Brooker in March 2011
3 March 1971
Reading, Berkshire, England
|Alma mater||University of Westminster|
In addition to writing for programmes such as Black Mirror, Brass Eye, The 11 O'Clock Show and Nathan Barley, Brooker has presented a number of television shows, including Screenwipe, Gameswipe, Newswipe, Weekly Wipe, and 10 O'Clock Live. He also wrote a five-part horror drama, Dead Set. He has written comment pieces for The Guardian and is one of four creative directors of the production company Zeppotron.
Charlton Brooker was born on 3 March 1971 in Reading. He grew up in a relaxed Quaker household in the village of Brightwell-cum-Sotwell, Oxfordshire. He first worked as a writer and cartoonist for Oink!, a comic produced in the late 1980s. After attending Wallingford School, he attended the Polytechnic of Central London (which became the University of Westminster during his time there), studying for a BA in Media Studies. He claims that he did not graduate because his dissertation was written on video games, which was not an acceptable topic. Brooker listed his comedic influences as Monty Python, The Young Ones, Blackadder, Chris Morris, and Vic Reeves.
Brooker wrote for PC Zone magazine in the mid-1990s. Aside from games reviews, his output included the comic strip "Cybertwats" and a column titled "Sick Notes", where Brooker would insult anyone who wrote in to the magazine – and offered a £50 prize to the best letter.
In February 1998, one of Brooker's one-shot cartoons caused the magazine to be pulled from the shelves of many British newsagents. The cartoon was titled "Helmut Werstler's Cruelty Zoo" and professed to be an advert for a theme park created by a Teutonic psychologist for children to take out their violent impulses on animals rather than humans. It was accompanied by photoshopped pictures of children smashing the skulls of monkeys with hammers, jumping on a badger with a pitchfork, and chainsawing an orang-utan, among other things. The original joke was supposed to be at the expense of the Tomb Raider games, known at the time for the number of animals killed, but the original title, "Lara Croft's Cruelty Zoo", was changed for legal reasons. In October 2008, Brooker and several other ex-writers were invited back to review a game for the 200th issue. Brooker reviewed Euro Truck Simulator.
Brooker began writing a TV review column titled "Screen Burn" for The Guardian newspaper's Saturday entertainment supplement The Guide in 2000, a role he continued through to October 2010.
From late 2005, he wrote a regular series of columns in The Guardian supplement "G2" on Fridays called "Supposing", in which he free-associated on a set of vague what-if themes. From October 2006 this column was expanded into a full-page section on Mondays, including samples from TVGoHome and Ignopedia, an occasional series of pseudo-articles on topics mostly suggested by readers. The key theme behind Ignopedia was that, while Wikipedia is written and edited by thousands of users, Ignopedia would be written by a single sub-par person with little or no awareness of the facts.
On 24 October 2004, he wrote a column on George W. Bush and the forthcoming 2004 US presidential election which concluded, "John Wilkes Booth, Lee Harvey Oswald, John Hinckley, Jr. – where are you now that we need you?"
The Guardian withdrew the article from its website and published and endorsed an apology by Brooker. He has since commented about the remark in the column stating:
I ended a Screen Burn column by recycling a very old tasteless joke (a variant of a graffiti I first saw during the Thatcher years), and within minutes half the internet seemed convinced The Guardian was officially calling for assassination. My inbox overflowed with blood-curdling death threats, and it was all very unfunny indeed – a bit like recounting a rude joke at a dinner party, only to be told you hadn't recounted a joke at all, but molested the host's children, and suddenly everyone was punching you and you weren't going to get any pudding. I've had better weekends.
Brooker left the "Screen Burn" column in 2010. In the final column, he noted how increasingly difficult he found it to reconcile his role in mainstream media and TV production with his writing as a scabrous critic or to objectively criticise those he increasingly worked and socialised with. Longtime covering contributor Grace Dent took over the column. He continued to contribute other articles to The Guardian on a regular basis, his most recent comment column appearing in May 2015.
In 2012 he contributed to the book Behind the Sofa: Celebrity Memories of Doctor Who.
From 1999 to 2003 he wrote the satirical TVGoHome website, a regular series of mock TV schedules published in a format similar to that of the Radio Times, consisting of a combination of savage satire and surreal humour and featured in technology newsletter Need To Know. A print adaptation of the site was published by Fourth Estate in 2001. A TV sketch show based on the site was broadcast on UK digital station E4 the same year.
In 2000, Brooker was one of the writers of the Channel 4 show The 11 O'Clock Show and a co-host (with Gia Milinovich) on BBC Knowledge's The Kit, a low-budget programme dedicated to gadgets and technology (1999–2000). In 2001, he was one of several writers on Channel 4's Brass Eye special on the subject of paedophilia.
In 2003, Brooker wrote an episode entitled "How to Watch Television" for Channel 4's The Art Show. The episode was presented in the style of a public information film and was partly animated.
Together with Brass Eye's Chris Morris, Brooker co-wrote the sitcom Nathan Barley, based on a character from one of TVGoHome's fictional programmes. The show was broadcast in 2005 and focused on the lives of a group of London media 'trendies'. The same year, he was also on the writing team of the Channel 4 sketch show Spoons, produced by Zeppotron.
In 2006, Brooker began writing and presenting the television series Charlie Brooker's Screenwipe on BBC Four, a TV review programme in a similar style to his Screen Burn columns in The Guardian. After an initial pilot series of three editions in April, the programme returned later in the year for a second run of four episodes plus Christmas and Review of the Year specials in December 2006. A third series followed in February 2007 with a fourth broadcast in September 2007, followed by a Review of the Year in December 2007. The fifth series started in November 2008 and was followed by another Review of the Year special. This series was also the first to be given a primetime repeat on terrestrial television (BBC Two), in January 2009.
Screenwipe's format mostly consists of two elements. The first is the playing of clips from other television shows – both mainstream and obscure – interspersed with shots of Brooker, sitting in his living room, delivering witty critiques on them. The second is where Brooker explains, again with a slice of barbed humour, the way in which a particular area of the television industry operates. Also occasionally featured are animations by David Firth and guest contributions, which have included the poetry of Tim Key, and segments in which a guest explains their fascination with a certain television programme or genre.
Brooker has regularly experimented with Screenwipe, with some editions focusing on a specific theme. These themes have included American television, TV news, advertising and children's programmes. The last of these involved a segment where Brooker joined the cast of Toonattik for one week, playing the character of "Angry News Guy". Probably the most radical departure from the norm came with an episode focused on scriptwriting, which saw several of British television's most prominent writers interviewed by Brooker.
A similar show called Newswipe, focusing on current affairs reportage by the international news media, began on BBC Four on 25 March 2009. A second series began on 19 January 2010. He has also written and presented the one-off special Gameswipe which focused on video games and aired on BBC Four on 29 September 2009.
Brooker's 2010 Wipe, a review of 2010, was broadcast in December 2010. The end-of-year Wipe specials have continued every year since then, the last one to date broadcast on 29 December 2016. Due to Brooker's commitments to Black Mirror and other projects, the annual Wipe is on hiatus for 2017.
Charlie Brooker's Weekly Wipe was first broadcast on BBC Two on 31 January 2013. It is an amalgam of Screenwipe and Newswipe, with sections focusing on recent news, television shows and films. Along with the regular cast, it also features guests who discuss recent events. Two more series followed in 2014 and 2015. A 60-minute special, Election Wipe, aired on 6 May 2015, focused on the events running up to the 2015 general election.
He often signs off his programmes with a characteristic "Thank you for watching. Now go away."
Brooker wrote Dead Set, a five-part zombie horror thriller for E4 set in the Big Brother house. The show was broadcast in October 2008 to coincide with Halloween and was repeated on Channel 4 in January 2009 to coincide with Celebrity Big Brother, and again for Halloween later that year. It was produced by Zeppotron, which also produced Screenwipe.
Brooker told MediaGuardian.co.uk it comprised a "mixture of known and less well known faces" and "Dead Set is very different to anything I've done before, and I hope the end result will surprise, entertain and appall people in equal measure." He added that he has long been a fan of horror films and that his new series "could not be described as a comedy". "I couldn't really describe what it is but it will probably surprise people," Brooker said, adding that he plans to "continue as normal" with his print journalism.
In December 2011, three episodes of Brooker's Black Mirror, a science fiction anthology series, aired on Channel 4 to largely positive reviews. As well as creating the show, Brooker wrote the first episode and co-wrote the second with his wife Konnie Huq. He also wrote all three episodes of series two. In September 2015, Netflix commissioned a third season of 12 episodes, with Channel 4 losing the rights to the programme A trailer for the third season was released in October 2016. This was later split into two series of six episodes. The third season was released on Netflix worldwide on 21 October 2016. Brooker has solely written four of the episodes in series three, and has co-written the remaining two.
The fourth season was released in December 2017.
The series is produced by Zeppotron for Endemol. Regarding the programme's content and structure, Brooker noted, "each episode has a different cast, a different setting, even a different reality. But they're all about the way we live now – and the way we might be living in 10 minutes' time if we're clumsy."
An Endemol press release describes the series as "a hybrid of The Twilight Zone and Tales of the Unexpected which taps into our contemporary unease about our modern world", with the stories having a "techno-paranoia" feel. Channel 4 describes the first episode as "a twisted parable for the Twitter age".
Brooker explained the series' title to The Guardian, noting: "If technology is a drug – and it does feel like a drug – then what, precisely, are the side-effects? This area – between delight and discomfort – is where Black Mirror, my new drama series, is set. The 'black mirror' of the title is the one you'll find on every wall, on every desk, in the palm of every hand: the cold, shiny screen of a TV, a monitor, a smartphone."
Several news reports, including one by Chris Cillizza, political reporter for The Washington Post, compared the 2016 Donald Trump political campaign to ″The Waldo Moment″, a 2013 episode of the Black Mirror TV series; later, in September 2016, episode writer Charlie Brooker also compared the Trump campaign to the episode and rightly predicted Trump would win the 2016 election.
Other television work and appearancesEdit
With Daniel Maier, he co-wrote a spoof crime drama for Sky1 called A Touch of Cloth, which first broadcast on 26 August 2012 and starred John Hannah and Suranne Jones, both notable for having starred in genuine crime dramas. Two further series were broadcast in 2013 and 2014, with the latter starring Karen Gillan.
Brooker has appeared on three episodes and one webisode of the popular BBC current affairs news quiz Have I Got News for You. He appeared on an episode of the Channel 4 panel show 8 Out of 10 Cats, The Big Fat Quiz of the Year 2009, Never Mind the Buzzcocks and Would I Lie To You?. In December 2006 he reviewed two games written by the presenters of VideoGaiden, on their show. He also made a brief appearance in the third and final instalment of the documentary series Games Britannia, discussing the rise and popularity of computer games.
On 6 May 2010, Brooker was a co-host of the Channel 4 alternative election night, along with David Mitchell, Jimmy Carr and Lauren Laverne. The telethon was interspersed with contributions from Brooker, some live in the studio but mostly pre-recorded. Notably, these included an "Election Special" of You Have Been Watching and two smaller segments in an almost identical style to Screenwipe (the only noticeable difference being that Brooker was sitting in a different room). Brooker described the experience of live television as being so nerve-wracking he "did a piss" during the broadcast. A spin-off series, 10 O'Clock Live, started in January 2011 with the same four hosts.
Brooker hosted How TV Ruined Your Life, which aired on BBC Two between January and March 2011.
Beginning on 11 May 2010, Brooker presented a 5-part BBC Radio 4 series celebrating failure titled So Wrong It's Right, in which guests compete to pitch the worst possible ideas for new franchises and give the 'most wrong' answer to a question. Also featured are guests' recollections about their own personal life failures and their complaints about life in general in a round called 'This Putrid Modern Hell'. Guests have included David Mitchell, Lee Mack, Josie Long, Frank Skinner, Helen Zaltzman, Holly Walsh, Graham Linehan and Richard Herring. The second series began on 10 March 2011, and a third was broadcast in May 2012. In common with Screenwipe's use of a Grandaddy track (A.M. 180) from the album Under the Western Freeway as its theme tune, So Wrong It's Right uses another track from the same album, Summer Here Kids.
Brooker became engaged to former Blue Peter presenter Konnie Huq after dating for nine months, having met while filming an episode of Screenwipe. They married on 26 July 2010 at the Little White Wedding Chapel in Las Vegas, Nevada. They have two sons: Covey (born March 2012) and Huxley (born February 2014).
Awards and nominationsEdit
Brooker won the 2009 Columnist of the Year award at the British Press Awards for his Guardian column. Dead Set was nominated for the 2009 Best Drama Serial BAFTA. In 2010, he was given the Best Entertainment Programme Award for Newswipe from the Royal Television Society. He has received three British Comedy Awards: Best Newcomer in 2009, Best Comedy Entertainment Show Award for Newswipe in 2011 and Best Comedy Entertainment Personality in 2012. At the BAFTA TV Awards 2017, his show Charlie Brooker's 2016 Wipe won for Best Comedy and Comedy Entertainment Programme.
|The 11 O'Clock Show||1999–2000||Yes||4 episodes|
|Brass Eye||2001||Yes||Yes||Episode: "Paedogeddon"|
|Nathan Barley||2006||Yes||Also co-creator|
|Charlie Brooker's Screenwipe||2006–2008||Yes||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Also creator|
|Rush Hour||2007||Yes||Also creator|
|Dead Set||2008||Yes||Yes||Yes||Zombie||5-part miniseries|
|Charlie Brooker's Gameswipe||2008||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|You Have Been Watching||2009–2010||Yes||Presenter||Also creator|
|Newswipe with Charlie Brooker||2009–2010||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Also creator|
|Charlie Brooker's 2010 Wipe||2010||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|How TV Ruined Your Life||2010||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Also creator|
|Charlie Brooker's 2011 Wipe||2011||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|10 O'Clock Live||2011–2013||Yes||Yes||Presenter|
|Black Mirror||2011–present||Yes||Yes||Also creator|
|Them from That Thing||2012||Yes||2 episodes|
|Charlie Brooker's 2012 Wipe||2012||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|A Touch of Cloth||2012–2014||Yes||Yes||Yes||Himself||Also co-creator|
|How Videogames Changed the World||2013||Yes||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|Charlie Brooker's 2013 Wipe||2013||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|Charlie Brooker's Weekly Wipe||2013–2015||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Also creator|
|Charlie Brooker's 2014 Wipe||2014||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|Charlie Brooker's Election Wipe||2015||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|Charlie Brooker's 2015 Wipe||2015||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|Cunk on Shakespeare||2016||Yes||Special|
|Charlie Brooker's 2016 Wipe||2016||Yes||Yes||Presenter||Special|
|Cunk on Christmas||2016||Yes||Special|
|Mr Biffo's Found Footage||2017||Yes||Web series|
|Cunk on Britain||2017||Yes||5-part series|
- TV Go Home, 2001 (rescanned reprint in 2010) (ISBN 1-84115-675-2)
- Unnovations, 2002 (rescanned reprint in 2011) (ISBN 1-84115-730-9)
- Screen Burn, 2004 (ISBN 0-571-22755-4)
- Dawn of the Dumb: Dispatches from the Idiotic Frontline, 2007 (ISBN 9780571238415)
- The Hell of it All, 2009 (ISBN 9780571229574)
- I Can Make You Hate, 2012 (ISBN 0-571-295-029)
- "At home with TVGoHome". BBC News. 29 August 2001. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- GRO Register of Births: MAR 1971 6a 275 READING, mmn = Povell
- "No wonder Cameron wants to celebrate the Magna Carta - back then plebs had the same human rights as a parsnip". The Guardian. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Profile: Charlie Brooker". RTS Futures. Royal Television Society. 26 September 2007. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- Brooker, Charlie (21 August 2011). "Poor A-levels? Don't despair. Just lie on job application forms". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
- Desert Island Discs, Charlie Brooker, BBC Radio 4, 7 Jan 2018
- Howson, Greg (15 July 2010). "Games (Technology),PC (games),Magazines (Media),Press and publishing,Consumer magazines". The Guardian. London.
- "Doctor Helmut Werstler's Cruelty Zoo". PC Zone. No. 60. Dennis Publishing. p. 120.
- Logged in as click here to log out (30 October 2006). "Brooker's 30 October 2006 column, featuring Ignopedia and TVGoHome". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Full text of deleted article". Antinomian.com. 23 October 2004. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- Close (24 October 2004). "Apology for Brooker's 24 October 2004 Screen Burn column". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Brooker's 17 February 2007 column". The Guardian. London. 17 February 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- Close (16 October 2010). "Charlie Brooker Leaving Screen Burn Column". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- Jones, Paul. "Behind the Sofa: Charlie Brooker, Neil Gaiman and Jonathan Ross's Doctor Who memories". RadioTimes. The Radio Times. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "Need To Know 2000-07-21". Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Need To Know 2004-10-29". Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Endemol UK - Zeppotron". Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Herring, Richard. "RHLSTP". British Comedy Guide. British Comedy Guide. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "How to Watch Television". The Art Show. Channel 4. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- "What Screen / News Wipe looks like from my perspective. on Twitpic". Twitpic.com. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Charlie Brooker gets 'wiped' this Christmas on BBC Four". Endemol UK. Archived from the original on 6 December 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Charlie Brooker's 2011 Wipe". BBC Four. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Charlie Brooker Tweet". Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- "Charlie Brooker's 2013 Wipe". Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- "Charlie Brooker's 2014 Wipe". Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "Charlie Brooker's 2016 Wipe". BBC Two. BBC. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- Hooton, Christopher (28 November 2017). "2017 Wipe cancelled as Charlie Brooker concedes he 'ran out of road'". The Independent. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- "Charlie Brooker's Weekly Wipe". Radiotimes. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
- McGinley, Sheena (31 January 2013). "Charlie Brooker's Weekly Wipe". entertainment.ie. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Charlie Brooker's Weekly Wipe returns in 2014 after 'end-of-year' special". DigitalSpy. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Eames, Tom (13 November 2014). "Charlie Brooker's Weekly Wipe to return, 2014 Wipe confirmed". Digital Spy. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "BBC renew 'People Just Do Nothing' and 'Charlie Brooker's Weekly Wipe'". NME. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "Charlie Brooker's Weekly Wipe gets another series". British Comedy Guide. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- Eames, Tom (24 March 2015). "Charlie Brooker and Jack Dee to host General Election comedy specials". Digital Spy. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- Logged in as click here to log out (21 August 2008). "Charlie Brooker's E4 zombie thriller to be set inside the Big Brother house". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Brooker to write E4 horror series". BBC News. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- TV review: Dead Set Archived 29 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Leicester Mercury, 28 October 2008
- Bafta TV Awards 2009: The winners, BBC, 26 April 2009
- "Black Mirror". Channel 4. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Crace, John (4 December 2011). "Black Mirror". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Wollaston, Sam (11 December 2011). "Black Mirror". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Debra Birnbaum. "'Black Mirror' Lands at Netflix - Variety". Variety.
- Plunkett, John (29 March 2016). "Netflix deals Channel 4 knockout blow over Charlie Brooker's Black Mirror". Retrieved 23 October 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "'Black Mirror' Season 3 Trailer: "No One Is This Happy'". Deadline. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- "Charlie Brooker on Twitter". Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Schwindt, Oriana (27 July 2016). "Netflix Original Series Premiere Dates: 'Black Mirror,' 'Gilmore Girls' and More to Drop in 2016". Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Charlie Brooker: the dark side of our gadget addiction". guardian.co.uk. London. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- "Black Mirror – A new drama from Charlie Brooker". Endemol UK. 11 May 2011. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- "Black Mirror – Channel 4 – Info – Press". Channel 4. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- Cillizza, Chris (8 September 2015). "Donald Trump's troll game of Jeb Bush: A+". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- O'Keefe, Meghan (7 August 2015). "Why You Must Watch 'Black Mirror': "The Waldo Moment" This Weekend". Decider. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Yamato, Jen (13 September 2016). "'Black Mirror' Creator Predicts Trump Will Be President: 'I Find It F*cking Terrifying'". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- Wampler, Scott (13 September 2016). "Black Mirror's Charlie Brooker Predicts Trump Will Win The Election". BirthMoviesDeath.com. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- A Touch of Cloth
- "Channel 4's Alternative Election Night". Channel 4. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Brooker, Charlie (10 May 2010). "Political leaks on primetime". The Guardian. London.
- "Mitchell 'picked 10 O'Clock over Bubble'". 11 January 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Guide, British Comedy. "So Wrong It's Right - Radio 4 Panel Show - British Comedy Guide". Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Endemol UK - ZEPPOTRON SECURES SECOND SERIES FOR RADIO 4". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Zeppotron's So Wrong It's Right picked up for a third run on BBC Radio 4". Endemol UK. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
- "TV's Huq and Brooker get engaged". BBC News. 9 June 2010.
- "Marriage License, County of Clark, Nevada". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Konnie Huq gives birth to baby Covey Brooker Huq". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
- "Charlie Brooker on Twitter". Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Exclusive: Konnie Huq and Charlie Brooker welcome their new baby, a second son Huxley, into the world". Daily Mail. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "Baby joy for Konnie Huq and Charlie Brooker as they welcome second son". Express. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- "The Atheist's Guide to Christmas". Atheist Bus Campaign. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
- Brooker, Charlie (20 November 2004). "Don't look into the eyes". Retrieved 23 October 2016 – via The Guardian.
- "British Press Awards 2009: The full list of winners". Press Gazette. 1 April 2009. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
- "Bafta TV Awards 2017: All the winners and nominees". BBC News. BBC. 14 May 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Charlie Brooker of 'Black Mirror: San Junipero' wins Emmy for writing for a limited series movie or dramatic special". Los Angeles Times. 2017-09-17. Retrieved 2017-09-20.
- Charlie Brooker, 27 November 2017
- Brooker, Charlie (15 December 2005). "The Hell of it All by Charlie Brooker (2009)". Waterstones.com. Retrieved 16 January 2010.