Charles XV also Carl (Carl Ludvig Eugen); Swedish: Karl XV and Norwegian: Karl IV (3 May 1826 – 18 September 1872) was King of Sweden (Charles XV) and Norway, there often referred to as Charles IV, from 8 July 1859 until his death in 1872. Though known as King Charles XV in Sweden (and also on contemporary Norwegian coins), he was actually the ninth Swedish king by that name, as his predecessor Charles IX (reigned 1604–1611) had adopted a numeral according to a fictitious history of Sweden. Charles XV was the third Swedish monarch from the House of Bernadotte. He was the first one to be born in Sweden, and the first to be raised from birth in the Lutheran faith.
|Charles XV & IV|
|King of Sweden and Norway|
|Reign||8 July 1859 – 18 September 1872|
|Coronations||3 May 1860, Stockholm|
5 August 1860, Trondheim
|Born||3 May 1826|
|Died||18 September 1872 (aged 46)|
|Burial||9 October 1872|
(m. 1850; died 1871)
|Mother||Josephine of Leuchtenberg|
|Religion||Church of Sweden|
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2014)
He was born in Stockholm Palace, Stockholm, in 1826 and dubbed Duke of Scania at birth. Born the eldest son of Crown Prince Oscar of Sweden and his wife Crown Princess Josephine, he would be second in line to the throne of his grandfather, the ruling King Charles XIV John of Sweden. During his childhood he was placed in the care of the royal governess countess Christina Ulrika Taube. When he was just 15, he was given his first officer's commission in 1841 by his grandfather the king.
The aging King Charles XIV John would suffer a stroke on his 81st birthday in 1844, dying little more than a month later. His successor would be his son, Charles's father Oscar, who ascended the throne as King Oscar I of Sweden. Upon his father's accession to the throne in 1844, the youth Charles was made a chancellor of the universities of Uppsala and Lund, and in 1853 chancellor of Royal Swedish Academy of Arts. On 11 February 1846 he was made an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
The Crown Prince was Viceroy of Norway briefly in 1856 and 1857. He became Regent on 25 September 1857, and king on the death of his father on 8 July 1859. As grandson of Augusta of Bavaria, he was a descendant of Gustav I of Sweden and Charles IX of Sweden, whose Vasa blood returned to the throne after being lost in 1818 when Charles XIII of Sweden died.
On 19 June 1850 he married in Stockholm Louise of the Netherlands, niece of William II of the Netherlands through her father and niece of William I of Prussia, German Emperor, through her mother. The couple were personally quite dissimilar; Louise was a cultured and refined woman, however, she was considered to be quite plain and Charles was disappointed with her appearance. Louise was in love with her husband, whereas he preferred other women, saddening her deeply. His well-known mistresses included the actress Laura Bergnéhr, the countess Josephine Sparre, Wilhelmine Schröder and the actresses Hanna Styrell and Elise Hwasser, and the Crown Prince neglected his shy wife. On the other hand, his relationship to his only daughter, Louise, was warm and close.
As Crown Prince, Charles's brusque manner led many to regard his future accession with some apprehension, yet he proved to be one of the most popular of Scandinavian kings and a constitutional ruler in the best sense of the word. His reign was remarkable for its manifold and far-reaching reforms. Sweden's existing municipal law (1862), ecclesiastical law (1863) and criminal law (1864) were enacted appropriately enough under the direction of a king whose motto was: Land skall med lag byggas – "With law shall the land be built". Charles also helped Louis De Geer to carry through his reform of the Parliament of Sweden in 1866. He also declared the freedom of women by passing the law of legal majority for unmarried women in 1858 – his sister Princess Eugenie became the first woman who was declared mature.
Charles, like his father Oscar I, was an advocate of Scandinavianism and the political solidarity of the three northern kingdoms, and his friendship with Frederick VII of Denmark, it is said, led him to give half promises of help to Denmark on the eve of the war of 1864, which, in the circumstances, were perhaps misleading and unjustifiable. In view, however, of the unpreparedness of the Swedish army and the difficulties of the situation, Charles was forced to observe a strict neutrality. On behalf of Charles, Dirk de Graeff van Polsbroek, Dutch diplomat in Japan, concluded a "Vänskaps-, handels- och sjöfartstraktat" ("Friendship, Trade and Maritime Treaty") between Sweden-Norway and Japan on 11 November 1868 (see the Treaty of Yokohama). The treaty opened Hakodate, Yokohama, Nagasaki, Kobe and Osaka to trade for Swedish and Norwegian traders (Article 3). The treaty also gave Sweden-Norway the opportunity to send consuls to the newly opened ports, where they were given the right to exercise jurisdiction over Swedes and Norwegians (consular jurisdiction). Charles died in Malmö on 18 September 1872.
Charles XV attained some eminence as a painter and as a poet. He was followed on the thrones of both Norway and Sweden by his brother Oscar II.
In 1872, Charles XV had controversial plans to enter a non-morganatic marriage with the Polish countess Marya Krasińska through the assistance of Ohan Demirgian, plans that aroused opposition both in the royal house and government and which were interrupted only by his death.
Charles's popularity often had him referred to colloquially as "Kron-Kalle" (Crown-Charlie).
By his wife, Louise of the Netherlands, Charles had two children, a son who died in infancy and a daughter who married the King of Denmark. The early death of his only legitimate son meant that he was succeeded on the throne of Sweden by his younger brother Oscar II.
|Louise Josephine Eugenie||31 October 1851||21 March 1926||married, 1869, Frederick VIII of Denmark; had issue including Christian X of Denmark and Haakon VII of Norway.|
|Carl Oscar Vilhelm Frederik||14 December 1852||13 March 1854||died in infancy of pneumonia.|
Charles also sired an illegitimate son, Carl Johan Bolander, (4 February 1854 – 28 July 1903), the father of Bishop Nils Bolander, and daughter, Ellen Svensson Hammar (28 October 1865 – 1931), and it has been widely rumored that he had many more extramarital children.
No subsequent king of Sweden to this day is Charles's descendant. However, his descendants are or have been on the thrones of Denmark, Luxembourg, Greece, Belgium and Norway. A few weeks before Charles's death, his daughter Louise (then the Crown Princess of Denmark) gave birth to her second son. The young Prince of Denmark became christened as grandfather Charles's namesake. In 1905 this grandson, Prince Carl of Denmark, ascended the throne of Norway, becoming thus his maternal grandfather's successor in that country, and assumed the reign name Haakon VII. The present king, Harald V of Norway, is Charles's great-great-grandson, through his father and mother.
- National decorations
- Knight and Commander of the Seraphim, with Collar, 3 May 1826
- Knight of the Order of Charles XIII, 3 May 1826
- Commander Grand Cross of the Sword, 3 May 1826
- Commander Grand Cross of the Polar Star, 3 May 1826
- Grand Cross of St. Olav, with Collar, 3 May 1826
- Foreign decorations
- Knight of the Elephant, 16 July 1846
- Cross of Honour of the Order of the Dannebrog, 22 September 1856
- Grand Commander of the Dannebrog, 10 June 1860
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold (civil), 16 September 1849
- Austrian Empire: Grand Cross of St. Stephen, 1850
- Spain: Knight of the Golden Fleece, 26 June 1855
- Kingdom of Italy: Knight of the Annunciation, 28 July 1861
- Duchy of Anhalt: Grand Cross of Albert the Bear, 5 June 1864
- Kingdom of Bavaria: Knight of St. Hubert, 1846
- Ernestine duchies: Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, April 1864
- French Empire:
- Grand Cross of the Legion of honour
- Médaille militaire
- Kingdom of Greece: Grand Cross of the Redeemer
- Kingdom of Hanover: Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order, 1849
- Mexican Empire: Grand Cross of the Mexican Eagle, with Collar, 1865
- Nassau: Knight of the Gold Lion of Nassau, July 1858
- Netherlands: Grand Cross of the Netherlands Lion
- Luxembourg: Grand Cross of the Oak Crown
- Kingdom of Portugal: Grand Cross of the Sash of the Three Orders
- Kingdom of Prussia:
- Knight of the Black Eagle, 1 December 1846
- Grand Cross of the Red Eagle
- Russian Empire:
- Beylik of Tunis: Husainid Family Order
Prince of Sweden and Norway,
Duke of Scania (1826-1844)
Crown Prince of Sweden and Norway,
Duke of Scania (1844-1859)
King Charles XV of Sweden
Monogram of King Charles XV
|Ancestors of Charles XV|
- ^ Example
- ^ Article Karl in Nordisk familjebok
- ^ Gustaf Elgenstierna, Den introducerade svenska adelns ättartavlor. 1925-36.
- ^ Lars Roar Langslet. "Karl 4, Konge (1826-1872)". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- ^ a b c d public domain: Bain, Robert Nisbet (1911). "Charles XV.". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 932. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the
- ^ "Karl 4, Konge (1826-1872)". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- ^ Erik Opsahl. "Karl 4 – 1826-72". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- ^ Sweden, Japan, and the Long Second World War: 1931-1945, by Pascal Lottaz, Ingemar Ottosson
- ^ Cronholm, Neander N. (1902). A History of Sweden from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. ch 41 pp 289–99
- ^ Ohan Demirgian, urn:sbl:17456, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon (art av Carl-Gustaf Thomasson.), hämtad 2014-12-13.
- ^ "Karl XV 1859-1872".
- ^ Sahlberg, Carl-Erik (1994). Nils Bolander: diktare och predikant (in Swedish). Aneby: KM-förl. p. 11. ISBN 91-86112-39-2. SELIBR 7755088.
- ^ Lagerqvist, Lars O.; Åberg, Nils; Hjelm, Lars E. (2002). Kings and rulers of Sweden: a pocket encyclopaedia (2., rev. ed.). Stockholm: Vincent. p. 48. ISBN 91-87064-35-9. SELIBR 8836893.
- ^ Ole Kristian Grimnes. "Haakon 7". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- ^ a b Sveriges och Norges Statskalender (in Swedish), 1872, p. 459, retrieved 2018-01-06 – via runeberg.org
- ^ Bille-Hansen, A. C.; Holck, Harald, eds. (1872) [1st pub.:1801]. Statshaandbog for Kongeriget Danmark for Aaret 1872 [State Manual of the Kingdom of Denmark for the Year 1872] (PDF). Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender (in Danish). Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz A.-S. Universitetsbogtrykkeri. pp. 1, 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 1 May 2020 – via da:DIS Danmark.
- ^ "Liste des Membres de l'Ordre de Léopold", Almanach Royal Officiel (in French), 1850, p. 33 – via Archives de Bruxelles
- ^ "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Caballeros de la insigne orden del toisón de oro", Guía Oficial de España (in Spanish), 1864, p. 155, retrieved 10 December 2019
- ^ Cibrario, Luigi (1869). Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata. Sunto degli statuti, catalogo dei cavalieri (in Italian). Eredi Botta. p. 118. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
- ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch für das Herzogthum Anhalt (1867), "Herzoglicher Haus-Orden Albrecht des Bären" p. 18
- ^ Bayern (1867). Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern: 1867. Landesamt. p. 8.
- ^ Staatshandbücher für das Herzogtums Sachsen-Altenburg (1869), "Herzogliche Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden" p. 21
- ^ Staat Hannover (1858). Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: 1858. Berenberg. p. 70.
- ^ "Seccion IV: Ordenes del Imperio", Almanaque imperial para el año 1866 (in Spanish), 1866, p. 243, retrieved 29 April 2020
- ^ Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau: 1859. Schellenberg. 1859. p. 7.
- ^ Liste der Ritter des Königlich Preußischen Hohen Ordens vom Schwarzen Adler (1851), "Von Seiner Majestät dem Könige Friedrich Wilhelm IV. ernannte Ritter" p. 23
- The Royal Norwegian Order of St Olav - Norwegian and Swedish Monarchs Grand Masters of the Order
- Family tree of the Royal Norwegian House
- Kings of Norway (in Norwegian)
- Much material on early kings (in Norwegian)
- The American Cyclopædia. 1879. .