Centella asiatica

Centella asiatica, commonly known as Indian pennywort or Asiatic pennywort, is a herbaceous, perennial plant in the flowering plant family Apiaceae.[1] It is native to the wetlands in Asia.[2][3] It is used as a culinary vegetable and as a medicinal herb.[1]

Centella asiatica
Centella asiatica (থানকুনি) (3).jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Centella
Species:
C. asiatica
Binomial name
Centella asiatica
Synonyms[1]

Hydrocotyle asiatica L.
Trisanthus cochinchinensis Lour.

DescriptionEdit

 
Centella asiatica, India

Centella grows in temperate and tropical swampy areas in many regions of the world.[1] The stems are slender, creeping stolons, green to reddish-green in color, connecting plants to each other.[1] It has long-stalked, green, rounded apices which have smooth texture with palmately netted veins.[1] The leaves are borne on pericladial petioles, around 2 cm (0.79 in). The rootstock consists of rhizomes, growing vertically down. They are creamish in color and covered with root hairs.[1]

The flowers are white or crimson in color, born in small, rounded bunches (umbels) near the surface of the soil.[1] Each flower is partly enclosed in two green bracts. The hermaphrodite flowers are minute in size, less than 3 mm (0.12 in), with five to six corolla lobes per flower. Each flower bears five stamens and two styles. The fruit are densely reticulate, distinguishing it from species of Hydrocotyle which have smooth, ribbed or warty fruit.[3] The crop matures in three months, and the whole plant, including the roots, is harvested manually. It is a highly invasive plant, rated as "high risk".[1] Centella has numerous common names in its regions of distribution.[1]

HabitatEdit

Centella asiatica is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and wetland regions of the Southeastern US.[4][5] Because the plant is aquatic, it is especially sensitive to biological and chemical pollutants in the water, which may be absorbed into the plant. It can be cultivated in drier soils as long as they are watered regularly enough (such as in a home garden arrangement).

ChemistryEdit

 
Triterpene compounds of Centella asiatica

Centella contains pentacyclic triterpenoids, including asiaticoside, brahmoside, asiuyatic acid, and brahmic acid (madecassic acid). Other constituents include centellose, centelloside, and madecassoside.[6][7][8]

Culinary useEdit

 
Bai bua bok served as a drink in Thailand

In Burmese cuisine, raw pennywort is used as the main constituent in a salad mixed with onions, crushed peanuts, bean powder and seasoned with lime juice and fish sauce. Centella is used as a leafy green in Sri Lankan cuisine, being the predominantly locally available leafy green, where it is called gotu kola. It is most often prepared as malluma, a traditional accompaniment to rice and vegetarian dishes, such as dal, and jackfruit or pumpkin curry. It is considered nutritious. In addition to finely chopped gotu kola plants, the gotu kola malluma may be eaten with grated coconut, diced shallots, lime (or lemon) juice, and sea salt. Additional ingredients are finely chopped green chilis, chili powder, turmeric powder, or chopped carrots. The centella fruit-bearing structures are discarded from the gotu kola malluma due to their intense bitter taste. A variation of porridge known as kola kenda is also made with gotu kola in Sri Lanka. Gotu kola kenda is made with well-boiled red rice with some extra liquid, coconut milk first extract, and gotu kola purée. The porridge is accompanied with jaggery for sweetness. Centella leaves are also used in modern sweet "pennywort" drinks and herbal teas. In addition the leaves are served stir-fried whole in coconut oil, or cooked in coconut milk with garlic or dhal.

In Indonesia, the leaves are used for sambai oi peuga-ga, an Aceh type of salad, and is also mixed into asinan in Bogor. In Vietnam and Thailand, this leaf is used for preparing a drink or can be eaten in raw form in salads or cold rolls. In Bangkok, vendors in the Chatuchak Weekend Market sell it alongside coconut, roselle, chrysanthemum, orange and other health drinks. In Malay cuisine it is known as pegaga, and the leaves of this plant are used for ulam, a type of vegetable salad.[1] Centella is widely used in various Indian regional cuisines.

Traditional medicineEdit

In traditional medicine, C. asiatica has been used to treat various disorders and minor wounds.[1][9] Clinical efficacy and safety have not been confirmed by high-quality medical research.[9] Contact dermatitis and skin irritation can result from topical application.[9] Drowsiness may occur after consuming it.[9] The herb may have adverse effects on liver function when used over many months.[9][10]

AgricultureEdit

In the context of phytoremediation, C. asiatica is a potential phytoextraction tool owing to its ability to take up and translocate metals from root to shoot when grown in soils contaminated by heavy metals.[11]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)". Invasive Species Compendium, CABI. 22 November 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  2. ^ United States Department of Agriculture. "Plant Profile for Centella asiatica". Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  3. ^ a b Floridata. "Centella asiatica". Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  4. ^ "Centella asiatica". Alabama Plant Atlas. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
  5. ^ "Centella asiatica". Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
  6. ^ Singh, Bhagirath; Rastogi, R.P. (May 1969). "A reinvestigation of the triterpenes of Centella asiatica". Phytochemistry. 8 (5): 917–921. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85884-7.
  7. ^ Singh, Bhagirath; Rastogi, R.P. (August 1968). "Chemical examination of Centella asiatica linn—III". Phytochemistry. 7 (8): 1385–1393. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85642-3.
  8. ^ Murray, edited by Joseph E. Pizzorno, Jr., Michael T. (2012). Textbook of natural medicine (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 650. ISBN 9781437723335.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  9. ^ a b c d e "Gotu kola". Drugs.com. 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  10. ^ Jorge, O. A.; Jorge, A. D. (February 2005). "Hepatotoxicity associated with the ingestion of Centella asiatica". Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas. 97 (2): 115–24. doi:10.4321/s1130-01082005000200006. PMID 15801887.
  11. ^ Abd. Manan, Fazilah; Chai, Tsun-Thai; Abd. Samad, Azman; Mamat, Dayangku Dalilah (1 April 2015). "Evaluation of the Phytoremediation Potential of Two Medicinal Plants". Sains Malaysiana. 44 (4): 503–509. doi:10.17576/jsm-2015-4404-04.

Extermal linksEdit