Cerulean

Cerulean as a quaternary color on the RYB color wheel
  blue
  cerulean
  teal

Cerulean (/səˈrliən/), also spelled caerulean, is a shade of blue ranging between azure and a darker sky blue.

Cerulean
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#007BA7
HSV       (h, s, v)(196°, 100%, 65%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 123, 167)
Source[1]
ISCC–NBS descriptorStrong greenish blue
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Cerulean (RGB)
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#0040FF
HSV       (h, s, v)(225°, 100%, 100%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(0, 63, 255)
Source[Unsourced]
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid blue
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The first recorded use of cerulean as a colour name in English was in 1590.[1] The word is derived from the Latin word caeruleus, "dark blue, blue, or blue-green", which in turn probably derives from caerulum, diminutive of caelum, "heaven, sky".[2]

"Cerulean blue" is the name of a pigment. The pigment was discovered in the late eighteenth century and designated as cerulean blue in the nineteenth century.

Cerulean Blue
 
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet#2A52BE
HSV       (h, s, v)(224°, 78%, 75%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(42, 82, 190)
SourceMaerz and Paul[3]
ISCC–NBS descriptorVivid blue
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Cerulean blue pigmentEdit

The primary chemical constituent of the pigment is cobalt(II) stannate (Co
2
SnO
4
).[4][5][6] The precise hue of the pigment is dependent on a variable silicate component.[citation needed]

 
Cerulean blue PB35
 
A sample swatch of cerulean blue hue oil paint. ‘Hue’ in this instance means that other pigments have been used to mimic the color of oil paint that contains the original pigment.

In classical times, the word caerulum was used to describe blue pigments, particularly mixtures of copper and cobaltous oxides, like azurite and smalt. These early attempts to create sky blue colours were often less than satisfactory due to a limited saturation and the tendency to discolour in reaction with other pigments. See also Tekhelet.

 
Cerulean blue pigment in oil. On the left as a standoil glaze on over zinc white; on the right as a mass tone in oil-based paint.

The pigment Cerulean blue was discovered in 1789 by the Swiss chemist Albrecht Höpfner.[7] Subsequently, there was a limited German production under the name of Cölinblau. It was in 1860 first marketed in the United Kingdom by colourman George Rowney, as "coeruleum". Other nineteenth century English pigment names included "ceruleum blue" and "corruleum blue".

When the cerulean blue pigment (see colour box, at upper right) was discovered, it became a useful addition to Prussian blue, cobalt blue, and synthetic ultramarine, which already had superseded the prior blue and blue‑ish pigments. The pigment is very expensive.[citation needed]

Pigments through the ages shows a "Painted swatch of cerulean blue" to represent the actual cobalt stannate pigment.[8] See also painted swatch and crystals of cerulean blue at ColourLex.[9][a]

It is particularly valuable for artistic painting of skies because of its hue, its permanence, and its opaqueness.[10] Berthe Morisot painted the blue coat of the woman in her Summer's Day, 1879 in cerulean blue in conjunction with artificial ultramarine and cobalt blue.[11]

Today, cobalt chromate is sometimes marketed under the cerulean blue name but is darker and greener[b] than the cobalt stannate version.[c] The chromate makes excellent turquoise colours and is identified by Rex Art and some other manufacturers as "cobalt turquoise".[12][13]

Other colour variationsEdit

Pale ceruleanEdit

Cerulean (Pantone)
 
      Color coordinates
Hex triplet#98B4D4
HSV       (h, s, v)(212°, 28%, 83%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(152, 180, 212)
SourcePantone TPX[14]
ISCC–NBS descriptorPale blue
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Pantone, in a press release, declared the pale hue of cerulean at right, which they call cerulean, as the "colour of the millennium".[15]

The source of this colour is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" colour list, colour #15-4020 TPX—Cerulean.[16]

Cerulean (Crayola)Edit

Cerulean (Crayola)
 
      Color coordinates
Hex triplet#1DACD6
HSV       (h, s, v)(209°, 94%, 49%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(29, 172, 214)
SourceCrayola
ISCC–NBS descriptorBrilliant greenish blue
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

This bright tone of cerulean is the colour called cerulean by Crayola crayons.

Cerulean frostEdit

Cerulean Frost
 
      Color coordinates
Hex triplet#6D9BC3
HSV       (h, s, v)(208°, 44%, 77[17]%)
sRGBB  (rgb)(109, 155, 195)
SourceCrayola
ISCC–NBS descriptorLight blue
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the colour cerulean frost.

Cerulean frost is one of the colours in the special set of metallic coloured Crayola crayons called Silver Swirls, the colours of which were formulated by Crayola in 1990.

In natureEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Note that the colour swatch is a match for the colour shown in the colour box, top right.
  2. ^ Rex Art colour index PB 36
  3. ^ Rex Art colour index PB 35

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Maerz, Aloys John; Paul, M. Rea (1930). A Dictionary of Color. McGraw-Hill Book Company. p. 190; Colour Sample of Cerulean: Page 89 Plate 33 Colour Sample E6.
  2. ^ "cerulean - Search Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  3. ^ Maerz, Aloys John; Paul, M. Rea (1930). A Dictionary of Color. McGraw-Hill Book Company. p. 190; Colour Sample of Cerulean: Page 89 Plate 33 Colour Sample L9.
  4. ^ "Cerulean blue - Overview". webexhibits.org. Pigments through the Ages. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  5. ^ "Cerulean blue - History". webexhibits.org. Pigments through the Ages. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  6. ^ "cerulean blue". Cameo.mfa.org. Material name. Boston, MA: Museum of Fine Arts. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  7. ^ Höpfner, Albrecht (1789). "Einige kleine Chymische Versuche vom Herausgeber". Magazin für die Naturkunde Helvetiens. 4: 41–47.
  8. ^ "Cerulean blue". Pigments through the Ages. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  9. ^ "Cerulean blue". ColourLex.
  10. ^ "Pigments and their chemical and artistic properties". jcsparks.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  11. ^ Bomford, D.; Kirby, J.; Leighton, J.; Roy, A. (1990). Impressionism. Art in the Making. London, UK: National Gallery Publications. pp. 176–181.
  12. ^ "Blue". Paintmaking. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  13. ^ "Colormaking attributes". Handprint.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  14. ^ Type the word "Cerulean" into the indicated window on the Pantone Colour Finder and the colour will appear.
  15. ^ PANTONE. "About Us - Color the Millennium Cerulean Blue". PANTONE. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  16. ^ "- Find a Pantone Color - Quick Online Color Tool". Pantone.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  17. ^ Forret, Peter. "RGB Color converter - toolstudio". web.forret.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.

External linksEdit