Central African Republic–South Sudan border

The Central African Republic–South Sudan border is 1,055 km (655 m) in length and runs from the tripoint with Sudan in the north, to the tripoint with the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the south.[1]

Map of South Sudan, with the Central African Republic to the west

Description edit

The precise starting point of the border in the north is in dispute, owing to the fact that both Sudan and South Sudan claim the Kafia Kingi region, which is currently under Sudanese administration.[2] Starting at the de facto tripoint, the border proceeds southwards for a short distance, before turning to the south-east.[3] The border then follows a series a very irregular lines overland in southeastwards direction, down to the tripoint with the DRC. The boundary roughly follows the division between the Nile and Congo drainage divide.[3]

History edit

The border first emerged during the Scramble for Africa, a period of intense competition between European powers in the later 19th century for territory and influence in Africa.[4] The process culminated in the Berlin Conference of 1884, in which the European nations concerned agreed upon their respective territorial claims and the rules of engagements going forward. As a result of this France gained control the upper valley of the Niger River (roughly equivalent to the areas of modern Mali and Niger), and also the lands explored by Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza for France in Central Africa (roughly equivalent to modern Gabon and Congo-Brazzaville).[4] From these bases the French explored further into the interior, eventually linking the two areas following expeditions in April 1900 which met at Kousséri in the far north of modern Cameroon.[4] These newly conquered regions were initially ruled as military territories, with the two areas later organised into the federal colonies of French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, abbreviated AOF) and French Equatorial Africa (Afrique équatoriale française, AEF).[3]

In 1898-99 Britain and France agreed upon their mutual spheres of influence in northern third of Africa, and the two nations delimited a frontier between AEF and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (i.e. the modern Chad-Sudan, CAR-Sudan and CAR-South Sudan borders).[4][3] This was followed by demarcation on the ground by an Anglo-French commission in 1921–23, with the final border being ratified on 21 January 1924.[4][3]

On 1 January 1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan declared independence as the Republic of Sudan; the Central African Republic followed later on 13 August 1960.[4] Following a referendum, on 9 July 2011 South Sudan declared independence from Sudan, and thus inherited the bulk of the former CAR-Sudan border. The border region is remote and poorly policed, providing a safe haven for various rebel groups; it is thought the Joseph Kony of the Lord's Resistance Army may currently be hiding in the border region.[5][6]

Settlements near the border edit

CAR edit

South Sudan edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ CIA World Factbook - CAR, retrieved 18 December 2019
  2. ^ Thomas, Edward (2010). The Kafia Kingi Enclave: People, politics and history in the north-south boundary zone of western Sudan. London: Rift Valley Institute. ISBN 978-1-907431-04-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e Brownlie, Ian (1979). African Boundaries: A Legal and Diplomatic Encyclopedia. Institute for International Affairs, Hurst and Co. pp. 597–601.
  4. ^ a b c d e f International Boundary Study No. 16 – Central African Republic-Sudan Boundary (PDF), 22 June 1962, retrieved 18 December 2019
  5. ^ Preventing conflict along Central Africa's borders: understanding power at the periphery, Relief Web, 15 February 2016, retrieved 22 December 2019
  6. ^ Joe Bavier (3 August 2008), WITNESS: In search of invisible borders in central Africa, Reuters, retrieved 22 December 2019