Chester Gould (//; November 20, 1900 – May 11, 1985) was an American cartoonist, best known as the creator of the Dick Tracy comic strip, which he wrote and drew from 1931 to 1977, incorporating numerous colorful and monstrous villains.
|Died||May 11, 1985 (aged 84)|
Woodstock, Illinois, United States
|Spouse(s)||Edna M. Gauger|
In 1931, Gould was hired as a cartoonist with the Chicago Tribune and introduced Dick Tracy in the Detroit Mirror on Sunday, October 4, 1931. The original comic was based on a New York detective Gould was interested in. The comic then branched to the fictional character that became famous. He drew the comic strip for the next 46 years from his home in Woodstock, Illinois.
In order to keep informed of police methods, Gould took courses in forensics and investigative procedures. He was later proud of having introduced the two-way wrist radio for Tracy in 1946, and in 1947, the closed-circuit television, both of which were later invented, though in somewhat different forms.
Gould's stories were rarely pre-planned, since he preferred to improvise stories as he drew them. While fans praised this approach as producing exciting stories, it sometimes created awkward plot developments that were difficult to resolve. In one notorious case, Gould had Tracy in an inescapable deathtrap with a caisson. When Gould depicted Tracy addressing Gould personally and having the cartoonist magically extract him, publisher Joseph Patterson vetoed the sequence and ordered it redrawn. The strip also drew protests from those who felt that Mr. Gould's depiction of crime was too gruesome, that he poured on too much gore and carnage.
Later in the strip's Gould period, the Tracy strip was widely criticized for being too right-wing in character and as excessively supportive of the police. Critics thought Gould ignored the rights of the accused and failed to support his agenda with an adequate storyline. The late 1950s also saw a newspaper readership growing less indulgent of Gould's politics.
For instance, Gould introduced a malodorous, tobacco-spitting character, B.O. Plenty, with little significant complaint from readers in the 1940s. However, the 1960s introduction of crooked lawyer Flyface and his relatives, surrounded by swarming flies, created a negative reader reaction strong enough for papers to drop the strip in large numbers. There was then a dramatic change in the strip's setting, leaving behind the strip's origins as an urban crime drama for science fiction plot elements and regular visits to the moon. An increasingly fantastic procession of enemies and stories ensued. The Apollo 11 moon landing prompted Gould to abandon this phase. Finally, Dick Tracy was beset by the overall trend in newspaper comics away from strips with continuing storylines and toward those whose stories are largely resolved within one series of panels.
Gould, his characters, and improbable plots were satirized in Al Capp's comic strip Li'l Abner with the Fearless Fosdick sequences (supposedly drawn by "Lester Gooch"); a notable villain was Bomb Face, a gangster whose head was a bomb.
Awards and exhibitionsEdit
Chester Gould won the National Cartoonists Society's Reuben Award in 1959 and 1977, and was awarded the Inkpot Award in 1978. The Mystery Writers of America honored Gould and his work with a Special Edgar Award in 1980. In 1995, the strip was one of 20 included in the Comic Strip Classics series of commemorative postage stamps and postcards.
From 1991 until 2008, the art and artifacts of Gould's career were displayed in the Chester Gould-Dick Tracy Museum that operated from the Woodstock, Illinois, Old Courthouse on the Square. Visitors to the Museum saw original comic strips, correspondence, photographs, and much memorabilia, including Gould's drawing board and chair. In 2000, the Museum received a Superior Achievement Award from the Illinois Association of Museums, and in 2001, it was given an Award of Excellence from the Illinois State Historical Society. The museum continues today as a virtual museum online.
In 2005, Gould was inducted into the Oklahoma Cartoonists Hall of Fame in Pauls Valley, Oklahoma, by Michael Vance. The Oklahoma Cartoonists Collection, created by Vance, is located in the Toy and Action Figure Museum.
A graduate of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, the Chester Gould Society was named in his honor for Northwestern University School of Professional Studies donors.
In 1983, two years before Gould's death, his only child, Jean Gould O'Connell, recorded extensive interviews with her father, who spoke at length about his early attempts during the 1920s to get syndicated and the birth of Dick Tracy. These interviews became a major source when she wrote his biography, Chester Gould: A Daughter's Biography of the Creator of Dick Tracy, published by McFarland in 2007. A resident of Geneva, Illinois, Jean Gould O'Connell contributed to the Dick Tracy storylines, appeared as a character in the strip and helped create the Chester Gould-Dick Tracy Museum. Her book was an Edgar Award nominee in 2008.
The entire run of Dick Tracy is being reprinted in a book series by IDW Publishing. The series began in 2006. The first volume includes the five sample strips that Gould used to sell his strip, followed by over 450 strips showing the series' beginning (from October 1931 – May 1933), along with a Gould interview, never previously published, by Max Allan Collins. Twenty-six more volumes in this series have been published between 2006 and 2020, bringing the continuity to July 1974.
- Comics Buyer's Guide #1636 (December 2007); Page 135
- De Weyer, Geert (2008). 100 stripklassiekers die niet in je boekenkast mogen ontbreken (in Dutch). Amsterdam / Antwerp: Atlas. p. 215. ISBN 978-90-450-0996-4.
- "Gould, Chester | The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". www.okhistory.org.
- Reynolds, Moira Davison (2003). Comic Strip Artists in American Newspapers, 1945–1980. US. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-7864-1551-9. Archived from the original on May 7, 2017. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- O'Connell, Jean Gould (2007). Chester Gould: A Daughter's Biography of the Creator of Dick Tracy. US: McFarland. pp. 13–18. ISBN 978-0-7864-2825-0.
- O’Connell, Jean Gould (2007). Chester Gould: A Daughter's Biography of the Creator of Dick Tracy. US: McFarland. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7864-2825-0. "The son of a minister, Dad's father came naturally to his activities in the United Brethren Church. Gil was superintendent of the Sunday School department ever since Dad could remember, and his mother was an active church worker. Ray sang in the choir, and Dad did any artwork that was needed—posters and such."
- O'Connell, Jean Gould (2007). Chester Gould: A Daughter's Biography of the Creator of Dick Tracy. US: McFarland. pp. 5. ISBN 978-0-7864-2825-0. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
- Krebs, Albin (May 12, 1985). "Chester Gould, Cartoonist, Dies at at [sic] 84". The New York Times.
- Inkpot Award
- "Detective Fiction on Stamps: United States 1995: Dick Tracy". Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "The Chester Gould Dick Tracy Museum". Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Woodstock natives honor Dick Tracy creator Chester Gould with documentary". www.kcchronicle.com.
- "OCC Bios". Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "The Chester Gould Society". wewill.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2020.