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Widor, c. 1900
|Born||21 February 1844|
|Died||12 March 1937 (aged 93)|
Widor was born in Lyon, to a family of organ builders, and initially studied music there with his father, François-Charles Widor, titular organist of Saint-François-de-Sales from 1838 to 1889. The French organ builder Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, reviver of the art of organ building, was a friend of the Widor family; he arranged for the talented young organist to study in Brussels in 1863 with Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens for organ technique and with the elderly François-Joseph Fétis, director of the Brussels Conservatoire, for composition. After this term of study, Widor moved to Paris where he resided for the rest of his life. At the age of 24, he was appointed assistant to Camille Saint-Saëns at Église de la Madeleine.
In January 1870, with the combined lobbying of Cavaillé-Coll, Saint-Saëns, and Charles Gounod, the 25-year-old Widor was appointed as "provisional" organist of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, the most prominent position for a French organist. The organ at St-Sulpice was Cavaillé-Coll's masterwork; the instrument's spectacular capabilities proved an inspiration to Widor. Despite his job's ostensibly "provisional" nature, Widor remained as organist at St-Sulpice for nearly 64 years until the end of 1933. He was succeeded in 1934 by his former student and assistant, Marcel Dupré.
In 1890, upon the death of César Franck, Widor succeeded him as organ professor at the Paris Conservatoire. The class he inherited was initially stunned by this new teacher, who suddenly demanded a formidable technique and a knowledge of J. S. Bach's organ works as prerequisites to effective improvisation. Later (1896), he gave up this post to become composition professor at the same institution. Widor had several students in Paris who were to become famous composers and organists in their own right, most notably the aforementioned Dupré, Louis Vierne, Charles Tournemire, Darius Milhaud, Alexander Schreiner, Edgard Varèse, and the Canadian Henri Gagnon. Albert Schweitzer also studied with Widor, mainly from 1899; master and pupil later collaborated on an annotated edition of J. S. Bach's organ works published in 1912–1914. Widor, whose own master Lemmens was an important Bach exponent, encouraged Schweitzer's theological exploration of Bach's music.
Among the leading organ recitalists of his time, Widor visited many different nations in this capacity, including Russia, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Italy, Poland and Switzerland. In addition, he participated in the inaugural concerts of many of Cavaillé-Coll's greatest instruments, notably Notre-Dame de Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Près, the Trocadéro and Saint-Ouen de Rouen.
Well known as a man of great culture and learning, Widor was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur in 1892, and reached the rank of a Grand-Officier de la Légion d'honneur in 1933. He was named to the Institut de France in 1910, and was elected "Secrétaire perpetuel" (permanent secretary) of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1914, succeeding Henry Roujon.
In 1921, Widor founded the American Conservatory at Fontainebleau with Francis-Louis Casadesus. He was the director until 1934, when he was succeeded by Maurice Ravel. His close friend, Isidor Philipp gave piano lessons there, and Nadia Boulanger taught an entire generation of new composers.
At the age of 76, Widor married Mathilde de Montesquiou-Fézensac on 26 April 1920 at Charchigné. The 36-year-old Mathilde was a member of one of the oldest and most prominent families of Europe. They had no children; she died in 1960.
On 31 December 1933, at age 89, Widor retired from his position at Saint-Sulpice. Three years later, he suffered a stroke which paralysed the right side of his body, although he remained mentally alert to the last. He died at his home in Paris on 12 March 1937 at the age of 93, and his remains were interred in the crypt of Saint-Sulpice four days later.
Widor wrote music for a wide variety of instruments and ensembles (some of his songs for voice and piano are especially notable) and composed four operas and a ballet, but only his works for organ are played with any regularity today. These include: ten organ symphonies, three symphonies for orchestra with organ, Suite Latine, Trois Nouvelles Pièces, and six arrangements of works by Bach under the title Bach's Memento (1925). The organ symphonies are his most significant contribution to the organ repertoire.
It is unusual for a work written for one instrument to be assigned the term "symphony". However, Widor was at the forefront of a revival in French organ music, which utilized a new organ design pioneered by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll that was "symphonic" in style. The organ of the Baroque and Classical periods was designed to project a clear and crisp sound capable of handling contrapuntal writing. Cavaillé-Coll's organs, on the other hand, had a much warmer sound and a vast array of stops that extended the timbre of the instrument. This new style of organ, with a truly orchestral range of voicing and unprecedented abilities for smooth crescendos and diminuendos, encouraged composers to write music that was fully symphonic in scope. This trend was not limited to France, and was reflected in Germany by the organs built by Eberhard Friedrich Walcker and the works of Franz Liszt, Julius Reubke, and Max Reger.
Widor's symphonies can be divided into three groups. The first four symphonies comprise Op. 13 (1872) and are more properly termed "suites". (Widor himself called them "collections".) They represent Widor's early style. Widor made later revisions to the earlier symphonies. Some of these revisions were quite extensive.
With the Opus 42 symphonies, Widor shows his mastery and refinement of contrapuntal technique, while exploring to the fullest the capabilities of the Cavaillé-Coll organs for which these works were written. The Fifth Symphony has five movements, the last of which is the famous Toccata. The Sixth Symphony is also famous for its opening movement. The Seventh and Eighth Symphonies are the longest and least performed of Widor's Symphonies. The Seventh Symphony contains six movements, and the first version of the Eighth Symphony had seven. (Widor subsequently removed the Prélude for the 1901 edition.)
The ninth and tenth symphonies, respectively termed "Gothique" (Op. 70, of 1895) and "Romane" (Op. 73, of 1900), are much more introspective. They both derive thematic material from plainchant: Symphonie Gothique uses the Christmas Day Introit "Puer natus est" in the third and fourth movements, while the Symphonie Romane has the Easter Gradual "Haec dies" woven throughout all four movements. They also honored, respectively, the Gothic Church of St. Ouen, Rouen and the Romanesque Basilica of St. Sernin, Toulouse, with the new Cavaillé-Coll organs installed in each. The second movement of the Symphonie Gothique, entitled "Andante sostenuto", is one of Widor's most-beloved pieces. Dating from this same period, and also based on a plainsong theme, is the "Salve Regina" movement, a late addition to the much earlier second symphony.
Widor's best-known piece for the organ is the final movement of his Symphony for Organ No. 5, a toccata, which is often played as a recessional at wedding ceremonies and at the close of the Christmas Midnight Mass at Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. Although the Fourth Symphony also opens with a Toccata, it is in a dramatically different (and earlier) style. The Toccata from Symphony No. 5 is the first of the toccatas characteristic of French Romantic organ music, and served as a model for later works by Gigout, Boëllmann, Mulet, Vierne and Dupré. Widor was pleased with the worldwide renown this single piece afforded him, but he was unhappy with how fast many other organists played it. Widor himself always played the Toccata rather deliberately. Many organists play it at a very fast tempo whereas Widor preferred a more controlled articulation to be involved. He recorded the piece, at St. Sulpice in his eighty-ninth year; the tempo used for the Toccata is quite slow. Isidor Philipp transcribed the Toccata for two pianos.
Over his long career, Widor returned again and again to edit his earlier music, even after publication. His biographer, John Near, reports: "Ultimately, it was discovered that over a period of about sixty years, as many as eight different editions were issued for some of the symphonies."
Rough dates of composition/publication are in brackets, along with the original publisher, if known.
- Ouverture portugaise (1865, Crescendo Music Publications) - organ, wind ensemble and orchestra
- Symphony No. 1, Op. 16 (1870, Durand) – orchestra
- Piano Concerto No. 1, Op. 39 (1876, Hamelle) – piano and orchestra
- Violin Concerto (1877) – violin and orchestra
- Cello Concerto, Op. 41 (1882, Hamelle) – cello and orchestra
- Symphonie pour orgue et orchestre, Op. 42 (1882, repr. A-R Editions) – organ and orchestra (arr. by Widor of movements from Op. 42)
- Chant séculaire, Op. 49 (1881, Hamelle) – soprano solo, chorus and orchestra
- Symphony No. 2, Op. 54 (1882, Heugel) – orchestra
- La Nuit de Walpurgis, Op. 60 (1887, Hamelle) – chorus and orchestra
- Fantaisie, Op. 62 (1889, Durand) – piano and orchestra
- Suite, from Conte d'avril, Op. 64 (1892, Heugel) – orchestra
- Symphony No. 3, Op. 69 (1894, Schott) – organ and orchestra
- Choral et variations, Op. 74 (1900, Leduc) – harp and orchestra
- Piano Concerto No. 2, Op. 77 (1906, Heugel) – piano and orchestra
- Sinfonia sacra, Op. 81 (1908, Otto Junne) – organ and orchestra
- Symphonie antique, Op. 83 (1911, Heugel) – soloists, chorus, organ and orchestra
- Ouverture espagnole (1897, Heugel) – orchestra
- Symphonie pour orgue No. 1, Op. 13 No. 1 (1872, Hamelle)
- Symphonie pour orgue No. 2, Op. 13 No. 2 (1872, Hamelle)
- Symphonie pour orgue No. 3, Op. 13 No. 3 (1872, Hamelle)
- Symphonie pour orgue No. 4, Op. 13 No. 4 (1872, Hamelle)
- Marche américaine (transc. by Marcel Dupré: No. 11 from 12 Feuillets d'album, Op. 31, Hamelle)
- Symphonie pour orgue No. 5, Op. 42 No. 1 (1879, Hamelle)
- Symphonie pour orgue No. 6, Op. 42 No. 2 (1879, Hamelle)
- Symphonie pour orgue No. 7, Op. 42 No. 3 (1887, Hamelle)
- Symphonie pour orgue No. 8, Op. 42 No. 4 (1887, Hamelle)
- Marche nuptiale, Op. 64 (1892) (transc., from Conte d'avril, Schott)
- Symphonie gothique pour orgue [No. 9], Op. 70 (1895, Schott)
- Symphonie romane pour orgue [No. 10], Op. 73 (1900, Hamelle)
- Bach's memento (1925, Hamelle)
- Suite latine, Op. 86 (1927, Durand)
- Trois Nouvelles pièces, Op. 87 (1934, Durand)
- 6 Duos, Op. 3 – piano and harmonium (1867, Regnier-Canaux/Renaud/Pérégally & Parvy/Schott); includes Humoresque; Cantabile; Nocturne; Sérénade; etc.
- Piano Quintet No. 1, Op. 7 (1868, Hamelle)
- Sérénade, Op. 10 (1870, Hamelle) – flute, violin, cello, piano and harmonium
- Piano Trio, Op. 19 (1875, Hamelle)
- 3 Pièces, Op. 21 – cello and piano (1875, Hamelle)
- Suite, Op. 34 – flute and piano (1877, Hamelle; 1898, Heugel)
- Romance, Op. 46 – violin and piano
- Sonate No. 1, Op. 50 – violin and piano (1881, Hamelle)
- Soirs d'Alsace (4 Duos), Op. 52 – violin, cello and piano (1881, Hamelle)
- Cavatine, Op. 57 – violin and piano (1887, Hamelle)
- Piano Quartet, Op. 66 (1891, Durand)
- Piano Quintet No. 2, Op. 68 (1894, Durand)
- Introduction et rondo, Op. 72 – clarinet and piano (1898, Leduc)
- Suite, Op. 76 – violin and piano (1903, Hamelle)
- Sonate, Op. 79 – violin and piano (1906, Heugel)
- Sonate, Op. 80 – cello and piano (1907, Heugel)
- Salvum fac populum tuum, Op. 84 – 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, drum and organ (1916, Heugel) (known in English as "Lord, Save Thy People")
- 4 Pièces – violin, cello and piano (1890)
- 3 Pièces – oboe and piano (1891)
- Suite – cello and piano (1912)
- Suite florentine – violin and piano (1920)
- Variations de concert sur un thème original, Op. 1 (1867, Heugel)
- Sérénade, Op. 3 No. 4 (arr. Leistner) (Hamelle)
- Airs de ballet, Op. 4 (1868, Hamelle)
- Scherzo-valse, Op. 5 (1868, Hamelle)
- La Barque (Fantaisie italienne), Op. 6 (1877, Durand)
- Le Corricolo (Fantaisie italienne), Op. 6 (1877, Durand)
- Caprice, Op. 9 (1868, Hamelle)
- 3 Valses, Op. 11 (1871, Hamelle)
- Impromptu, Op. 12 (1871, Hamelle)
- 6 Morceaux de salon, Op. 15 (1872, Hamelle)
- Prélude, andante et final, Op. 17 (1874, Hamelle)
- Scènes de bal, Op. 20 (1875, Hamelle)
- 6 Valses caractéristiques, Op. 26 (1877, Hamelle)
- Variations sur un thème original, Op. 29 (revision of op. 1) (1877, Hamelle)
- 12 Feuillets d'album, Op. 31 (1877, Hamelle)
- 5 Valses, Op. 33 (Hamelle)
- Dans les bois, Op. 44 (1880, Hamelle)
- Pages intimes, Op. 48 (1879, Hamelle)
- Suite polonaise, Op. 51 (1881, Hamelle)
- Suite, Op. 58 (1887, Hamelle)
- Carnaval, 12 pièces, Op. 61 (1889, Hamelle)
- Nocturne, from Contes d'avril, Op. 64
- 5 Valses, Op. 71 (1894, Hamelle)
- Suite écossaise, Op. 78 (1905, Joseph Williams)
- Introduction (Hamelle)
- Intermezzo (Hamelle)
Songs and choral worksEdit
- O Salutaris, Op. 8 (1868, Hamelle) – contralto or baritone, violin, cello and organ
- 6 Mélodies, Op. 14 (1872, Hamelle) – voice and piano
- Tantum ergo, Op. 18 No. 1 (1874, Hamelle) – baritone, chorus and organ
- Regina coeli, Op. 18 No. 2 (1874, Hamelle) – baritone, chorus and organ
- 6 Mélodies, Op. 22 (1875, Hamelle) – voice and piano
- Quam dilecta tabernacula tua, Op. 23 No. 1 (1876, Hamelle) – baritone, chorus and organ
- Tu es Petrus, Op. 23 No. 2 (1876, Hamelle) – baritone, chorus and organ
- Surrexit a mortuis (Sacerdos et pontifex), Op. 23 No. 3 (1876, Hamelle) – chorus and organ
- Ave Maria, Op. 24 (1877, Hamelle) – mezzo, harp and organ
- 3 Choruses, Op. 25 (1876, Hamelle) – SATB choir
- 3 Mélodies, Op. 28 (1876, Hamelle) – voice and piano
- 2 Duos, Op. 30 (1876, Hamelle) – soprano, contralto and piano
- 3 Mélodies italiennes, Op. 32 (1877, Hamelle) – voice and piano
- 3 Mélodies italiennes, Op. 35 (1878, Hamelle) – voice and piano
- Messe, Op. 36 (1878, Hamelle) – baritone,chorus and organ
- 6 Mélodies, Op. 37 (1877, Hamelle) – voice and piano
- 2 Duos, Op. 40 (1876, Hamelle) – soprano, contralto and piano
- 6 Mélodies, Op. 43 (1878, Hamelle) – voice and piano
- 6 Mélodies, Op. 47 (1879, Hamelle) – voice and piano
- 6 Mélodies, Op. 53 (1881, Hamelle) – voice and piano
- Ave Maria, Op. 59 (1884, Hamelle) – voice, harp and organ
- O salutaris, Op. 63[bis] (1889, Hamelle) – voice, violin, cello and organ
- Soirs d'été, Op. 63 (1889, Durand) – voice and piano
- Ecce Joanna, Alleluia! (Schola Cantorum) – SATB choir and organ
- Psalm 112 (1879, Hamelle) – baritone, chorus, organ and orchestra
- Chansons de mer, Op. 75 (1902)
- Da pacem (1930, Durand) – SATB choir and organ or piano
- Non credo (1890, Durand) – voice and piano
- Le Capitaine Loys (c. 1878, unpublished) – comic opera
- La Korrigane (1880, Hamelle) – ballet
- Maître Ambros, Op. 56 (piano reduction published by Heugel, 1886) – opera
- Conte d'avril, Op. 64 (1885; 1891, Heugel) – incidental music
- Les Pêcheurs de Saint-Jean (1895; 1904, Heugel) – opera
- Nerto (1924, Heugel) – opera
- Technique de l'orchestre moderne faisant suite au Traité d'instrumentation de H. Berlioz (1904, Paris: Lemoine)
- L'Orgue moderne, la décadence dans la facture contemporaine (1928, Paris: Durand)
- Vieilles Chansons pour les Petits Enfants: avec Accompagnements de Ch. M. Widor From the Collections at the Library of Congress
- The complete recording for organ, by Ben van Oosten
- The 10 symphonies for organ, by Pierre Pincemaille, on 10 Cavaillé-Coll organs - Solstice SOCD 181-185.
- 3rd, 6th et 10th symphonies for pipe organ, performed by Marc Dubugnon at the Swiss Reformed Church of Saint Martin, in Vevey, the three symphonies on YouTube
Louis James Alfred Lefébure-Wély
| Titular Organist, Saint Sulpice Paris
- Clericetti, Giuseppe (2010). Charles-Marie Widor . La Francia organistica tra Otto e Novecento (in Italian). Varese : Zecchini. ISBN 978-88-6540-006-7.
- Near, John Richard (1985). The Life and Work of Charles-Marie Widor. Boston University. OCLC:15132821.
- Classic FM – Charles-Marie Widor: Organ Symphony No.5 in F minor. Accessed 26 December 2013
- The concerto was edited by conductor Martin Yates, and its premiere recording was made by Sergey Levitin and the Royal Scottish National Orchestra in 2015. Charles-Marie Widor, Volume 3: Violin Concerto and Symphony No. 1 Archived April 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Hall, Charles J. (2002). Chronology of Western Classical Music. New York: Routledge/Taylor&Francis. p. 1154. ISBN 0-415-94217-9.
- ——— (2011). Widor: A Life Beyond the Toccata. Series: Eastman Studies in Music, v. 83. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press (ISBN 978-1-580-46369-0)
- Oosten, Ben van (1997). Charles-Marie Widor : Vater der Orgelsymphonie (in German). Paderborn : Verlag Peter Ewers. ISBN 3-928243-04-7.
- Thomson, Andrew; Aprahamian, Felix (1989). The life and times of Charles-Marie Widor: 1844-1937. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816186-7.
- "Library of Congress Catalog". Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Dreilaenderkatalog im Gateway Bayern" (in German). Archived from the original on 2016-01-01. Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Opera Composers site at Stanford". Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- Hobbs, Alain (1988). Charles-Marie Widor (1844–1937). L’Orgue, Cahiers et mémoires, No. 40. L’Association des Amis de l’Orgue.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles-Marie Widor.|
- (Embellishments), John R. Near, The Complete Organ Symphonies of Charles-Marie Widor
- Toccata in F from Symphony No. 5 interactive hypermedia (Shockwave Player required) at the BinAural Collaborative Hypertext
- Performances of organ works by Charles-Marie Widor in MIDI format at Logos Virtual Library
- Free scores by Charles-Marie Widor at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- The Mutopia Project has compositions by Charles-Marie Widor
- Works by Charles-Marie Widor at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Charles-Marie Widor at Internet Archive