Casino (1995 film)
Casino is a 1995 American epic crime film directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Robert De Niro, Sharon Stone and Joe Pesci. It is based on the nonfiction book Casino: Love and Honor in Las Vegas by Nicholas Pileggi, who also co-wrote the screenplay for the film with Scorsese. The two had previously collaborated on Goodfellas.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Martin Scorsese|
|Produced by||Barbara De Fina|
|Based on||Casino: Love and Honor in Las Vegas|
by Nicholas Pileggi
|Edited by||Thelma Schoonmaker|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Box office||$116.1 million|
The film marks the eighth collaboration between director Scorsese and De Niro, following Mean Streets (1973), Taxi Driver (1976), New York, New York (1977), Raging Bull (1980), The King of Comedy (1982), Goodfellas (1990) and Cape Fear (1991).
In Casino, De Niro stars as Sam "Ace" Rothstein, a Jewish American gambling handicapper who is called by the Chicago Outfit to oversee the day-to-day operations at the Tangiers Casino in Las Vegas. His character is based on Frank Rosenthal, who ran the Stardust, Fremont, and Hacienda casinos in Las Vegas for the Chicago Outfit from the 1970s until the early 1980s. Pesci plays Nicholas "Nicky" Santoro, based on real-life Mob enforcer Anthony Spilotro, a "made man" who could give Ace the protection he needed. Nicky is sent to Vegas to make sure that money from the Tangiers is skimmed off the top and the mobsters in Vegas are kept in line. Sharon Stone plays Ginger McKenna, Ace's scheming, self-absorbed wife, based on Geri McGee.
Casino was released on November 22, 1995, to a mostly positive critical response, and was a box-office success. Stone's performance was widely praised, earning her a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress.
In 1973, sports handicapper and Mafia associate Sam "Ace" Rothstein is sent to Las Vegas to run the Teamsters Union-funded Tangiers Casino on behalf of the Chicago Outfit, which secretly controls the Teamsters, while Philip Green serves as the Mob's front man. Taking advantage of gaming laws that allow him to work in a casino while his gaming licence is pending, Sam doubles the casino's profits, which are skimmed by the Mafia before being reported to income tax agencies. Impressed with his work, Mafia boss Remo Gaggi sends Sam's childhood friend and mob enforcer Nicholas "Nicky" Santoro, Nicky's younger brother Dominick, and trusted associate Frank "Frankie" Marino to protect Sam and the entire operation. Nicky's volatile and vicious temper soon gets him banned from every casino in Las Vegas and his name is placed in the Black Book, so he, Dominick, and Frankie gather their own crew and engage in non-sanctioned shakedowns and burglaries instead.
Sam meets and falls in love with a hustler and former prostitute, Ginger McKenna. After a few months of dating, they conceive a daughter and marry, but their marriage is made difficult by Ginger's covetousness and love for her manipulative former boyfriend, con artist-turned pimp Lester Diamond. Lester is beaten severely by Sam and Nicky after they catch him conning Ginger out of some money. Ginger subsequently turns to alcohol.
In 1980, Sam makes an enemy in county commissioner Pat Webb for firing Webb's brother-in-law Don Ward for incompetence. When Sam refuses to reinstate Ward, Webb pulls Sam's license application from the backlog, forcing him to face a hearing for his gaming license, while secretly arranging for the board to deny Sam. Sam blames the incident on Nicky's recklessness, and the two argue furiously in the desert after Sam attempts to tell Nicky to leave Las Vegas.
Meanwhile, the casino counters begin skimming money for themselves, prompting the Midwest Mafia bosses to put Kansas City underboss Artie Piscano in charge of overseeing the transactions. Piscano is unable to find the thieves, but keeps tabs on everything he knows about Las Vegas in a private notebook and rants about it in his grocery store. The FBI, investigating a separate crime, have wired Piscano's store, and Piscano's detailed complaints, complete with names, spurs the FBI to begin investigating the casino.
Tired of her alcoholism, Sam finally seeks to divorce Ginger. Ginger then kidnaps their daughter, Amy, takes her to Los Angeles, and plans to flee to Europe with her and Lester. Sam convinces Ginger to come back with Amy, and then scolds her for stealing his money and kidnapping their daughter. After he overhears Ginger talking on the phone about killing him, Sam kicks her out of the house, but soon relents. Ginger then approaches Nicky for help in getting her valuables from her and Sam's shared safe deposit box, and the two start an affair. Sam discovers this after finding Amy tied to her bed by Ginger, who is with Nicky at his restaurant. Sam confronts and disowns Ginger, and ends his friendship with Nicky. Nicky also severs his ties with Ginger when she demands he kill Sam and instead throws her out. A furious and drunk Ginger crashes her car into Sam's driveway, making a scene, and retrieves the key to their deposit box after distracting the attending police. Even though she succeeds in taking all of the money from the safety deposit box, she is arrested by the FBI as a material witness.
In 1983, the FBI moves in and closes the casino. Green decides to cooperate with the authorities. Piscano dies of a heart attack in front of his wife upon observing federal agents discover his notebook. Nicky flees Las Vegas before he can be caught. The FBI approaches Sam for help by showing him photos of Nicky and Ginger together, but he turns them down. The bosses are arrested and put on trial; aware that they will not escape conviction, they plan to eliminate anyone involved in the scheme to prevent them from testifying. Among those killed are three casino executives, Teamsters head Andy Stone, and money courier John Nance. Ginger travels to Los Angeles and ultimately dies of a drug overdose in a motel. Sam himself is almost killed by a car bomb and suspects Nicky was behind it. Before Sam can take revenge, Nicky and Dominick are ambushed by Frankie and their own crew, beaten, and buried alive in a cornfield, the bosses having had too much of Nicky's behavior and suspecting his role in Sam's car bombing.
With the Mob now out of power, the old casinos are purchased by big corporations and demolished. The corporations build new and gaudier attractions, which Sam laments are not the same as when the Mafia was in control. Sam subsequently retires to San Diego and continues to live as a sports handicapper for the Mob, in his own words, ending up "right back where I started, and that's that".
- Robert De Niro as Sam "Ace" Rothstein
- Joe Pesci as Nicholas "Nicky" Santoro
- Sharon Stone as Ginger McKenna
- James Woods as Lester Diamond
- Frank Vincent as Frankie Marino
- Don Rickles as Billy Sherbert
- L. Q. Jones as Clark County Commissioner Pat Webb
- Kevin Pollak as Philip Green
- Alan King as Andy Stone
- Pasquale Cajano as Remo Gaggi
- John Bloom as Donald "Don" Ward
- Dick Smothers as Nevada State Senator Harrison Roberts
- Philip Suriano as Dominick Santoro
- Bill Allison as John Nance
- Vinny Vella as Artie Piscano
The research for Casino began when screenwriter Nicholas Pileggi read a 1980 report from the Las Vegas Sun about a domestic argument between Frank "Lefty" Rosenthal, a casino figure, and his wife Geri McGee, a former topless dancer. This gave him an idea to focus on a new book about the true story of mob infringement in Las Vegas during the 1970s, when filming of Goodfellas (whose screenplay he co-wrote with Scorsese) was coming to an end. The fictional Tangiers resort reflected the story of the Stardust Resort and Casino, which had been bought by Argent Corporation in 1974 using loans from the Teamsters Central States Pension Fund. Argent was owned by Allen Glick, but the casino was believed to be controlled by various organized crime families from the Midwest. Over the next six years, Argent Corporation siphoned off between $7 and $15 million using rigged scales. This skimming operation, when uncovered by the FBI, was the largest ever exposed. A number of organized crime figures were convicted as a result.
Pileggi contacted Scorsese about taking the lead of the project, which became known as Casino. Scorsese expressed interest, calling this an "idea of success, no limits". Pileggi was keen to release the book and then concentrate on a film adaptation, but Scorsese encouraged him to "reverse the order".
Scorsese and Pileggi collaborated on the script for five months, towards the end of 1994. Real-life characters were reshaped, such as Frank "Lefty" Rosenthal, Geri McGee, Anthony Spilotro, and Spilotro's brother. Some characters were combined, and parts of the story were set in Kansas City instead of Chicago. A problem emerged when they were forced to refer to Chicago as "back home" and use the words "adapted from a true story" instead of "based on a true story".
They also decided to simplify the script, so that the character of Sam "Ace" Rothstein only worked at the Tangiers Casino, in order to show a glimpse of the trials involved in operating a Mafia-run casino hotel without overwhelming the audience. In actuality, Frank Rosenthal managed multiple casinos for "the mob". According to Scorsese, the initial opening sequence was to feature the main character, Sam Rothstein, fighting with his estranged wife Ginger on the lawn of their house. The scene was too detailed, so they changed the sequence to show the explosion of Sam's car and him flying into the air before hovering over the flames in slow motion—like a soul about to go straight down to hell.
Filming took place at night in the Riviera casino in Las Vegas, with the nearby defunct Landmark Hotel as the entrance, to replicate the fictional Tangiers. According to the producer Barbara De Fina, there was no point in building a set if the cost were the same to use a real-life one. The opening scene, with Sam's car exploding, was shot three times; the third take was used for the film. When first submitted to the MPAA, the film received an NC-17 rating due to its depictions of violence. Several edits were made in order to reduce the rating to R.
Upon its release, the film was heavily criticized for its intense violence. It received mostly positive reviews from critics; however, their praise was more muted than it had been for the thematically similar Goodfellas, released only five years earlier, with some reviews criticizing Scorsese for retreading familiar territory. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 79% based on 62 reviews, with an average rating of 7.19/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Impressive ambition and bravura performances from an outstanding cast help Casino pay off in spite of a familiar narrative that may strike some viewers as a safe bet for director Martin Scorsese". On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 73 out of 100, based on 17 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". The film's critical profile has increased in recent years, with several critics expressing that, in retrospect, they feel it to be a more accomplished and artistically mature work than the thematically similar Goodfellas.
|1995||Awards Circuit Community Awards||Best Cast Ensemble||Nominated|
|1996||Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards||Best Actress||Nominated|
|Golden Globe Awards||Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama||Won|
|ACE Eddie Awards||Best Edited Feature Film||Nominated|
|Chicago Film Critics Association Awards||Best Director||Nominated|
|Academy Awards||Best Actress||Nominated|
|MTV Movie Awards||Best Female Performance||Nominated|
|1997||Nastro d'Argento||Best Male Dubbing||Won|
|Best Production Design||Won|
|Best Foreign Director||Nominated|
|2016||Guys Choice: Perfect 10||Guy Movie Hall of Fame||Won|
|Casino: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack|
|Soundtrack album by |
|Released||November 20, 1995|
|Genre||Rock, soul, funk, R&B, blues, jazz, country, traditional pop|
- "Contempt – Theme De Camille" by Georges Delerue
- "Angelina/Zooma, Zooma Medley" by Louis Prima
- "Hoochie Coochie Man" by Muddy Waters
- "I'll Take You There" by The Staple Singers
- "Nights in White Satin" by The Moody Blues
- "How High the Moon" by Les Paul & Mary Ford
- "Hurt" by Timi Yuro
- "Ain't Got No Home" by Clarence 'Frogman' Henry
- "Without You" by Nilsson
- "Love Is the Drug" by Roxy Music
- "I'm Sorry" by Brenda Lee
- "Go Your Own Way" by Fleetwood Mac
- "The Thrill Is Gone" by B.B. King
- "Love Is Strange" by Mickey & Sylvia
- "The 'In' Crowd" by Ramsey Lewis
- "Stardust" by Hoagy Carmichael
- "Walk on the Wild Side" by Jimmy Smith
- "Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa (Sad Song)" by Otis Redding
- "I Ain't Superstitious" by Jeff Beck Group
- "The Glory of Love" by The Velvetones
- "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" by Devo
- "What a Diff'rence a Day Made" by Dinah Washington
- "Working in the Coal Mine" by Lee Dorsey
- "The House of the Rising Sun" by The Animals
- "Toad" by Cream
- "Who Can I Turn To (When Nobody Needs Me)" by Tony Bennett
- "Slippin' and Slidin'" by Little Richard
- "You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You" by Dean Martin
- "Compared to What" (Live) by Les McCann & Eddie Harris
- "Basin Street Blues/When It's Sleepy Time Down South" by Louis Prima
- "St. Matthew Passion (Wir setzen uns mit Tränen nieder)" by Johann Sebastian Bach (Chicago Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Sir Georg Solti)
- Army Archerd (1995-11-13). "Scorsese puts faith in preview auds". Variety. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- Scott Foundas Chief Film Critic @foundasonfilm (2013-05-07). "Andrew Garfield to Star in Martin Scorsese's 'Silence' (Exclusive)". Variety. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Casino (1995)". Box Office Mojo. 1996-01-19. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- Pileggi, Nicholas (1995). Casino: Love and Honor in Las Vegas. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80832-3.
- Baxter, John. De Niro: A Biography. p. 336.
- Thompson, David & Christie, Ian. Scorsese on Scorsese. p. 198.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Levitan, Corey (2008-03-02). "Top 10 scandals: gritty city". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
- Delugach, Al. "5 Mob Figures Guilty in Vegas Skimming Case". latimes.com. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- Thompson, David & Christie, Ian. Scorsese on Scorsese. pp. 200–204.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Baxter, John. De Niro: A Biography. p. 337.
- Bona, Damien Inside Oscar 2
- Dretzka, Gary (November 9, 1995). "Casino Wins Appeal For R Film Rating". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- Charity, Tom (July 5, 2016) [1st pub. 2007]. The Rough Guide to Film: Marin Scorsese. Penguin. p. 497. ISBN 978-1-84353-408-2.
- "Casino (1995)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- "Casino reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- Vargas-Cooper, Natasha (November 10, 2011). "Martin Scorsese's Casino". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine (November 14, 1995). "Casino - Original Soundtrack | Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. RhythmOne. Retrieved January 21, 2017.