominating conventions. Chicago was scheduled to host the 1904 Summer Olympics, but the games were instead relocated to St. Louis to coincide with its Louisiana Purchase Exposition, more commonly known as the Saint Louis World's Fair. Chicago was also the first host of the Special Olympics in 1968.
More recently, Chicago hosted the Gay Games VII in July 2006, and the 2007 AIBA Boxing Championships in October 2007. The championships were a qualifying event for the 2008 Summer Olympics and a chance for Chicago to showcase its staging skills to IOC members. AIBA head Dr. Ching-kuo Wu enthused the tournament was the "best ever", especially considering the short six-month lead time Chicago had to organize the games.
On May 16, 2007, Chicago was informed that its logo, a representation of a torch with the flames reminiscent of Chicago's skyline, violated IOC rules against using Olympic torch imagery. Bidding rules prohibit logos containing the Olympic symbol, motto, flag or other imagery including a flame, torch or medal. Chicago agreed to revise the logo. The current redesigned logo was released on September 19, 2007. Using the same color palette, a unique six-pointed Chicago star represents a compass pointing in all directions reaching out to the world. Each point represents an Olympic value: Hope, Respect, Harmony, Friendship, Excellence and Celebration. The warm colors initially represented in the flame (or top) of the image refer to the sun, the cool colors represent the green parklands and blue waters of Lake Michigan. Initially beneath the logo were the words "Applicant City". Both logos were designed by Chicago-based design firm VSA Partners.
Chicago not only changed its logo, but relaunched its campaign. It changed its motto from "Stir the soul" to "Let friendship shine". Chicago used social media more than any other city bidding, and was keen to make 2016 a ‘New Media Olympics’. It established a number of groups on Facebook, and on September 29, 2009 the bid's official page surpassed 100,000 members; it also used Flickr and Twitter.
The bid relied on Chicago's strength in medical services and doping control, security, accommodations, transportation, technology and media operations. The city's transportation infrastructure includes the Chicago Transit Authority, which operates a vast network of buses and elevated/subway 'L' trains, and the Metra and South Shore Line commuter rail services that connects more than 230 suburban destinations to Chicago. These transportation options would have allowed public transit access to the Games for city residents and people throughout northeastern Illinois into northern Indiana and southern Wisconsin.
Chicago's main airport, O'Hare International Airport is the second-busiest airport in the world. The Chicago region is served by two other major commercial airports, Midway and Milwaukee's General Mitchell International Airport, along with several smaller airports. The city is served by all major worldwide airlines, and O'Hare is an international hub for both American and United Airlines, while Midway is a hub for domestic carrier Southwest Airlines. There is also a considerable network of rail lines and interstate highways in the region. Chicago has over 30,000 hotel rooms in the immediate downtown area alone, and it has the largest skilled-labor workforce in the US catering to conventions and other large-scale media events.
Chicago is in the Central Time Zone (UTC −5 during the summer months), which is very is well-suited to North American television coverage. The NBC television network with its sister cable broadcasters is by far the largest media vendor and contract purchaser of the Olympic Games.
Domain name disputeEdit
Trademark controversies arose for "Chicago2016.com" and "Tokyo2016.com", when both were registered in 2004 by entrepreneur Stephen Frayne Jr., an MBA student at the Kellogg School of Management; he also claimed around 40 other domain names whose city/year format mimicked the way Olympic Games are marketed. Frayne's stated intent for the site was a "comprehensive, balanced discussion" of the benefits and pitfalls of holding the Olympics in Chicago; the Chicago 2016 committee contended that his real intent was to profit from cybersquatting. The Chicago Olympic bid organization, which had been using Chicago2016.org as its official web site, sought control of Chicago2016.com through a complaint filed with an international arbitration organization. Attempts by the USOC to have the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) release the names failed. Frayne sued in the U.S. District Court in Chicago, seeking an injunction against the arbitration proceedings. On September 25, 2008, the WIPO arbitration panel granted Frayne's motion to suspend and terminate proceedings setting up a battle in the federal court in the Northern District of Illinois.
The Olympic bid candidature documentation published by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) states that each bid must "...provide documentation indicating that appropriate measures have been taken to register domain names that are of value to your candidature such as '[City] 2016' followed by extensions .com .net .org as well as the country code concerned."
Chicago made the Candidate city shortlist in June 2008 as one of four finalists to host the 2016 Olympic games. Its technical ranking by the IOC was 7.0; generally beyond the 6.0 minimum threshold, but trailing behind Tokyo and Madrid's bids. (Technical qualities are only part of the final selection process.) The final selection from Madrid, Spain; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was made on October 2, 2009, in Copenhagen, Denmark.
In 2007, USOC head Peter Ueberroth contended that Chicago was in "third or fourth place", with a need to focus more on the international relations rather than just having a stronger technical bid. In September 2009, the IOC gave a written evaluation of the venues, budgets, transportation plans and public support. Chicago's bid was not federally underwritten, unlike other bid cities, which concerned the IOC, given declining tax revenue during a major recession in the US economy. Nevertheless, with Chicago's strong hosting of the AIBA Boxing Championships which exposed the city to many IOC members, the city was cited as a current favorite, and one member claimed the Games were "theirs to lose." Chicago also successfully hosted the 2006 Gay Games, another multinational sporting event. Both events were planned with short lead times.
In April 2009, the Chicago 2016 bid committee was the first of the four finalists to host the 13-member IOC Evaluation Commission. They presented twenty films to the committee. Among the video spokespersons were Hillary Clinton (raised in suburban Chicago) and Michael Jordan. In addition to meeting with bid organizers, the IOC commission met with bid opposition groups when they visited. After the IOC commission left Chicago, the Chicago City Council approved an Olympic Community Agreement ordinance that was drafted by Alderman Toni Preckwinkle. The agreement committed 30 percent of Olympic Village units to affordable housing conversion and guarantees women and minorities a portion of Olympic-related contracts. Former Illinois Senate President Emil Jones derided the agreement as an inadequate deal. Some Chicago residents opposed to the Chicago bid, particularly because of the financial implications of the undertaking to Chicago residents, launched a website called "chicagoansforrio.com" to persuade the IOC to give the Olympics to Rio instead. In a public poll, Chicago residents were almost evenly divided on the bid, with 47% supporting and 45% not supporting.
On October 2, 2009, Chicago was knocked out in the first round of voting, and the Olympics went to Rio de Janeiro, despite some high-profile backers, such as US President Barack Obama and Chicago-based television hostess Oprah Winfrey, going to Copenhagen to support the bid.
Since balloting is secret and IOC members rarely share their voting tendencies, there has been much speculation as to why Chicago lost the Olympic bid so early in the process. Michelle Higgins on The New York Times blog argued that an overly restrictive passport and visa policy was one such reason. CBS 2 Chicago's website suggested that anti-Americanism may have contributed. Bid CEO Patrick Ryan was quoted in the Chicago Sun-Times as saying "bloc voting" and assumptions by others in the IOC that Chicago had enough votes to make it to the second round of voting led to its early demise. The same article hinted at fractious relations, noted by The Seattle Times, between the IOC and USOC over the corporate background of the USOC executives and the "inordinate" share of revenue that they receive.
- Kamper, Erich; Mallon, Bill (1992). Who's who at the Olympics.
- "All seven 2016 Applicant Cities return responses". International Olympic Committee. January 14, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "Four cities to compete to host the 2016 Olympic Games". International Olympic Committee. June 4, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "Four on 2016 Olympics short-list". BBC. June 4, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "2016 Olympic Bid Short List Preview". GamesBids. June 3, 2008. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- Smith, Aaron. "Chicago loses Olympic bid to Rio". CNN. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- Chicago 2016: Candidate City (V1), p. 31
- 2016 Working Group Report (PDF), International Olympic Committee, March 14, 2008, archived from the original (PDF) on September 3, 2009, retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "2016 Games: Start of the Evaluation Commission Visits". International Olympic Committee. April 3, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "IOC Team Arrives To Inspect Chicago 2016". GamesBids. April 2, 2009. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "Chicago 2016 Bid Leaves "Strong Impression" – IOC". GamesBids. April 7, 2009. Archived from the original on April 11, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "Two remain in 2016 Olympics race". BBC Sport. October 2, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
- Flora, Brad (October 2, 2009). "Chicago Loses, Nerds Win:The real story behind the battle over the 2016 Summer Olympics". Slate.
- Thế Vận Hội 2016: TT Obama đích thân vận động cho Chicago (in Vietnamese)
- "Tokyo joins race for 2016 Games". BBC. March 8, 2006. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "Chicago Chosen To Bid For 2016 Olympics". CBS. April 14, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "Chicago profile and fact sheet". GamesBids. Retrieved March 2, 2010.[dead link]
- "Rio to stage 2016 Olympic Games". BBC. October 2, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- "Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco On USOC 2016 Olympic Bid Short List". GamesBids. July 26, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- "San Francisco Reluctantly Withdraws 2016 Olympic Bid". GamesBids. November 13, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- "U.S. 2016 Candidate – Chicago Or Los Angeles?". GamesBids. April 13, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- Peters, Ken (April 14, 2007). "Chicago picked by USOC to bid for 2016 Olympics". Olympics. Yahoo! Sports. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
- Comité International Olympique (July 1901). "Les Jeux Olympiques de 1904" (PDF). Revue Olympique (in French) (3): 30–4. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- "The 1904 Olympics: St. Louis, Missouri". Hickok Sports. Archived from the original on February 22, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- "Olympic Bid Election History". GamesBids. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- "Chicago 2016 Announces New Chief Operating Officer, Other Senior Staff Appointments" (Press release). June 28, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 4, 2006.
- "Newsletters". Chicago 2016, City of Chicago, Applicant City, 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2008.
- "Chicago's 2016 Olympic Bid Details Are Released". Menscerto Inc. January 15, 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2008.
- "The Bid Book Is In!". Chicago 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- Hersh, Philip (February 13, 2009). "Chicago Olympic bid plans revealed: City believed to be front-runner for 2016 Olympics, but money issues remain". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- Hilkevitch, Jon (February 13, 2009). "No transit overhaul in city's Olympic bid". Chicago Tribune/WGN/CLTV/WGN-TV. Archived from the original on October 13, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- "And the 2016 Summer Olympics will be held in (read the story to find out)". Sports Business News. January 26, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
- Joravsky, Ben (April 17, 2008). "A City Off Track: Amid the Olympics fervor, local athletes are still getting shortchanged". Chicago Reader. Creative Loafing Media. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Joravsky, Ben (October 4, 2007). "A Promise Made to Be Broken: Could a 20,000-seat Olympic field hockey arena really leave Jackson Park unspoiled?". Chicago Reader. Creative Loafing Media. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Joravsky, Ben (October 25, 2007). "Thar She Blows: The white whale lurking behind the mayor’s new tax increases". Chicago Reader. Creative Loafing Media. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Joravsky, Ben (April 20, 2007). "Think Smaller: While Chicago courts the Olympics, future Olympians practice in school hallways.". Chicago Reader. Creative Loafing Media. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Joravsky, Ben (July 24, 2008). "Magic Beans: The mayor’s new Olympic Village plan would bet taxpayer dollars on risky real estate speculation.". Chicago Reader. Creative Loafing Media. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Joravsky, Ben (April 3, 2008). "It’s All About the Olympics: Why is the Park District clamping down on its volunteer advisers?". Chicago Reader. Creative Loafing Media. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Chicago Bid book, page 53. Survey by Zogby International, April 2007
- Levine, Jay (April 9, 2009). "Olympic Inspection Team Wraps Up Chicago Visit: IOC Team Praises Chicago's Vision, Strong Bid". CBS Broadcasting, Inc./CBS2Chicago.com. Archived from the original on April 11, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- "Rings around the world". Communicate magazine. May 6, 2009. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2009.
- Chicago 2016: Candidate City (V1), p. 2-3
- "Obama To Denmark: Plans Trip To Copenhagen To Pitch Chicago Olympics". The Huffington Post Inc. September 28, 2009. Retrieved September 28, 2009.
- Gomez, Brian (April 10, 2007). "USOC to decide on 2016 Olympic bid city". The Gazette. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
- "Chicago 2016 News – Nike, Phelps, Oprah". Games Bids Inc. August 30, 2008. Archived from the original on March 18, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Olympic Champion Michael Phelps Celebrates With Chicago 2016". Games Bids Inc. September 4, 2008. Archived from the original on March 18, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Chicago 2016: Candidate City (V1), p. 8-9
- Chicago 2016: Candidate City (V1), p. 33
- Chicago 2016: Candidate City (V1), p. A2-A7
- Haugh, David (January 25, 2009). "A league of their own – Old-school owners remain relevant in modern NFL". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
- Bergen, Kathy; Gary Washburn (May 11, 2006). "City out to prove Olympic mettle – Aon chief to head exploratory team". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
- Spielman, Fran (May 11, 2006). "Daley, Olympic Committee explore bid for '16 Games: 'Chicago is going in right direction,' Ueberroth says". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
- Bergen, Kathy (June 4, 2006). "Olympics won't be taxing, Daley says – The mayor has big plans for 2016, but they run toward partnerships, gifts, not taxpayers' wallets". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
- Smith, Gerry (February 7, 2009). "Mayor Daley: No tax money for Olympics". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
- Hersh, Philip; Kathy Bergen (January 10, 2007). "U.S. decides to go for the Games – Panel likes chances of getting 2016 Olympics; Chicago funds top goal". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
- Spielman, Fran (January 24, 2007). "With or Without the Games: Daley Plans New Land, Housing Even if We Don't Get the Games". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
- Michael Bristow (August 22, 2008). "Big Olympic spend, but little debate". BBC. BBC. Retrieved August 22, 2008.
- "Beijing eyes Games profit in 2008". BBC. BBC. December 26, 2005. Retrieved August 22, 2008.
- Chase, John; Ray Long (February 3, 2009). "Quinn pledges state cooperation on Daley's Olympic bid". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- Abrahamson, Alan (April 14, 2007). "Chicago to Bid for 2016 Olympics". NBCSports.com. Retrieved April 17, 2007.[dead link]
- Hinz, Greg (April 14, 2007). "USOC picks Chicago for 2016 Olympic bid". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
- Hinz, Greg (January 23, 2007). "Glitz, guarantees added to Olympic bid". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- "Chicago2016 Official Candidate Bid Book". Archived from the original on March 11, 2009.
- Spielman, Fran (December 12, 2008). "Taxpayers facing more Olympic risk: BIGGER GAMBLE". Chicago Sun-Times. Digital Chicago, Inc. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2011. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- "Chicago's Olympic Bid 2016". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. January 23, 2007. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- "Lakefront Rowing Course". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- "Lakefront Rowing Course". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- "Chicago 2016 Plan Includes Two Stadiums". GamesBids.com. July 13, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
- "A new plan for 2016 Games; 2-stadium plan out; city considering temporary facility". Chicago2016.org. August 17, 2006. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
- "Chicago's Olympic Bid 2016 (gallery)". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. January 23, 2007. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- "Olympic Stadium (gallery)". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. January 23, 2007. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- Chicago 2016 Stadium Plan Praised By IOC President
- Chicago 2016 Committee (2007). "Bid Information". City of Chicago. Archived from the original on April 16, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
- "Olympic Village". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- "Chicago's Olympic Bid 2016 (gallery)". ChicagoBusiness. Crain Communications, Inc. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- Bergen, Kathy (November 2, 2006). "Reese sale bid poses Olympics question". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
- Spielman, Fran (September 12, 2007). "Olympic Village could shift west – Might cut costs, aid neighborhood". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- "Daley unveils plan to acquire 37-acre site". Chicago Tribune. November 1, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Japsen, Bruce (June 6, 2008). "Owner to pull plug on Reese Hospital – Rivals, uninsured patients doom storied institution". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Bergen, Kathy; Hal Dardick (July 9, 2008). "Deal on table for Reese parcel – $85 million financing plan called 'creative'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Spielman, Fran; Andrew Herrmann (July 9, 2008). "City makes $85 mil. gamble on Reese site – Taxpayers won't 'be on the hook': Daley aide". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Joravsky, Ben (July 24, 2008). "Magic Beans: The mayor’s new Olympic Village plan would bet taxpayer dollars on risky real estate speculation.". Chicago Reader. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Bergen, Kathy; Dan Mihalopoulos (September 25, 2008). "Reese property sale hits snag – City to continue talks on land for Olympics". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Spielman, Fran (September 24, 2008). "Olympic Village site in limbo – Soaring cleanup costs sour deal, 2016 team has until Feb. 2 to find alternate". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- "Chicago 2016 – Venue Snag, Delegation Visit". Games Bids Inc. September 24, 2008. Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Japsen, Bruce (September 30, 2008). "Michael Reese makes Chapter 11 filing". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Bergen, Kathy; Cohen, Laurie (December 11, 2008). "Deal for Reese may get sweeter – Proposed terms mean developer would pay nothing in initial 5 years". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- "Warning from Vancouver". Chicago Tribune. January 15, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Greising, David (January 16, 2009). "Chicago 2016 team asks for more 'skin'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- "Gropius in Chicago Coalition: The Campaign to Save Michael Reese Hospital". Gropius in Chicago Coalition. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
- "Challenges rise in developing Olympic Village". Crain's Chicago Business. May 13, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
- "The Expulsion: Chicago set to destroy Bauhaus Modernism at Michael Reese". Repeat-Writings on Architecture, by Lynn Becker, architecture critic for the Chicago Reader. An abbreviated version appeared at the same time in the Chicago Reader. April 15, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
- "An Olympic Battle". Preservation Magazine. June 1, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
- "Best Sports Cities 2006: Welcome back, Chicago". SportingNews.com. August 1, 2006. Archived from the original on December 25, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
- "World Marathon Majors". World Marathon Majors. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Sautter, R. Craig (2005). "Political Conventions". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- "How Chicago Had and Lost the 1904 Olympic Games" (PDF). la84foundation.org. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- "From Backyard Camp to Global Movement: The Beginnings of Special Olympics". Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Foundation /Special Olympics. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
- "Successful Boxing Championships Could Promote Chicago 2016 Bid". Games Bids Inc. October 19, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Hersh, Philip; Kathy Bergen & Shannon Ryan Hersh (November 2, 2007). "Chicago wins style points". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Bellandi, Deanna (May 16, 2007). "IOC rules mean change in Chicago's Olympic logo". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 19, 2007.
- Hersh, Philip (May 16, 2007). "Chicago ordered to dump Olympics logo". Chicago Tribune. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
- Bergen, Kathy (September 20, 2007). "Logo gets star treatment – To comply with International Olympic Committee rules, Chicago 2016 removed the image of a torch from its logo; it has been replaced with a shape from the city's flag". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
- "Chicago 2016 Unveils Logo – Six-Point Star". Games Bids Inc. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
- "Chicago Flag May Get New Star If Olympics Come". CBS Broadcasting, Inc. June 22, 2007. Archived from the original on December 8, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2007.
- "Candidature File – Our Bid Book". Chicago 2016. Archived from the original on March 11, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Chicago 2016: Candidate City (V3)
- Chicago 2016: Candidate City (V3), p. 87–133.
- Chicago 2016: Candidate City (V3), p. 48–86
- Bergen, Kathy; Naoko Nishiwaki (October 7, 2007). "Tokyo takes Chicago tack". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Bergen, Kathy (September 18, 2008). "Olympic bid team vying for Web site - NU graduate student defends right to own Chicago2016.com". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Buitrago, Katie (September 25, 2008). "Chicago 2016: Who Owns the Conversation?". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on September 29, 2008. Retrieved October 6, 2008.
- "Chicago 2016 Dot-Com-troversy Heats Up". Games Bids Inc. September 26, 2008. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Thomas, Mike (September 26, 2008). "NU grad student wins round in fight to keep Olympic site". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- "2016 Candidature Procedure and Questionnaire" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. June 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 19, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Hersh, Philip (June 4, 2008). "Chicago one of four finalists for 2016 Olympics". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- Hersh, Philip (June 5, 2008). "Chicago will take bronze, for now – Makes cut, but ranks 3rd behind Tokyo, Madrid". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- "Seven Applicant NOCs/ Cities for the 2016 Games". International Olympic Committee. September 14, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
- "USOC Head Says Chicago 2016 Needs To Change Emphasis". Games Bids Inc. October 4, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Chicago's 2016 bid gets good report from IOC: But concerns raised about transportation, financial support and other issues". NBC Universal. September 2, 2009. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
- "IOC Member Assesses Olympic Bids". Games Bids Inc. January 5, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- Noel, Josh; Ray Quintanilla (July 23, 2006). "Shaky start, strong finish – Despite early glitches, organizers, athletes found their stride in a welcoming host city". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Hussain, Rummana (July 23, 2006). "Over and out: Gay Games end: Chicago emerges with enhanced reputation as progressive, many say". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Macur, Juliet (April 9, 2009). "Chicago 2016 Offers the I.O.C. a Compact Games Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2009.
- Lazare, Lewis (April 10, 2009). "Bid committee's marketing films impressive". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved April 17, 2009.
- Donovan, Lisa; Fran Spielman (April 8, 2009). "IOC calls city's bid 'strong': 2016 OLYMPICS – But panel's chief is vague when questioned about lack of financial guarantee". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on April 11, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- Moore, Natalie (April 22, 2009). "Chicago City Council Approves Olympic Community Agreement". Chicago Public Radio. WBEZ Alliance, Inc. Archived from the original on June 24, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- Taliaferro, Tim (April 22, 2009). "Chicago Olympics Minority Agreement Approved Despite Vocal Opposition". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- 奈良の看護師必見・オススメ求人モデルケース. Chicagoansforrio.com. Retrieved on June 1, 2014.
- "Many Chicagoans hope city loses vote Friday". NBC Sports. Associated Press. September 30, 2009. Retrieved October 2, 2009.
- Higgins, Michelle (October 2, 2009). "Chicago’s Loss: Is Passport Control to Blame?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
- "Mayor Daley 'Shocked' By Olympics Loss: Despite Obama Pitch, Chicago Ousted In First-Round; IOC Awards Games To Rio". CBS Broadcasting, Inc. October 2, 2009. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
- Roeder, David; Lisa Donovan (October 6, 2009). "Chicago 2016 leader: Why Chicago lost: Patrick Ryan blames bloc voting, other ills". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on October 9, 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
- "Olympics: USOC faces criticism after Chicago's failed bid for 2016 Games". The Seattle Times. October 3, 2009. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2009.