Central Bikol, commonly called Bikol Naga, also known simply as Bikol, is the most-spoken language in the Bicol Region of southern Luzon, Philippines. It is spoken in the northern and western part of Camarines Sur, second congressional district of Camarines Norte, eastern part of Albay, northeastern part of Sorsogon, San Pascual town in Masbate, and southwestern part of Catanduanes. Central Bikol speakers can be found in all provinces of Bicol and it is a majority language in Camarines Sur. The standard sprachraum form is based on the Canaman dialect.
|(2.5 million cited 1990 census)|
6th most spoken native language in the Philippines
|Latin (Bikol alphabet)|
|Regulated by||Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino|
Central Bikol features some vocabularies that are not found in other Bikol languages nor to other members of the Central Philippine language family like Tagalog and Cebuano. Examples of these are words the matua and bitis which are the same with Kapampangan words that means older and foot/feet respectively. The word banggi (night) is another example of this as it is different from the usual Bikol word "gab-i" but closer to the word bengi of Kapampangan. There's no formal study about the relationship of the Central Luzon languages to Central Bikol but the latter has several words that are also found in the archaic form of Tagalog spoken in the Rizal and Quezon provinces that are believed to be the home of Central Luzon languages such as Kapampangan in Pampanga and southern Tarlac, and Sambalic languages in Zambales province.
Central Bikol dialectsEdit
Because of its broad geographic coverage as compare to other Bikol languages separated by islands and mountains, Central Bikol diverged into 6 dialects, but are still mutually comprehensible. The division of the language into different dialects are mainly because of the influence from other Bikol languages and other non-Bikol languages surrounding the region.
The Canaman dialect, despite being used only by a small number of population in Camarines Sur, is the standard form of Central Bikol being used in literature, Catholic religious rites and mass media. Naga City dialect is spoken in the first and second districts of Camarines Sur, Albay province (except in Del Gallego, where residents are mostly Tagalog speakers) and in San Pascual, Masbate (Burias island). The Partido dialect is spoken in the eastern part of Camarines Sur centered in Goa and Lagonoy. The Tabaco-Legazpi-Sorsogon (TLS) dialect is spoken in the eastern coast of Albay and the northeastern part of Sorsogon. TLS is the dialect that has been most influenced by the Inland Bikol languages. The Daet dialect on the other hand is spoken in the southern half of the province of Camarines Norte. The Virac dialect is spoken around Virac, Catanduanes and surrounding towns on the southwestern part of the island of Catanduanes.
Dialectal comparison of Central BikolEdit
|Canaman dialect (Standard)||Naga City dialect||Partido dialect||Tabaco-Legazpi-Sorsogon (TLS) dialect||Virac dialect||Daet dialect||Rinconada Bikol language
|Sorsoganon language |
|Tâdaw ta dae luminayog an bayong ni Pedro dawà na dae nin kandado si hawla?||Tâno daw ta dai naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro dawà na mayò nin kandado si hawla?||Hadaw ta `e naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro maski `e nin kandado su hawla?||Natà daw ta dai naglayog an bayong ni Pedro maski wara nin kandado su hawla?||Ngata daw ta dai naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro maski dai nin kandado su hawla?||Bakin kaya dai naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro maski mayong kandado si hawla?||Ta onō (Ta ŋātâ) raw ta dirî naglayog adtoŋ bayoŋ ni Pedro dāwâ ədâ kandādo su awlā?||Nakay daw kay dire naglayog an tamsi ni Pedro maski wara kandado an hawla?|
Like other Philippine languages, Bikol has a number of loanwords, largely Spanish as a result of 333 years of Spanish rule in the Philippines. This includes suerte (luck), karne (carne, meat), imbestigador (investigador, investigator), litro (liter), pero (but), and krimen (crimen, crime). Another source of loanwords is Sanskrit, with words like hade (king) and karma.
There are 16 consonants in the Bikol language: /p, b, d, t, k, ɡ, s, h, m, n, ŋ, l, ɾ, j~ʝ, w~ʋ, ʔ/. Eight sounds are borrowed from loanwords: /f, v, tʃ, dʒ, ʃ, ʒ, ʎ, ɲ/. The three vowels are noted as /a, i, u/. Vowels /e, o/ are used from Spanish.
|1st person singular||ako||ko||sakuya, sako, saako|
|2nd person singular||ika, ka||mo||saimo, si-mo, kanimo|
|3rd person singular||siya, iya||niya||saiya, kaniya|
|1st person plural inclusive||kita||nyato, ta||satuya, sato, saato|
|1st person plural exclusive||kami||nyamo, mi||samuya, samo, kanamo, saamo|
|2nd person plural||kamo||nindo||saindo, kaninyo, saiyo|
|3rd person plural||sinda||ninda||sainda, kanira|
Like many other Philippine languages, Bikol has a rich set of discourse particles.
- bagá – expresses doubt or hesitation
- bayâ – giving a chance to someone; polite insisting
- daa – (Tagalog: daw) quoting information from a secondary source
- daw – (Tagalog: ba/kaya) interrogative particle
- garo – (Tagalog: mukhang, parang) likeness or similitude. English: "It looks like, it's as if."
- gáyo – "exactly"
- daing gáyo – "not exactly, not really"
- gayód / nanggayod – (Tagalog: bakâ) "maybe, could be"
- giráray / liwát – (Tagalog: [m]uli) "again"
- kutá-na / kutâ – "I hope (something did / did not happen" ; "If only ..." (conditionality of past events)
- lang / lámang / saná – (Tagalog: lang) "only, just"
- lugód – hoping that something will happen, or expressing surrender
- man – (Tagalog: din, rin) "also" or "ever" (such as ano man 'whatever' and siisay man 'whoever')
- mú-na / ngó-na – (Tagalog: muna) "first" or "yet"
- na – (Tagalog: na) "now" or "already"
- naman – (Tagalog: naman) "again"
- nanggad / mananggad – (Tagalog: talaga, nga) "really, truly, absolutely" (adds a sense of certainty)
- nyako – "I said"
- ngani – expresses fate ("This is helpless") or a plea for others not to insist
- ngantig – reports something one has said to a third person
- ngapit – "then," "in case," "during/while" (span of time)
- ngaya – politeness in requesting information ("so," "let's see")
- pa – (Tagalog: pa) "still"
- palán – (Tagalog: pala) expresses surprise or sudden realization
- po – (Tagalog: po) politeness marker; "tabí" in some Bikol dialects
- túlos / túlos-túlos – (Tagalog: agad-agad) "immediately, right away"
There have exist two names for the numbers in Bicol. The native Bicol and the Spanish names. Generally, Bicolanos use the Spanish terms if they are talking about time like Alas singko (5 o'clock)'. However, native terms can be read in literary books. Spanish terms for number can be encounter in pricing.
- Duwampólô may lima/Baynté sinkó
- Tolompólô may lima/Traintá y sincó
- Apát na pólô/Quarentá
- Apát na pólô may lima/Quarentá y sincó
- Limampólô may lima/Sinkwentá y sincó
- Anóm na pólô/Sisentá
- Anóm na pólô may lima/Sisentá sinco
- Pitompólô may lima/Sitentá y sincó
- Walompólô may lima/Ochenta y sincó
- Siyam na pólô/Noventá
- Siyam na pólô may lima/Noventá y sincó
- San gatós
- Central Bikol at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Coastal-Naga Bikol". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Lobel, Jason William, Wilmer Joseph S Tria, and Jose Maria Z Carpio. 2000. An satuyang tataramon / A study of the Bikol language. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary.
- Mattes, Veronika. 2014.Types of Reduplication: A Case Study of Bikol. Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.