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Chandrasen Rathore (r. 1562–1581) was an Indian ruler of Marwar, which was later known as Jodhpur (in the present day Rajasthan state of India). He was the third son of Maldeo Rathore, who broke the Rajput tradition of primogeniture by naming Chandrasen as his successor. Chandrasen followed his father's policy and stayed hostile to the ruling foreign powers in India. He defended his kingdom for nearly two decades against relentless attacks from the Mughal Empire.[1]

Chandrasen Rathore
Ruler of Marwar (now Jodhpur)
Reign 7 November 1562 – 1581
Predecessor Maldeo Rathore
Successor Udai Singh
Dynasty Rathore
Father Maldeo Rathore

Chandrasen Rathore crowned himself in Jodhpur and ousted his brothers, Udai Singh and Ram Singh. Akbar took advantage of these internal disputes and with the help of Raja's from Bikaner and Amer fought Chandrasen in several battles.

In 1564 Hussain Quli Khan-i-Jahan captured Jodhpur. Chandrasen was forced to retreat to Bhadrajun.[2][3] Chandrasen Rathore continued to defy the Imperial authority by attacking the imperial forces every now and then. He also succeeded in establishing himself in the northern part of Marwar. However he failed to consolodate his position and lost both men and material. He was forced to sell his family heirlooms in order to continue his struggle.[4][5]

In 1570 Akbar hosted the Nagaur durbar, Chandrasen attended the court but left without the permission of the emperor after disagreeing to his demands.[6]

In 1571 the fort of Bhadrajun was put to siege and captured. Chandrasen escaped to Siwana.[7][8]

Rao Chandrasen was welcomed by Rana Udai Singh of Mewar and his daughter was married to the Rao. After the matrimonial alliance Chandrasen attacked several Mughal outposts with renewed vigour.[9] The situation however changed after Rana Udai singhs death (1572). Rana Pratap who succeeded to the throne refused to help Chandrasen as he was himself faced with many problems. Disappointed by these developments Chandrasen left Mewar.

In 1575 a powerful Mughal operation was launched against Chandrasen under Shah Quli Khan, Rai Singh, Keshav Das and Shahbaz Khan.[10]

In 1576 the powerful fort of Siwana which served as Chandrasen's capital was captured by the Mughals.[11]

Chandrasen made attempts to ask his brother in law, Rawal Askaran of Dungarpur for help. However Askaran had already submitted to the Mughals and refused.[12][13] Chandrasen was forced to move from one place to another. Rawal Askaran informed of these events to the Mughal Emperor who appointed Payanda Khan and Sayyid Qasim to punish Chandrasen (1580). Chandrasen by this time was left with just a few hundred loyal companions and was unable to face the imperial army. He was forced to retreat to the mountain defiles of Sarand[14][15][16]

Chandrasen made Sojat his capital and rallied his clansmen, he used the hills of Sarand to continue his war against the Mughal empire. Chandrasen continued his struggle until his death in 1581 at Pali after which Marwar submitted to Mughal rule in 1583. He is also known as the Forgotten prince of Marwar.

Preceded by
Maldeo Rathore
Rulers of Marwar (Jodhpur)
The Rathore Dynasty

7 November 1562 – 1565
Succeeded by
Udai Singh

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bose, Melia Belli (2015). Royal Umbrellas of Stone: Memory, Politics, and Public Identity in Rajput Funerary Art. BRILL. p. 150. ISBN 978-9-00430-056-9. 
  2. ^ Akbarnama, II, pg.358
  3. ^ Jodhpur Khyat pg. 87
  4. ^ Tuzuk-i-Jehangiri pg. 285
  5. ^ Vir Vinod II pg.814
  6. ^ Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II pg-120, by Satish Chandra
  7. ^ Akbarnama III pg. 80
  8. ^ Jodhpur Khyat pg. 80
  9. ^ Vigat II pg.63-65
  10. ^ Akbarnama III pg. 80-82
  11. ^ Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II pg-120, by Satish Chandra
  12. ^ Jodhpur Khyat pg.118-119
  13. ^ Vir Vinod II pg.114, 814-815
  14. ^ Akbarnama III, pg. 318-319
  15. ^ Jodhpur Khyat pg. 119
  16. ^ Vir Vinod II, pg. 814