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Chad–Israel relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the Republic of Chad and the State of Israel. Both nations are members of the United Nations. The diplomatic relations between the two countries began with Chad's independence in 1960,[1] but was officially terminated in the 1970s.[2] Diplomatic relations resumed in 2016,[3] with an official agreement signed in 2019.[4]

Chad–Israel relations
Map indicating locations of Chad and Israel

Chad

Israel

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Chadian President François Tombalbaye and Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eshkol in 1965

In 1960, Israel recognized Chad when Chad attained independence from France. On 10 January 1961, Chad and Israel established diplomatic relations.[1] In 1962, Israel opened a resident embassy in Fort-Lamy.[1] Initially, both states maintained friendly relations. In 1965, Chadian President François Tombalbaye paid an official visit to Israel.[1]

Termination of relationsEdit

On November 28, 1972, Chad announced it would end relations with Israel.[2] Chad was the second of twenty-two African nations that ended relations with Israel in 1972 and 1973,[note 1] most of whom did so due to pressure by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi of Libya.[5][6][7]

Although Chad and Israel did not have formal diplomatic relations, informal relations continued. Israel has reportedly sold weapons to the Chadian government to aid them during the Chadian Civil War.[8] More recently, Israel has provided weapons and funds to Chad to assist the country's fight against rebels in the north.[9]

Relations reestablishedEdit

In July 2016, Director-General of the Israeli Foreign Ministry Dore Gold met Chadian President Idriss Déby at the presidential palace in the city of Fada, in northern Chad.[3] In November 2018, Déby arrived in Israel and paid an official visit to the country. During his visit, Déby met with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Reuven Rivlin.[3] Both nations expressed their intentions to re-establish diplomatic relations and discussed plans for Netanyahu to pay an official visit to Chad.[3]

In January 2019, Netanyahu arrived in the Chadian capital of N'Djamena where he met with Déby. Diplomatic relations were restored between both nations and several bilateral agreements were signed.[4] Details of the trade deals agreed were not released though Chadian security sources have claimed that supplies of Israeli weapons have been secured for use in fighting Islamist rebels in the north of the country. Netanyahu described the agreement as a historic moment for the two countries.[10] Jerusalem Post correspondent Herb Keinon argues that Chad will benefit from closer security, intelligence and technology ties to Israel and improved access to the United States, a key Israeli ally.[11]

On 20 January 2019 the MINUSMA base at Aguelhok was attacked by militants. The attack was repelled but 10 Chadian UN peacekeepers were killed and a further 25 injured.[12] The militants had arrived on board a number of armed vehicles. Several of the attackers are said to have been killed.[13] Responsibility was claimed by Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb who stated that it was a retaliatory attack for the recent visit to Chad by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and the subsequent normalization of diplomatic relations.[13][14] UN Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the attack.[15]

NotesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Chad Severs Diplomatic Relations with Israel; No Immediate Explanation Given". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 29 November 1972. Archived from the original on 9 November 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Israel-Chad". The Washington Post. 29 November 1972. p. A34.
  3. ^ a b c d Ahren, Raphael; Bachner, Michael. "Meeting Israeli leaders, Chad president says he wants to restore diplomatic ties". www.timesofisrael.com. Archived from the original on 26 November 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  4. ^ a b Landau, Noa. "Israel, Chad Renew Diplomatic Ties That Were Severed in 1972". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 20 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  5. ^ a b "African Nations Sever Relations With Israel". New York Amsterdam News. 27 October 1973. p. A1.
  6. ^ a b "More African nations cut Israel ties". The Baltimore Afro-American. 3 November 1973. p. 1.
  7. ^ "Libya Halts Aid to Chad Rebels". The New York Times. 8 April 1973. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  8. ^ Landau, Noa; Reuters (25 November 2018). "President of Chad Visits Israel, 46 Years After Ties Were Severed". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 28 November 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  9. ^ Pileggi, Tamar. "Chad said to condition resumed ties with Israel on 'extensive' weapons sales". www.timesofisrael.com. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  10. ^ "Israel and Chad renew diplomatic ties decades after rupture". France 24. 20 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  11. ^ Keinon, Herb (20 January 2019). "Netanyahu Is Back from Chad but What Has Israel Gained from His Visit?". The Jerusalem Post. Jerusalem. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  12. ^ "UN peacekeepers killed in Mali attack". 20 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  13. ^ a b "Mali: 10 UN peacekeepers killed in attack on Aguelhok base". The Defense Post. 20 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  14. ^ "Peacekeepers killed in attack on UN northern Mali base". France 24. 20 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  15. ^ "Mali: Al-Qaeda claims responsibility for the Aguelhok attack | The North Africa Journal". North Africa Journal. Retrieved 21 January 2019.

External linksEdit