|Classification and external resources|
Cerebellar ataxia can occur as a result of many diseases and presents with symptoms of an inability to coordinate balance, gait, extremity and eye movements. Lesions to the cerebellum can cause dyssynergia, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, dysarthria and ataxia of stance and gait. Deficits are observed with movements on the same side of the body as the lesion (ipsilateral). Clinicians often use visual observation of people performing motor tasks in order to look for signs of ataxia.
There are many causes of cerebellar ataxia including, among others, gluten ataxia, autoimmunity to Purkinje cells or other neural cells in the cerebellum, CNS vasculitis, multiple sclerosis, infection, bleeding, infarction, tumors, direct injury, toxins (e.g., alcohol), genetic disorders, and an association with statin use. Gluten ataxia accounts for 40% of all sporadic idiopathic ataxias and 15% of all ataxias.
Damage to the cerebellum, particularly to the cerebrocerebellum area and the cerebellar vermis, is almost always associated with clinical depression and often with alcoholism. Due to difficulties in mobility, self-care, everyday activities, and pain/discomfort, those with cerebellar ataxia are more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety and depression. Almost a third of patients with isolated, late onset cerebellar ataxia go on to develop multiple system atrophy.
In recent years the cerebellum's role has been observed as not purely motor. It is intimately combined with intellect, emotion and planning.
"For many years, it was thought that postural and balance disorders in cerebellar ataxia were not treatable. However, the results of several recent studies suggest that rehabilitation can relieve postural disorders in patients with cerebellar ataxia...There is now moderate level evidence that rehabilitation is efficient to improve postural capacities of patients with cerebellar ataxia – particularly in patients with degenerative ataxia or multiple sclerosis. Intensive rehabilitation programs with balance and coordination exercises are necessary. Although techniques such as virtual reality, biofeedback, treadmill exercises with supported bodyweight and torso weighting appear to be of value, their specific efficacy has to be further investigated. Drugs have only been studied in degenerative ataxia, and the level of evidence is low."
One approach is that it can be ameliorated to varying degrees by means of Frenkel exercises.
One main objective of the treatment is to re-establish the physiological inhibition exerted by the cerebellar cortex over cerebellar nuclei. Research using Transcranial direct-current stimulation (TCDCS) and Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) shows promising results.
Additionally, mild to moderate cerebellar ataxia is treated by buspirone.
It is thought that the buspirone increases the serotonin levels in the cerebellum and so decreases ataxia.
Implications for InterventionEdit
Individuals with cerebellar ataxia have full cognitive awareness: it's usually only the physical deterioration that prohibits them from participating in activities of daily living and any other relevant or desired interests. One of the most significant barriers in the lives of these individuals is dysarthria. Due to their cognitive stability, it is important that people who spend time with individuals with this disease are able to communicate as fully as possible with them. This is necessary in order to improve their day-to-day interactions.
Behavioral intervention is successful when it involves engaging knowledge of the interests and general backgrounds of individuals with cerebellar ataxia. Communication maximizing strategies are also useful, such as exaggeration of articulatory gestures, giving full attention to their responses, repeating where necessary, and slowing down speaking rate. Another intervention technique for speech is to focus on optimizing respiratory and vocal resources as well as training compensatory strategies.
These listed intervention techniques can improve quality of life in individuals with this disease and can be helpful for professionals/clinicians in the field as well as loved ones of those affected.
- "Cerebellar ataxia". BBC News. November 30, 2004.
- Ferrarin, M.; Gironi, M.; Mendozzi, L.; Nemni, R.; Mazzoleni, P.; Rabuffetti, M. (2005). "Procedure for the quantitative evaluation of motor disturbances in cerebellar ataxic patients". Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. 43 (3): 349–56. doi:10.1007/BF02345812. PMID 16035223.
- Diener, H.-C.; Dichgans, J. (1992). "Pathophysiology of cerebellar ataxia". Movement Disorders. 7 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1002/mds.870070202. PMID 1584245.
- Mitoma H, Adhikari K, Aeschlimann D, Chattopadhyay P, Hadjivassiliou M, Hampe CS, et al. (2016). "Consensus Paper: Neuroimmune Mechanisms of Cerebellar Ataxias". Cerebellum (Review). 15 (2): 213–32. doi:10.1007/s12311-015-0664-x. PMC . PMID 25823827.
- Jarius, S.; Wildemann, B. (2015). "'Medusa head ataxia': the expanding spectrum of Purkinje cell antibodies in autoimmune cerebellar ataxia". J Neuroinflammation. 12 (1): 166.
- "Statin-associated cerebellar ataxia. a brazilian case series". MDLinx.com. Retrieved 2016-02-22.
- Hadjivassiliou M, Sanders DD, Aeschlimann DP (2015). "Gluten-related disorders: gluten ataxia". Dig Dis (Review). 33 (2): 264–8. doi:10.1159/000369509. PMID 25925933.
- López-Bastida, Julio; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Montón-álvarez, Fernando; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro (2008). "Social economic costs and health-related quality of life in patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia in Spain". Movement Disorders. 23 (2): 212–7. doi:10.1002/mds.21798. PMID 17999424.
- Multiple System Atrophy~differential at eMedicine
- Manto, Mario; Marien, Peter (2015). "Schmahmann's syndrome - identification of the third cornerstone of clinical ataxiology". Cerebellum and Ataxias. 2 (1). doi:10.1186/s40673-015-0023-1. PMC . PMID 26331045.
- Marquer, A.; Barbieri, G.; Pérennou, D. (2014). "The assessment and treatment of postural disorders in cerebellar ataxia: A systematic review". Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 57 (2): 67–78. doi:10.1016/j.rehab.2014.01.002. PMID 24582474.
- Mitoma, H.; Manto, M. (2016-05-20). "The physiological basis of therapies for cerebellar ataxias". Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders. 9 (5): 396–413. doi:10.1177/1756285616648940. PMC . PMID 27582895.
- Grimaldi, Giuliana; Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Manto, Mario; Bodranghien, Florian (2014). "Marked reduction of cerebellar deficits in upper limbs following transcranial cerebello-cerebral DC stimulation: tremor reduction and re-programming of the timing of antagonist commands." Front Syst Neurosci. 8 (9). doi:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00009. PMC . PMID 24523678.
- Trouillas, Paul; Xie, Jing; Adeleine, Patrice (1996). "Treatment of cerebellar ataxia with buspirone: a double-blind study". The Lancet. 348 (9029): 759. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)65674-7. PMID 8806320.
- Mackenzie, Catherine; Lowit, Anja (2007). "Behavioural intervention effects in dysarthria following stroke: communication effectiveness, intelligibility and dysarthria impact". International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 42 (2): 131–53. doi:10.1080/13682820600861776. PMID 17365091.
- Schalling, Ellika; Hartelius, Lena (2013). "Speech in spinocerebellar ataxia". Brain and Language. 127 (3): 317–22. doi:10.1016/j.bandl.2013.10.002. PMID 24182841.