Centropomus Lacépède, 1802, is a genus of predominantly marine fish comprising the family Centropomidae The type species is Centropomus undecimalis, the common snook. Commonly known as snooks or róbalos, the Centropomus species are native to tropical and subtropical waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans.
|Common snook (C. undecimalis)|
Prior to 2004 the subfamily Latinae, which contained three genera, was placed within Centropomidae; this has since been raised to the family level and renamed Latidae because a cladistic analysis showed the old Centropomidae to be paraphyletic. This has left Centropomus as the only remaining genus in this family. These are popular game and food fishes.
Dating from the upper Cretaceous, the centropomids are of typical percoid shape, distinguished by having two-part dorsal fins, a lateral line that extends onto the tail, and, frequently, a concave shape to the head. They range from 35 to 120 cm (14 to 47 in) in length and are found in tropical and subtropical waters. The snook species range in maximum length from about 35 cm (14 in) to some 140 cm (4 ft 7 in), with maximum recorded weights of 1.0 – 26 kg (2.2 – 57 lb).
Many of the snooks are important as commercial food fish and as game fish.
‘Róbalo’ or snook are world-renowned game fish of the family Centropomidae and genus Centropomus that are much sought after by fly fishing enthusiasts and sportfishing charters. Six Atlantic and six Pacific Ocean species are currently recognized as scientifically valid. All are known to inhabit Central America and all are excellent gamefish. There is no evidence found of the individual species crossing from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean or vice versa through the Panama Canal. All Robalo or snook species are capable of inhabiting both fresh and saltwater and are known to seasonally occupy Gatun Lake, which forms a water bridge connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as an integral part of the Panama Canal. Of the twelve species only 4 are known to reach sizes in excess of 10 lbs. – two Atlantic Ocean species (Centropomus undecimalis and Centropomus poeyi) and two Pacific Ocean species (Centropomus viridis and Centropomus nigrescens). The eight species of smaller Robalo usually grow to less than 6 lbs. and can be readily distinguished by from the four larger species by their noticeably longer anal spine, anal fin configuration and body shape. The four large species are immediately recognizable by their more streamlined appearance given by the longer narrower body shape. Many individual species of Robalo bear a close resemblance to one another although they may be from the same or different oceans so identification is best left up to experts. The two Atlantic Ocean large Robalo species (Centropomus undecimalis and Centropomus poeyi) are virtually identical in appearance. They can usually only be distinguished by the number of gill rakers each possesses. The Robalo or common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) commonly has eleven to thirteen non-rudimentary gill rakers and the Mexican snook (Centropomus Poeyi) is most often found to possess fifteen to eighteen non-rudimentary gill rakers. The Pacific Ocean “Robalo Ñato” or white snook (Centropomus viridis) is also a dead ringer for the common snook (Centropomus undecimalis). The distinguishing feature is also the non-rudimentary gill raker count with thirteen to fifteen for the white snook (Centropomus Viridis). They act, breed, grow and fight virtually the same. Curiously, laboratory reared specimens of the common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) showed meristic variations in vertebrae, fin ray and gill raker numbers not observed in specimens from the wild. These variations are suspected to be due to diet and growth rates. Large Robalo caught in Lake Gatun invariably cause a wealth of confusion. The IGFA requires verification of the species by a designated authority for world record claims. The two Pacific Ocean species of large Robalo (Centropomus viridis and Centropomus nigrescens) are somewhat easier to distinguish.
The ‘Robalo Redondo’ or black snook (Centropomus nigrescens) can be differentiated by three visually apparent characteristics when compared to the ‘Robalo Ñato’ or white snook (Centropomus viridis):
- 1) The body of Centropomus nigrescens, while similarly elongate is rounder and heavier in general appearance – being thicker through the middle than Centropomus viridis.
- 2) The head of Centropomus nigrescens is bigger and the undershot jaw, characteristic of all Róbalo is far less pronounced than in Centropomus viridis.
- 3) Most importantly, the fourth dorsal spine of Centropomus nigrescens is taller than the third. In both species the first two dorsal spines are hardly noticeable. In large specimens these first two spines are only a quarter of an inch long, while the third spine is over two inches in length. Therefore, if the first long dorsal spine is longer than all the others, it is a Centropomus viridis; however if the first long dorsal spine is shorter than the second long dorsal spine it is a Centropomus nigrescens.
- Armed snook, Centropomus armatus Gill, 1863
- Swordspine snook, Centropomus ensiferus Poey, 1860
- Centropomus irae Carvalho-Files, Oliviera, Soares & Araripe, 2019
- Blackfin snook, Centropomus medius Günther, 1864
- Guianan snook, Centropomus mexicanus Bocourt, 1868
- Black snook, Centropomus nigrescens Günther, 1864
- Fat snook, Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860
- Tarpon snook, Centropomus pectinatus Poey, 1860
- Mexican snook, Centropomus poeyi Chávez, 1961
- Yellowfin snook, Centropomus robalito Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
- Common snook, Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792)
- Union snook, Centropomus unionensis Bocourt, 1868
- White snook, Centropomus viridis Lockington, 1877
In the Second World War, snook from South Africa was imported to Britain to alleviate the shortage of meat. It was unfamiliar, and the Ministry of Food's advice with recipes like "Snoek Piquante" made the fish a "shorthand for everything unpalatable about food rationing."
- Richard van der Laan; William N. Eschmeyer & Ronald Fricke (2014). "Family-group names of Recent fishes". Zootaxa. 3882 (2): 001–230.
- Eschmeyer, W. N.; R. Fricke & R. van der Laan (eds.). "Centropomus". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
- Johnson, G.D.; Gill, A.C. (1998). Paxton, J.R.; Eschmeyer, W.N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
- Carvalho, A.; Oliviera, J. de; Soares, C.; Araripe, J. "A new species of snook, Centropomus (Teleostei: Centropomidae), from northern South America, with notes on the geographic distribution of other species of the genus". Zootaxa. 4671 (1): 81–92. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4671.1.6.
- Ann, Antonia (7 July 2011). "Snoek (Snook)". Wartime Recipes. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
like Snoek Piquante which seems to have become a kind of shorthand for everything unpalatable about food rationing
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2004). Species of Centropomus in FishBase. October 2004 version.
- "Centropomus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 20 December 2004.
Snook or Robalo types as game fish Reference www.panamafishingandcatching.com at "http://www.panamafishingandcatching.com/1-bayano.htm"