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The Carnegie Medal is a British literary award that annually recognises one outstanding new English-language book for children or young adults. It is conferred upon the author by the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP).[1] CILIP calls it "the UK's oldest and most prestigious book award for children's writing".[2]

The Medal is named after the Scottish-born American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie (1835–1919), who founded more than 2,800 libraries in the English-speaking world, including at least one in more than half of British library authorities.[1] It was established in 1936 by the British Library Association, to celebrate the centenary of Carnegie's birth[1][3] and inaugurated in 1937 with the award to Arthur Ransome for Pigeon Post (1936) and the identification of two 'commended' books. The first Medal was dated 1936, but since 2007 the Medal has been dated by its year of presentation, which is now one or two years after publication.[4]

In 1955, the Kate Greenaway Medal was established as a companion to the Carnegie Medal. The Kate Greenaway Medal recognises "distinguished illustration in a book for children".[5] Both awards were established and administered by the Library Association, until it was succeeded by CILIP in 2002.[3]

Nominated books must be written in English and first published in the UK during the preceding school year (September to August).[6] Until 1969, the award was limited to books by British authors first published in England.[7] The first non-British medalist was Australian author Ivan Southall for Josh (1972). The original rules also prohibited winning authors from future consideration.[7] The first author to win a second Carnegie Medal was Peter Dickinson in 1981, who won consecutively for Tulku and City of Gold. There were eight repeat winners to 2018.

The winner is awarded a gold medal and £500 worth of books donated to the winner's chosen library. In addition, since 2016 the winner has received a £5,000 cash prize from the Colin Mears bequest.[1][8]

Latest renditionEdit

Elizabeth Acevedo won the 2019 Carnegie Medal for The Poet X, a verse novel about a young Dominican poet in Harlem.[9] It is her debut novel and has also received the Michael L. Printz Award and the Pura Belpré Award.

There were eight books on the 2019 shortlist, each published September 2017 to August 2018. The official website provides bibliographic data, front cover images, capsules, annotations for the public by the judging panel.[10] The other books were:

Recommended ages have ranged from 8+ to 14+ for books on the shortlist since 2001.

ProcessEdit

CILIP members may nominate books each September and October, with the full list of valid nominations published in November.[11] The longlist, chosen by the judges from the nominated books, is published in February. The judging panel comprises 12 children's librarians, all of whom are members of CILIP's Youth Libraries Group (YLG). The shortlist is announced in March and the winner in June.[11]

According to CILIP, "all categories of books, including poetry, non-fiction and graphic novels, in print or ebook format, for children and young people are eligible".[6] However, titles must be English-language works first published in the UK during the preceding year (1 September to 31 August). Multiple-author anthologies are excluded, however co-authored single works are eligible.[6]

Young people from across the UK take part in shadowing groups organised by secondary schools and public libraries, to read and discuss the shortlisted books.[11]

CILIP instructs the judging panel to consider plot, characterisation, and style "where appropriate".[6] Furthermore, it states that "the book that wins the Carnegie Medal should be a book of outstanding literary quality. The whole work should provide pleasure, not merely from the surface enjoyment of a good read, but also the deeper subconscious satisfaction of having gone through a vicarious, but at the time of reading, a real experience that is retained afterwards".[6]

WinnersEdit

Up to 2018 there have been 79 Medals awarded over 82 years, spanning the period from 1936 to 2017.[needs update] No eligible book published in 1943, 1945, or 1966 was considered suitable by the judging panel.[4]

From 2007 onward, the medals are dated by the year of presentation. Prior to this, they were dated by the calendar year of their British publication.[4]

Forty winning books were illustrated in their first editions, including every one during the first three decades. Six from 1936 to 1953 were illustrated or co-illustrated by their authors; none since then.

Carnegie Medal winners[4]
Year Author Title Publisher
2019 Elizabeth Acevedo[12] The Poet X HarperTeen
2018 Geraldine McCaughrean
illustrated by Jane Milloy
Where the World Ends Usborne Publishing
2017 Ruta Sepetys Salt to the Sea Penguin Books
2016 Sarah Crossan One Bloomsbury Children's
2015 Tanya Landman Buffalo Soldier Walker Books
2014 Kevin Brooks The Bunker Diary Penguin Books
2013 Sally Gardner Maggot Moon Hot Key Books
2012 Patrick Ness
illustrated by Jim Kay
A Monster Calls Walker Books
2011 Patrick Ness Monsters of Men Walker Books
2010 Neil Gaiman
two illustrators[a]
The Graveyard Book Bloomsbury
2009 Siobhan Dowd Bog Child David Fickling
2008 Philip Reeve Here Lies Arthur Scholastic
2007 Meg Rosoff Just in Case Penguin
2006  The award date is the year of publication before 2006, the year of presentation after 2006.
2005 Mal Peet Tamar Walker Books
2004 Frank Cottrell Boyce Millions Macmillan
2003 * Jennifer Donnelly A Gathering Light Bloomsbury
2002 Sharon Creech Ruby Holler Bloomsbury
2001 Terry Pratchett The Amazing Maurice and his Educated Rodents Doubleday
2000 Beverley Naidoo The Other Side of Truth Puffin
1999 Aidan Chambers Postcards from No Man's Land The Bodley Head
1998 * David Almond
illus. Adam Fisher
Skellig Hodder & Stoughton
1997 Tim Bowler River Boy Oxford University Press
1996 * Melvin Burgess Junk Andersen Press
1995 * Philip Pullman Northern Lights Scholastic
1994 Theresa Breslin Whispers in the Graveyard Methuen
1993 Robert Swindells Stone Cold Hamish Hamilton
1992 Anne Fine Flour Babies Hamish Hamilton
1991 Berlie Doherty Dear Nobody Hamish Hamilton
1990 Gillian Cross Wolf Oxford University Press
1989 Anne Fine Goggle-Eyes Hamish Hamilton
1988 Geraldine McCaughrean A Pack of Lies Oxford University Press
1987 Susan Price The Ghost Drum Faber
1986 Berlie Doherty Granny Was a Buffer Girl Methuen
1985 * Kevin Crossley-Holland
illus. Alan Marks
Storm Heinemann
1984 Margaret Mahy The Changeover J. M. Dent
1983 Jan Mark Handles Kestrel
1982 Margaret Mahy The Haunting J.M. Dent
1981 Robert Westall The Scarecrows Chatto & Windus
1980 Peter Dickinson
illus. Michael Foreman
City of Gold and other stories from the Old Testament Gollancz
1979 Peter Dickinson Tulku Gollancz
1978 David Rees The Exeter Blitz Hamish Hamilton
1977 Gene Kemp The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tiler Faber
1976 Jan Mark Thunder and Lightnings Kestrel
1975 * Robert Westall The Machine Gunners Macmillan
1974 Mollie Hunter The Stronghold Hamish Hamilton
1973 Penelope Lively The Ghost of Thomas Kempe Heinemann
1972 Richard Adams Watership Down Rex Collings
1971 Ivan Southall Josh Angus & Robertson
1970 Leon Garfield and Edward Blishen 
illustrated by Charles Keeping
The God Beneath the Sea Longman
1969 K. M. Peyton The Edge of the Cloud Oxford University Press
1968 Rosemary Harris The Moon in the Cloud Faber
1967 * Alan Garner The Owl Service Collins
1966  — Prize withheld as no book considered suitable[b]
1965 Philip Turner The Grange at High Force Oxford University Press
1964 Sheena Porter Nordy Bank Oxford University Press
1963 Hester Burton Time of Trial Oxford University Press
1962 Pauline Clarke The Twelve and the Genii Faber
1961 Lucy M. Boston A Stranger at Green Knowe Faber
1960 Ian Wolfran Cornwall
illus. Marjorie Maitland Howard
The Making of Man Phoenix House
1959 Rosemary Sutcliff The Lantern Bearers Oxford University Press
1958 * Philippa Pearce Tom's Midnight Garden Oxford University Press
1957 William Mayne A Grass Rope Oxford University Press
1956 C. S. Lewis The Last Battle The Bodley Head
1955 Eleanor Farjeon The Little Bookroom Oxford University Press
1954 Ronald Welch (Felton Ronald Oliver) Knight Crusader Oxford University Press
1953 Edward Osmond
illus. by the author[c]
A Valley Grows Up Oxford University Press
1952 * Mary Norton The Borrowers J. M. Dent
1951 Cynthia Harnett
illus. by the author[c]
The Wool-Pack Methuen
1950 Elfrida Vipont The Lark on the Wing Oxford University Press
1949 Agnes Allen
illus. Agnes and Jack Allen[c]
The Story of Your Home Faber
1948 Richard Armstrong Sea Change J. M. Dent
1947 Walter de la Mare Collected Stories for Children Faber
1946 Elizabeth Goudge The Little White Horse University of London
1945  — Prize withheld as no book considered suitable
1944 Eric Linklater The Wind on the Moon Macmillan
1943  — Prize withheld as no book considered suitable
1942 BB (D. J. Watkins-Pitchford)
illus. by the author[c]
The Little Grey Men Eyre & Spottiswoode
1941 Mary Treadgold We Couldn't Leave Dinah Jonathan Cape
1940 Kitty Barne Visitors from London J. M. Dent
1939 Eleanor Doorly The Radium Woman Heinemann
1938 Noel Streatfeild The Circus Is Coming J. M. Dent
1937 * Eve Garnett The Family from One End Street Frederick Muller
1936 Arthur Ransome Pigeon Post Jonathan Cape
* named to the 70th Anniversary Top Ten in 2007.[13]

Winners of multiple awardsEdit

Eight authors have won two Carnegie Medals, which was prohibited for many years.

  • Peter Dickinson 1979, 1980
  • Berlie Doherty 1986, 1991
  • Anne Fine 1989, 1992
  • Geraldine McCaughrean 1988, 2018
  • Margaret Mahy 1982, 1984
  • Jan Mark 1976, 1983
  • Patrick Ness 2011, 2012 [14]
  • Robert Westall 1975, 1981

For many years, some runners-up books were designated Highly Commended, at least 29 in 24 years from 1979 to 2002 and three previously. Among the authors who won two Medals, Anne Fine was highly commended runner-up three times (1989, 1996, 2002) and Robert Westall twice (1990, 1992). The others were highly commended once each, except for Ness who postdates the distinction,[3]

Six books have won both the Carnegie Medal and the annual Guardian Children's Fiction Prize, which was inaugurated 1967. (Dates are years of U.K. publication, and Carnegie award dates before 2006.)

  • Alan Garner, The Owl Service (1967)
  • Richard Adams, Watership Down (1972)
  • Geraldine McCaughrean, A Pack of Lies (1988)
  • Anne Fine, Goggle-Eyes (1989)
  • Philip Pullman, His Dark Materials 1: Northern Lights (1995)
  • Melvin Burgess, Junk (1996)

Only A Monster Calls, written by Patrick Ness and illustrated by Jim Kay, has won both the Carnegie and Greenaway Medals (2012).

Only The Graveyard Book by Neil Gaiman (2009) has won both the Carnegie Medal and the equivalent American award, the Newbery Medal.[15]

Author Sharon Creech, who won the Carnegie for Ruby Holler (2002), previously won the Newbery and two U.K. awards for Walk Two Moons (1994).[16]

Four writers have won both the Carnegie and the US Michael L. Printz Award. The Printz Award is an American Library Association literary award that annually recognises the "best book written for teens, based entirely on its literary merit". The four writers are David Almond, Aidan Chambers, Geraldine McCaughrean, and Meg Rosoff. Chambers alone has won both for the same book, the 1999 Carnegie and 2003 Printz for the novel Postcards from No Man's Land.[4][17][18]

In its scope, books for children or young adults, the British Carnegie corresponds to the American Newbery and Printz awards.

Carnegie of CarnegiesEdit

To commemorate the 70th anniversary of the Carnegie Medal in 2007, CILIP created a 'Living Archive' on the Carnegie Medal website with information about each of the winning books and conducted a poll to identify the nation's favourite Carnegie Medal winner, to be named the "Carnegie of Carnegies". The winner, announced on 21 June 2007 at the British Library,[13] was Northern Lights by Philip Pullman (1995). It was the expected winner, garnering 40% of the votes in the UK, and 36% worldwide.[19]

70th Anniversary Top Ten

Northern Lights, with 40% of the public vote, was followed by 16% for Tom's Midnight Garden by Philippa Pearce and 8% for Skellig by David Almond. As those three books had won the 70-year-old Medal in its year 60, year 23, and year 63, some commentary observed that Tom's Midnight Garden had passed a test of time that the others had not yet faced.[20]

ShortlistsEdit

Date is year of publication before 2006.[4] Selections were announced and medals presented early in the next year.

1936 to 1993Edit

From 1936 to 1993, there were 55 Medals awarded in 58 years. CCSU library listings for that period include one Special Commendation, 23 Highly Commended books (from 1966, mainly from 1979), and about 130 Commended books. Except for the inaugural year 1936, only the 24 Special and Highly Commended books are listed here.[3]

1936, the inaugural publication year

Medalist:

Arthur Ransome, Pigeon Post (Jonathan Cape) — the sixth of 12 Swallows and Amazons novels

Commended:[3]

Howard Spring, Sampson's Circus (Faber and Faber)
Noel Streatfeild, Ballet Shoes (J. M. Dent & Sons) — the first of 11 Shoes novels

CCSU listings for 1954 include six commendations, the first since 1936. Beginning 1966 there were some "high commendations" and those were approximately annual by 1979.[3] Only the high commendations are listed here (through 1993).

1954, Special Commendation
Harold Jones, illustrator Lavender's Blue: A Book of Nursery Rhymes, compiled by Kathleen Lines — collection named for "Lavender's Blue"

The special commendation to Harold Jones in 1955 for his 1954 illustration of Lavender's Blue was "a major reason" for the Library Association to establish the Kate Greenaway Medal that year.[3] No 1955 work was judged worthy in 1956, so that Medal was actually inaugurated one year later.

-

1966 (no Medal awarded)
+ Norman Denny and Josephine Filmer-Sankey, The Bayeux Tapestry: The Story of the Norman Conquest, 1066 — about the Bayeux Tapestry
1967
+ Henry Treece, The Dream Time

-

1974
+ Ian Ribbons, The Battle of Gettysburg, 1–3 July 1963 (Oxford)

-

1979
+ Sheila Sancha, The Castle Story — about Hearthstone Castle
1980
+ Jan Mark, Nothing To Be Afraid Of
1981
+ Jane Gardam, The Hollow Land
1982
+ Gillian Cross, The Dark Behind the Curtain
1983
+ James Watson, Talking in Whispers — depicting repression in Chile
1984
+ Robert Swindells, Brother in the Land (Oxford)
1985
+ Janni Howker, Nature of the Beast
1986
+ Janni Howker, Isaac Campion
1987
+ Margaret Mahy, Memory
1988
+ Gillian Cross, A Map of Nowhere
+ Peter Dickinson, Eva (Gollancz)
+ Elizabeth Laird, Red Sky in the Morning
1989
+ Carole Lloyd, The Charlie Barber Treatment
+ Anne Fine, Bill's New Frock, illus. Philippe Dupasquier (Egmont)
1990
+ Melvin Burgess, The Cry of the Wolf (Andersen)
+ Robert Westall, The Kingdom by the Sea
1991
+ Jacqueline Wilson, The Story of Tracy Beaker, illus. Nick Sharratt (Doubleday) — first of four Tracy Beaker novels
1992
+ Robert Westall, Gulf
1993

1994 to 2002Edit

Through 2002 some runners-up were Commended, including some Highly Commended.[3][d] Where the entire shortlist is given here (back to 1994), boldface and asterisk (*) marks the winner, plus (+) marks the highly commended books, and dash (–) marks the commended books.[3]

1994 (8)[citation needed]

1995 (8)[21]

1996 (8)[22]

1997 (7)[23]

1998 (5)[24]

1999 (8)[citation needed]

2000 (8)[citation needed]

2001 (8)[25]

2002 (7)[25]

2003 to dateEdit

Runners-up within the shortlist are not distinguished since 2002.

2003 (6)[25]

2004 (6)[25]

2005 (5)[25]

Date is year of presentation after 2006.[4] The publication year is approximately the preceding school year; for 2012 example, September 2010 to August 2011.

2007 (6)[25][26]

2008 (7)[25][27]

2009 (7)[25][28]

2010 (10)[25][29]

2011 (6)[25][30]

2012 (8)[31][25]

2013 (8)[25][32]

2014 (8)[25][33]

The award to Brooks roused some controversy because of the bleak nature of the novel.[34]

2015 (8)[35]

2016 (8)[36]

2017 (8)[37]

The Bone Sparrow received an Amnesty CILIP Honour commendation.[38]

2018 (8)[39]

The Hate U Give received an Amnesty CILIP Honour commendation.[40]

2019[41]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Dave McKean illustrated the UK Adult edition and the US edition of The Graveyard Book, while Chris Riddell illustrated the UK Children's edition, all published in October 2008. Riddell was shortlisted for the companion Kate Greenaway Medal, recognising the year's best illustration.
  2. ^ For 1966, the last time no medal was awarded, CCSU lists a "Highly Commended" book for the first time: Norman Denny and Josephine Filmer-Sankey, The Bayeux Tapestry: The Story of the Norman Conquest, 1066.
  3. ^ a b c d The first two Medal-winning books were illustrated by their authors, as were four others to 1953 (six of the first sixteen winners), but none since then.
  4. ^ CCSU lists Medal winners, "Highly Commended" books, and "Commended" books: about 135 Commended (for 1936 only and from 1954), commonly at least five prior to the first High Commendation (1966).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "The CILIP Carnegie Medal". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  2. ^ "About the Awards". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Carnegie Medal Award". Central Connecticut State University. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Archive (Full list of winners)". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  5. ^ "The CILIP Kate Greenaway Medal". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Criteria: Carnegie Medal". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  7. ^ a b Cullinan, Bernice E.; Goetz Person, Diane (2005). The Continuum Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 149.
  8. ^ "Colin Mears bequest consultation". Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals. 17 April 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  9. ^ "Press Release: 2019 Winners Announcement". CILIP Awards. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  10. ^ "The CILIP Carnegie Medal Shortlist for 2019". CILIP Awards. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  11. ^ a b c "Awards Process". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  12. ^ a b Flood, Alison (18 June 2019). "Carnegie medal goes to first writer of colour in its 83-year history". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  13. ^ a b "70 Years Celebration". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  14. ^ Flood, Alison (14 June 2012). "Patrick Ness wins Carnegie medal for second year running". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  15. ^ Flood, Alison (24 June 2010). "Neil Gaiman wins Carnegie Medal". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  16. ^ "Walk Two Moons". Sharon Creech: Novels. Sharon Creech. Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
  17. ^ "The Carnegie Medal: Full List of Winners". Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP). Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  18. ^ "Michael L. Printz Winners and Honor Books". YALSA. ALA. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  19. ^ Eccleshare, Julia (21 June 2007). "Rosoff, Grey Win Carnegie, Greenaway Medals in U.K." Publishers Weekly. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  20. ^ Ezard, John (22 June 2007). "Pullman children's book voted best in 70 years". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  21. ^ Brennan, Geraldine (3 May 1996). "Eyes on the prizes". Times Educational Supplement. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  22. ^ Brennan, Geraldine (2 May 1997). "Library favourites". Times Educational Supplement. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  23. ^ Brennan, Geraldine (1 May 1998). "It's the way they tell 'em". Times Educational Supplement. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  24. ^ Brennan, Geraldine (7 May 1999). "Staying power;Children's book awards". Times Educational Supplement. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Press Desk". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  26. ^ "2007 Awards: Carnegie shortlisted books". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  27. ^ "2008 Awards: Carnegie shortlisted books". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  28. ^ "2009 Awards: Carnegie shortlisted books". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  29. ^ "2010 Awards: Carnegie shortlisted books". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  30. ^ "2011 Awards: Carnegie shortlisted books". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  31. ^ "2012 Awards: Carnegie shortlisted books". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  32. ^ "2013 Awards: Carnegie shortlisted books". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  33. ^ "2014 Awards: Carnegie shortlisted books". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  34. ^ a b Flood, Alison (24 June 2014). "Carnegie medal under fire after 'vile and dangerous' Bunker Diary wins". The Guardian (UK ed.).
  35. ^ "2015 Awards: Carnegie shortlisted books". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  36. ^ "Four giants of 'a golden age of children's books' look for a record third medal win in CILIP Carnegie & Kate Greenaway shortlists". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. 15 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  37. ^ "Shortlists for 2017 CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Medals Announced". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  38. ^ "First Double American Win for the Cilip Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Medals". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Children's Book Awards. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  39. ^ "Shortlists for 2018 CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Medals Announced". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Awards. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  40. ^ "Geraldine McCaughrean scoops second CILIP Carnegie Medal 30 years after first win and champions triumph of 'literary' fiction". The CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Children's Book Awards. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  41. ^ "2019 Carnegie and Kate Greenaway medals shortlists announced". Books+Publishing. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
Citations
  • Marcus Crouch and Alec Ellis, Chosen for children: an account of the books which have been awarded the Library Association Carnegie Medal, 1936-1975, Third edition, London: Library Association, 1977. ISBN 9780853653493. — The second, 1967 edition by Crouch covers the first three decades. The third edition by Crouch and Alec Ellis comprises the second, except a new introduction by Ellis, plus coverage of the fourth decade by Ellis.

External linksEdit