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Cessna CitationJet/M2

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The Cessna CitationJet/M2/CJ series (Model 525) are light business jets built by Cessna and part of the Citation family. Launched in October 1989, its first flight was on April 29, 1991, FAA certification was awarded on October 16, 1992, first delivery happened on March 30, 1993, and by June 2017, 2,000 of all variants have been delivered. Powered by two 1,900 lbf (8.5 kN) Williams FJ44s, it uses the Citation II's forward fuselage with a new carry-through section, straight wing, and T-tail. The basic model was updated with the CJ/CJ1/M2 names, it was stretched in the CJ2/CJ2+ delivered since 2000, then further in the CJ3/CJ3+ delivered from December 2004 and finally in the CJ4 delivered since 2010.

CitationJet/M2/CJ series
OO-FLN.JPG
A midsized 525A CJ2, gear and flaps extended
Role Business jet
National origin United States
Manufacturer Cessna
First flight 29 April 1991[1]
Status Active, In production
Produced 1991-present
Number built 2000 as of June 8, 2017[2]
Unit cost
M2: US$5.15M (2019)[3]
CJ2+: US$7.044M (2012)[4]
CJ3+: US$8.705M (2019)[3]
CJ4: US$9.655M (2019)[3]
Developed from Cessna Citation II
Developed into Cessna 526 CitationJet

DevelopmentEdit

 
CitationJet Cabin

Cessna launched the $2.4 million model 525 CitationJet at the October 1989 NBAA convention in Atlanta, estimating a demand for 1,000 aircraft over ten years. Succeeding the 700 original Citation Is produced since 1972, first flight was scheduled for spring 1991, FAA certification in October 1992 and deliveries by the end of the year.[5]

Its first flight was on April 29, 1991, FAA certification was awarded on October 16, 1992, and first delivery happened on March 30, 1993.[1] Twenty years after its first flight, 1,450 CJs have been produced.[6] As of June 2017, 2,000 of all variants have been delivered with five million hours flown.[2]

DesignEdit

The six-seat CitationJet is a cantilever monoplane with retractable tricycle landing gear and a pressurized cabin.

The jet uses the Citation II's forward fuselage, a new carry-through section, a new laminar flow, supercritical wing developed with NASA and Boeing, and a T-tail. Powered by two 1,900 lbf (8.5 kN) Williams FJ44s, the 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) aircraft has a trailing link undercarriage for smooth landings and can be flown by a single pilot. Cabin length is reduced by 1 ft 6 in (46 cm), range is 1,500 nmi (2,800 km) with four passengers and it can cruise at 437 mph (380 kn).[5]

Its FJ44 has a 16:1 overall pressure ratio, its wing area is 240 sq ft (22 m2) and it can cruise at Mach 0.7 (413 kn; 764 km/h).[7] It features EFIS avionics, its fuselage is 11 inches (27 cm) shorter than the Citation I's, but has a lowered center aisle for increased cabin height.[1]

The CitationJet retains the 58 in (147 cm) inside diameter, circular cross-section fuselage of the original 1971 Citation 500, a semi-monocoque construction of conventional aluminum alloys assembled with rivets, fasteners and adhesive bonding. Composite materials save weight in non-load-bearing components including fairings and the nose radome. The NASA high-speed 0213 airfoil sustains natural laminar flow over 30% of the upper surface for 10-15% better lift-to-drag than the larger NACA 23000-series wing of the Citation 500. Its structure is a conventional ladder with chord-wise ribs over front and rear spars, and an aft sub spar to support the landing gear. To reduce interference drag, a large fairing encases the low wing center section, and the engines are mounted high on the tail. The Williams FJ44 has a 2.58:1 bypass ratio.[8]

VariantsEdit

 
CJ1 side view, four windows
 
The Citation M2 has small winglets

Model 525Edit

CitationJet
Model 525 serial numbers 0001 to 0359, powered by Williams FJ44-1A turbofans, are marketed as the CitationJet.
CitationJet CJ1
Model 525 serial numbers 0360 to 0599 are marketed as the CitationJet CJ1 and are powered by the same Williams FJ44-1A. It was improved with a more-modern EFIS avionics suite and a moderate increase in maximum takeoff weight.
CitationJet CJ1+
Model 525 serial number 0600 and higher are marketed as CitationJet CJ1+ and are powered by Williams FJ44-1AP turbofans. With the same airframe, it has an updated avionics package and FADEC engine control.[9]

The GE Honda HF120 engine was announced as a retrofit option for the CJ/CJ1/CJ1+ in 2014.[10]

Citation M2
Model 525 marketed as Cessna Citation M2 are powered by improved FJ44-1AP-21 turbofans offering 10 to 15% more cruise thrust and up to 5% more hot-and-high thrust, and are equipped with modern Garmin G3000 avionics replacing Rockwell Collins Pro Line 21.[11] Launched in September 2011, it is based on the then out-of-production CJ1 variant and features a new cabin layout and a more efficient FJ44 version.[12] The initial M2 prototype first flew on 9 March 2012, it was not a conforming airframe but was testing the Garmin G3000 avionics and Williams FJ44-1AP-21 turbofans while one another aircraft was expected to join the certification program in May 2012 to be used for aerodynamics testing.[13] Compared to the CJ1+, it climbs more quickly, offers a more comfortable cabin and is faster by 22 kn (41 km/h) at FL 410. The wing is 4 in (10 cm) wider due to small winglets with little effect. The FJ44-1AP-21 TBO can reach 5,000 h and both burns 740 lb (340 kg) per hour at 392 kn (726 km/h) TAS, FL 400, ISA+3C conditions and at a weight of 9,646 lb (4,375 kg). At high-speed cruise, it can fly one pilot and four passengers over 1,150 nmi (2,130 km) in 2 h 49 min. It climbs to FL 410 in 24 min, 27% faster than its closest competitor, where it is 53 kn (98 km/h) faster than the Embraer Phenom 100E.[8] With 150 produced since introduction in 2013, it became Cessna's entry-level jet after the Citation Mustang production stopped in May 2017.[14]

Model 525AEdit

 
CJ2 side view, six windows
CitationJet CJ2
Model 525A serial numbers 0001 to 0299, marketed as the CitationJet CJ2 is a 5-foot stretch of the CJ1 (Model 525) powered by Williams FJ44-2C turbofans and first delivered in 2000.
CitationJet CJ2+
Model 525A serial numbers 0300 and higher, marketed as the CitationJet CJ2+ and first delivered in April 2006, offer increased performance with updated avionics and Williams FJ44-3A-24 turbofans with FADEC control.[15] In 2014, Cessna started offering an upgrade package for the CJ2+ called Alpine Edition. It incorporates Garmin G3000 avionics and new cabin stylings similar to those introduced by Cessna to the CJ1+ when it became the M2.[16] The CJ2 went out of production due to low demand in January 2016.[17]

Model 525BEdit

 
CJ3 side view, seven windows
CitationJet CJ3
Model 525B are marketed as the CitationJet CJ3 are a further stretch of the CJ2 powered by Williams FJ44-3A turbofans. Unveiled at the September 2002 National Business Aviation Association convention, it first flew on April 17, 2003, was FAA certified in October 2004 and deliveries began in December of that year. The cockpit with Rockwell Collins avionics is designed for single-pilot operation but can accommodate two crew members. Its customizable cabin typically has six club seats in a center-style configuration with an accessible in flight baggage compartment and external baggage access.
CitationJet CJ3+

The CitationJet CJ3+ is an upgraded version of the CJ3. The aircraft received FAA certified in 2014.[18] Between its production debut in late 2004 and spring 2018, 500 have been delivered, 2004-2009 models are sold for $3.5 million and $5.0-5.5 million for 2009-2014 models. It can cruise at its Mach 0.737 (423 kn; 783 km/h) MMo at FL450 over 1,900 nmi (3,500 km) with four passengers, or more than 2,000 nmi (3,700 km) at a slower speed, exceeding Textron predictions. Hourly, it burns 165 US gal (620 l) its engine maintenance cost $313.60, its parts $251.72 and labor cost is $298.[19] The flight deck utilizes Garmin G3000 avionics.[20]

Model 525CEdit

 
The longest CitationJet, the CJ4, has 5+1 starboard windows
Cessna Citation CJ4 (Model 525C)
The stretched CJ4 was launched at the October 2006 NBAA conference.[21] Its wing design comes from the moderately swept wing of the Citation Sovereign.[22] Powered by Williams FJ44-4A turbofans, it has a maximum range of 2,165 nmi (4,010 km). Its cabin is 21 inches longer than the CJ3 and can seat up to nine people plus one in the cockpit. It first lifted off on May 5, 2008, from McConnell AFB in Wichita, Kansas and first deliveries started in 2010.

In 2011, the Federal Aviation Administration temporarily grounded the CJ4 and issued an airworthiness directive because of fires in the original Lithium-ion battery equipment.[23] The cabin is pressurized at 9.0 psi (0.62 bar) and the seating area is 7 in (18 cm) longer than in the CJ3, with a typical forward side-facing divan followed by a four chairs club and two forward facing chairs. It can carry a 987 lb (448 kg) payload with full fuel, cruise up to FL450 and takeoff from 3,410 ft (1,040 m) field on a standard day. Block speeds are 410–420 kn (760–780 km/h) and it burns 160 US gal (610 L) of fuel per hour. Maintenance is $269 per hour for labor and $370 per hour for parts excluding the engine maintenance plan is $317 per hour for a 5,000 h TBO. By June 2019, early models are $5.5-5.8 million for resale and up to over $7 million for later ones. The CJ3+ offers almost as much range, but carries fewer passengers with full tanks and is slower, while the Embraer Phenom 300 has better fuel efficiency and more tanks-full payload.[24] The 300th CJ4 was delivered in June 2019.[25]

SpecificationsEdit

 
CJ2 planform view, showing its straight wing and uncovered main wheels
 
Cockpit of a Swiss-registered CJ3 fitted with Rockwell Collins Proline 21 avionics
 
Like several other members of the Citation family, the CitationJets are certified for operations with a single pilot
Model M2 (CJ1)[26] CJ2+[27] CJ3+[28] CJ4[29]
Crew 1 or 2
Max. passengers 7 9 9 10
Length 42 ft 7 in (12.98 m) 47 ft 8 in (14.53 m) 51 ft 2 in (15.59 m) 53 ft 4 in (16.26 m)
Height 13 ft 11 in (4.24 m) 14 ft (4.27 m) 15 ft 2 in (4.62 m) 15 ft 5 in (4.69 m)
Wingspan 47 ft 3 in (14.40 m) 49 ft 10 in (15.19 m) 53 ft 4 in (16.26 m) 50 ft 10 in (15.49 m)
Wing Area 240 ft² (22.3 m²) 264 ft² (25 m²) 294 ft² (27.32 m²) 330 ft² (30.66 m²)
Wing Sweep 0 degrees 12.5 degrees
Cabin section 57 in (1.45 m) height, 58 in (1.47 m) width
Cabin length 11 ft (3.35 m) 13 ft 7 in (4.14 m) 15 ft 8 in (4.78 m) 17 ft 4 in (5.28 m)
MTOW 10,700 lb (4,853 kg) 12,500 lb (5,670 kg) 13,870 lb (6,291 kg) 17,110 lb (7,761 kg)
Fuel capacity 3,296 lb (1,495 kg) 3,930 lb (1,783 kg) 4,710 lb (2,136 kg) 5,828 lb (2,644 kg)
Fuel volume 492 gal (1,862 l) 587 gal (2,221 l) 703 gal (2,661 l) 870 gal (3,293 l)
Basic OEW 6,990 lb (3,171 kg) 8,030 lb (3,642 kg) 8,540 lb (3,874 kg) 10,280 lb (4,663 kg)
Max. payload 1,410 lb (640 kg) 1,670 lb (757 kg) 1,970 lb (894 kg) 2,220 lb (1,007 kg)
Turbofan × 2 FJ44-1AP-21 FJ44-3A-24 FJ44-3A FJ44-4A
Thrust (each) 1,965 lb (8.74 kN) 2,490 lb (11.08 kN) 2,820 lb (12.54 kN) 3,621 lb (16.11 kN)
Max. Cruise 404 ktas (748 km/h) 418 ktas (774 km/h) 416 ktas (770 km/h) 451 ktas (835 km/h)
Max. Range 1,550 nmi (2,871 km) 1,781 nmi (3,298 km) 2,040 nmi (3,778 km) 2,165 nmi (4,010 km)
Takeoff 3,210 ft (978 m) 3,360 ft (1,024 m) 3,180 ft (969 m) 3,410 ft (1,039 m)
Landing 2,590 ft (789 m) 2,980 ft (908 m) 2,770 ft (844 m) 2,940 ft (896 m)
Ceiling 41,000 ft (12,497 m) 45,000 ft (13,716 m)
Max. Climb Rate 3,698 fpm (18.8 m/s) 4,120 fpm (20.9 m/s) 4,478 fpm (22.75 m/s) 3,854 fpm (19.6 m/s)

See alsoEdit

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Gerard Frawley. "Cessna CitationJet, CJ1 & CJ2". The International Directory of Civil Aircraft – via Airliners.net.
  2. ^ a b "Textron Aviation celebrates light jet leadership with 2,000th delivery for Cessna CJ family" (Press release). Textron Aviation. June 8, 2017.
  3. ^ a b c "Purchase Planning Handbook" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week Network. June 2019.
  4. ^ "Operations Planning Guide" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week. August 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Cessna steals NBAA limelight". Flight International. 14 October 1989.
  6. ^ Robert Goyer (June 27, 2011). "Cessna's Amazing CJs". Flying.
  7. ^ "Cessna forsees large market for new, $2.4-million CitationJet". Aviation Week. Oct 9, 1989. p. 38.
  8. ^ a b Fred George (Sep 10, 2015). "Cessna Citation M2: Pilot Report". Business & Commercial Aviation.
  9. ^ "New Cessna Citation CJ1 Receives FAA Type Certification" (Press release). Textron Aviation. June 20, 2005.
  10. ^ Chad Trautvetter (18 September 2014). "Sierra Selects GE Honda HF120 for Sapphire CitationJet Upgrade Program". Aviation International News.
  11. ^ Fred George (September 26, 2016). "Operators Survey: Cessna Citation M2". Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week.
  12. ^ "Cessna Launches New Light Business Jet: Citation M2" (Press release). Textron Aviation. September 26, 2011.
  13. ^ "Cessna Launches M2 Flight Test Program". Aviation Week & Space Technology. March 16, 2012.
  14. ^ Chad Trautvetter (May 11, 2017). "Textron Ceases Production of Cessna Citation Mustang". Aviation International News.
  15. ^ "Cessna's Citation CJ2+ Receives FAA Type Certification" (Press release). Textron Aviation. Oct 3, 2005.
  16. ^ Cessna (25 March 2014). "Cessna CJ2+ Alpine Edition". Retrieved 2 April 2018 – via YouTube.
  17. ^ "Cessna Ceases Production Of CJ2+ Jet". AVweb. January 7, 2016.
  18. ^ Juliet Van Wagenen (5 September 2014). "Cessna's CJ3+ Receives FAA Certification". Aviation Today.
  19. ^ Fred George (Apr 20, 2018). "Citation CJ3: Cessna's Best-Ever Light Jet?". Business & Commercial Aviation.
  20. ^ Cyrus Sigari (September 2014). "A plus for the CJ3". AOPA Pilot. p. T-10.
  21. ^ "Cessna Launches Citation CJ4 at NBAA; Starts Show with 70 Orders" (Press release). Textron Aviation. October 16, 2006.
  22. ^ "Cessna Citation CJ4" (PDF). Business & commercial aviation. Aviation week. January 2010.
  23. ^ "Airworthiness Directive 2011-21-51". Federal Register. November 1, 2011.
  24. ^ Fred George (Jun 25, 2019). "Citation CJ4: Simple Citation Reliability, 1,900 nm With Four Pax". Business & Commercial Aviation.
  25. ^ Kate Sarsfield (2 July 2019). "Textron Aviation delivers 300th CJ4". Flightglobal.
  26. ^ "Citation M2 Specifications". Cessna.
  27. ^ "Citation CJ2+ Specifications". Cessna. Archived from the original on 2014-10-12.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  28. ^ "Citation CJ3+ Specifications". Cessna.
  29. ^ "Citation CJ4+ Specifications". Cessna.

External linksEdit