|1/2 cent by East India Company (1845).|
|Obverse: Crowned head left with lettering Queen Victoria.||Reverse: Face value. I , year and East India Company inscribed outside wreath.|
|18,737,498 coins minted in 1845.|
In many national currencies, the cent, commonly represented by the cent sign (a minuscule letter "c" crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line: ¢; or a simple "c") is a monetary unit that equals 1⁄100 of the basic monetary unit. Etymologically, the word cent derives from the Latin word "centum" meaning hundred. Cent also refers to a coin worth one cent.
In the United States, the 1¢ coin is generally known by the nickname penny, alluding to the British coin and unit of that name.
In the European Union, coin designs are chosen nationally, while the reverse and the currency as a whole is managed by the European Central Bank (ECB).
In Canada, production of the 1¢ coin was ended in 2012.
A cent is commonly represented by the cent sign, a minuscule letter "c" crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line: ¢; or a simple "c", depending on the currency (see below). Cent amounts from 1 cent to 99 cents can be represented as one or two digits followed by the appropriate abbreviation (2¢, 5¢, 75¢, 99¢), or as a subdivision of the base unit ($0.99).
Back in the days of typewriters, the cent sign appeared as the shift of the 6 key. The cent sign has not survived the changeover from typewriters to computer keyboards (replaced positionally by the caret). There are alternative ways, however, to create the character (offset 162) in most common code pages, including Unicode and Windows-1252:
- On DOS- or Windows-based computers, hold Alt while typing 0162 or 155 on the numeric keypad. If there is no numeric keypad, as on many laptops, type A2 in Windows Wordpad followed by Alt+X and copy/paste the resulting ¢ into the target document. For the US International keyboard: <Right Alt> <Shift> c (Windows).
- On Macintosh systems, hold ⌥ Option and press 4 on the number row.
- On Unix/Linux systems with a compose key, Compose+|+C and Compose+/+C are typical sequences.
The cent sign has Unicode code point:
- U+00A2 ¢ CENT SIGN (HTML
- U+FFE0 ￠ FULLWIDTH CENT SIGN (HTML
When written in English, the cent sign (¢ or c) follows the amount (with no space between), in contrast with a larger currency symbol, which is placed before the amount. For example, 2¢ and $0.02, or 2c and €0.02.
- Argentine peso (as centavo)
- Aruban florin
- Australian dollar
- Barbadian dollar
- Bahamian dollar
- Belize dollar
- Bermudian dollar
- Bolivian boliviano (as centavo)
- Brazilian real (as centavo)
- Brunei dollar (as sen)
- Canadian dollar
- Cayman Islands dollar
- Chilean peso (as centavo). Centavos officially exist and are considered in financial transactions; however, there are no current centavo-denominated coins.
- Cook Islands dollar (cent, although some 50 cent coins are marked "50 tene")
- Cuban peso (as centavo)
- East Caribbean dollar
- Eritrean nakfa
- Estonian kroon (as sent)
- European Union's euro – the coins bear the text "EURO CENT". Greek coins have ΛΕΠΤΟ ("lepto") on the obverse of the one-cent coin and ΛΕΠΤΑ ("lepta") on the obverse of the others. The actual usage varies depending on the language.
- Fijian dollar
- Guyanese dollar
- Hong Kong dollar, however all circulating coins are in multiples of 10 cents
- Indonesian rupiah (as sen)
- Jamaican dollar
- Kenyan shilling
- Lesotho loti (as sente)
- Liberian dollar
- Malaysian ringgit (as sen)
- Mauritian rupee
- Mexican peso (as centavo)
- Moroccan dirham (as santim)
- Namibian dollar
- Netherlands Antillean gulden
- New Zealand dollar
- Panamanian balboa (as centésimo)
- Peruvian nuevo sol (as céntimo)
- Philippine peso (as centavo)
- Seychellois rupee
- Sierra Leonean leone
- Singapore dollar
- South African rand
- Sri Lankan rupee
- Surinamese dollar
- Swazi lilangeni
- New Taiwan dollar
- Tanzanian shilling
- Tongan paʻanga (as seniti)
- Trinidad and Tobago dollar
- Ugandan shilling (cent discontinued in 2013)
- United States dollar
- Uruguayan peso (as centésimo)
- Zimbabwean dollar
Examples of currencies featuring centesimal (1⁄100) units not called cent
- British pound – divided into 100 pence (singular: penny) since 1971
- Bulgarian lev (as stotinka, Bulgarian: стотинка ("hundredth")
- Chinese Yuan/Renminbi – divided into 100 fēn (分); in general usage, divided into 10 jiǎo (角).
- Croatian kuna – divided into 100 lipa
- Danish krone – divided into 100 øre
- Estonian mark – divided into 100 penni (nominative: penn)
- Indian rupee – divided into 100 paise
- Israeli new shekel – divided into 100 agorot
- Macao pataca – divided into 100 avos, however all circulating coins are in multiples of 10 avos
- Macedonian denar – divided into 100 deni
- Norwegian krone – divided into 100 øre
- Pakistani rupee – divided into 100 paise
- Polish złoty – divided into 100 groszy (singular: grosz)
- Romanian and Moldovan leu – divided into 100 bani
- Russian ruble – divided into 100 kopeks
- Saudi riyal;– divided into 100 halalas
- Serbian dinar – divided into 100 paras
- Swedish krona – divided into 100 öre
- Swiss franc – divided into 100 rappen (known as centime in French and centesimo in Italian)
- Thai baht – divided into 100 satang
- Turkish Lira – divided into 100 kuruş
- United Arab Emirates dirham – divided into 100 fils
- Ukrainian hrywnia – divided into 100 kopijkas.
Examples of currencies which do not feature centesimal (1⁄100) units:
- Costa Rican colón – no fractional denomination in circulation since the 1980s, formerly divided into 100 céntimos.
- Czech koruna – no fractional denomination in circulation, formerly divided into 100 hellers
- Japanese yen – no fractional denomination in circulation, formerly divided into 100 sen and 1000 rin.
- South Korean Won no fractional denomination in circulation, formerly divided into 100 jeon.
- Icelandic króna – no fractional denomination in circulation, formerly divided into 100 eyrir.
- Kuwaiti dinar – divided into 1000 fils
- Omani rial – divided into 1000 baisa
- Mauritanian ouguiya – divided into 5 khoums
- Malagasy ariary – divided into 5 iraimbilanja
Examples of currencies which use the cent symbol for other purpose: