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Catherine O'Leary (also known as Cate O'Leary; March 1827 – 3 July 1895) was an Irish immigrant living in Chicago, Illinois who became infamous when it was alleged that an accident involving her cow had started the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Born Catherine Donegan, she and her husband Patrick O'Leary had three children, one of whom, James Patrick O'Leary, ran a well-known Chicago saloon and gambling hall.
|Died||July 3, 1895 (aged 68)|
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Great Chicago FireEdit
On the evening of October 8, 1871, a fire consumed the O'Leary family's barn at 137 DeKoven Street. Due to a high wind and dry conditions, it spread to burn a large percentage of the city, an event known as the Great Chicago Fire.
After the Great Fire, Chicago Tribune reporter Michael Ahern published a claim that the fire had started when a cow kicked over a lantern while it was being milked. The owner was not named, but Catherine O'Leary was soon identified, since the fire had begun in her family's barn. Illustrations and caricatures soon appeared depicting Mrs. O'Leary with her cow. The idea captured the popular imagination and is still widely circulated even today. However, in 1893 Ahern finally admitted he had made the story up.
The official report simply states: "Whether it originated from a spark blown from a chimney on that windy night, or was set on fire by human agency, we are unable to determine".
Mrs. O'Leary testified that she had been in bed when the fire began, and she had no idea what caused it. Daniel "Pegleg" Sullivan, the first person to raise the alarm, said that on seeing the barn on fire, he ran to free the animals, which included a cow owned by Sullivan's mother. He then informed the O'Learys, who were in their home and were unaware of the fire.
Anti-Irish attitudes at the time encouraged making scapegoats of the O'Leary family. It was soon claimed that the alleged accident happened because she was drunk, or that she had hidden the evidence of her guilt. Neighbors were reported to have claimed that they saw broken glass from the lamp, though these "reports" were all unverified. One man claimed he had found the damaged lamp, but it had been stolen by another Irishman to protect the O'Learys.
Other rumors insisted that Daniel Sullivan himself had started the fire, or perhaps it was Louis M. Cohn, who claimed to have been gambling in the barn with the O'Learys' son and others.
Death and aftermathEdit
Catherine O'Leary died on July 3, 1895 of acute pneumonia, at her home at 5133 Halsted Street, and was buried at Mount Olivet Cemetery. In the PBS documentary, Chicago: City of the Century, a descendant of O'Leary's stated that she spent the rest of her life in the public eye, and she was constantly blamed for starting the fire. Overcome with much sadness and regret, she "died heartbroken".
The last living relative of Catherine O'Leary died in 1936. Amateur historian Richard Bales was able to gather enough evidence on Sullivan to convince the Chicago City Council to exonerate Mrs. O'Leary of any guilt in 1997.
"Mrs. O'Leary's cow" has attracted the attention and imagination of generations as the cause of the fire. Numerous references, in a variety of media, have been made in American popular culture, including:
- In the 1938 film, The Mad Miss Manton, newspaper editor, Peter Ames' (Henry Fonda) assistant, Jim, tells him "That editorial really started something!". Ames replies with, "So did Mrs. O'Leary's cow!"
- The Terrytoons animated short Mrs. O'Leary's Cow (1938) depicts the cow being brought to the witness stand in court to explain her actions.
- Character actress Alice Brady won a Best Supporting Actress Oscar for her performance as "Mrs. O'Leary" in the film In Old Chicago (1938), in which she is portrayed as a heroic figure. The film dramatizes a variant of the traditional story: she is helping her cow to suckle a new calf, but accidentally leaves the lantern behind when she departs in a hurry, after being told that one of her sons has been injured in a fight.
- Quentin Tarantino's debut film Reservoir Dogs (1992).
- "Little Match Girl", a 1992 episode of the situation comedy Cheers.
- "Voyage of the Damned", a 1997 episode of the sitcom Frasier.
- "Dream Goat!", a 2001 episode of the animated children's series The Fairly OddParents.
- "Nobel Peace Surprise", a 2002 episode of the animated children's series Time Squad.
- "Being Mrs. O'Leary's Cow", a 2005 episode of the drama series Medium.
- In the Warehouse 13 episode "Personal Effects", O'Leary is connected to a cow bell which can trigger great fires, actually revealed to be the same artifact which started the Great Fire of London.
- The Dick Van Dyke Show, Season 4 Episode 15
- "Gloria Poses in the Nude", Season 2 Episode 2, A 1971 episode of the sitcom All in the Family Archie mentions that he feels like Mrs. O'Leary's Cow shouting "fire!" regarding Gloria posing in the nude for an artist, but that his warnings are not being heeded.
- "Put the Blame on Mame", written by Allan Roberts and Doris Fisher for the movie Gilda (1946).
- "The Chicken or the Egg" from The Easter Bunny Is Comin' to Town (1977).
- "Old Mother Leary", a parody of the minstrel song "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight" (1896):
Late one night, when we were all in bed,
Old Mother Leary left a lantern in the shed;
And when the cow kicked it over, she winked her eye and said,
There'll be a hot time in the old town, tonight.
- Brian Wilson's song "Mrs. O'Leary's Cow", released on the 2004 album Brian Wilson Presents Smile.
- Chicago band Welcome to Ashley's song, "Madame O'Leary", released on their 2007 EP The Catbird Seat.
- A fictional interpretation of the story behind O'Leary's cow is central to the plot in Ilona Andrews' book Burn For Me.
- Pierce, Bessie Louise (1957). A History of Chicago: Volume III: The Rise of a Modern City, 1871–1893 (2007 rep. ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-226-66842-0.
- Owens, L.L. The Great Chicago Fire. ABDO. p. 7.
- "The O'Leary Legend". Chicago History Museum. Archived from the original on 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
- "Obituary". Chicago Tribune. July 4, 1895. p. 1.
- "Last of O'Leary Family". Harrisburg Telegraph. 26 December 1936. p. 1. Retrieved 13 September 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Edmonds, Molly. "Did the Great Chicago Fire really start with Mrs. O'Leary's cow?". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2011-10-07.
- "Lyrics: "Old Mother Leary"". traditionalmusic.co.uk.